1.1 sustainable development and system innovation vezzoli 13-14

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1.1 sustainable development and system innovation vezzoli 13-14

  1. 1. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability subject 1. Sustainable development and design: the reference framework learning resource 1.1 Sustainable development and system innovation carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link) Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink)
  2. 2. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CONTENTS . a context in strong evolution (and crises) . the sustainable development . environmental sustainability . socio-ethical sustainability . economic/legislative sustainability . size and quality of change . system innovation for sustainability
  3. 3. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A CONTEXT IN A STRONG EVOLUTION . advent of information and comunication technologies (technologies of knowledge are at the based of productivity, competition and power) . interconnection (people, ideas, images, goods, money, are circulating like never before) . network society (not anymore only divided into independent and isolated nations or communities) . enterprises in network (teamwork, networking, outsourcing, subcontracting, delocalisation,…) . …
  4. 4. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A CONTEXT IN A STRUCTURAL CRISES (1/2) ECONOMIC CRISIS (AND SOCIAL) 2008-201X: [STRUCTURAL, NOT JUST FINANCIAL] . crisis of the industrial model based on material consumption: services (not products) produce 50% Europe GDP and 75% of U.S. GDP . high feedstock„s prices . global food crisis . high global inflation . threat of a recession in the world . crisis of credit . crisis of confidence in stock exchange markets ... . unemployment
  5. 5. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENVIROMENTAL CRISIS: THE DISCOVERY OF ENVIROMENTAL LIMITS (AND IRREVERSIBILITY HARMFUL EFFECT) 1972: Meadows, Meadows, Randers, Behrens, Limits to Growth, MIT, USA > FIRST FORECAST OF A POSSIBLE GOBAL ECO-SYSTEM COLLAPSE A CONTEXT IN A STRUCTURAL CRISES (2/2)
  6. 6. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy FACING THE DOUBLE CRISIS (TODAY): SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL 危机: CRISIS (危: RISK; "机: OPPORTUNITIES ') in Chinese (as in other languages), the word crisis has two meanings, risk and opportunity . many (rightly) talk about risks . we should/must (also) talk about opportunities [the same nature of design is to consider the opportunities and become its promoter]
  7. 7. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMICAL CRISIS WHICH ARE THE OPPORTUNITIES? DO WE KNOW ANY OFFER/BUSINESS MODELS CAPABLE OF CREATING (NEW) VALUE DECOUPLING IT FROM THE MATERIALS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION? > significantly reducing the environmental impact of traditional production/consumption systems? [about opportunities] A KEY CONTEMPORARY QUERRY:
  8. 8. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A SOCIAL AND PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT that takes place within the limits set by the “nature” and meets the needs of the present without compromising those of the future generation within a world-wide equitable distribution of resources . 1987: Our common future, WCED, ONU (first definition) . 1991: Caring for the earth, UNEP, WWF, IUCN . 1992: UN conference, Environment and development, Rio de Janeiro . 1994: 5° environmental action plan, European Union . 2002: UN conference, Sustainable development, Johannesburg . 2006/2009: Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), European Commission . 2012: UN conference, Sustainable Development, Rio+20 . 2005-2014: Decade UNESCO “Education for Sustainable development”
  9. 9. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENVIRONMENTAL: CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL - not to exceed the biosphere and geosphere resilience SOCIO-ETHICAL - same resources (satisfaction) level for future generations - equity in the distribution of resources (satisfaction) ECONOMIC (AND LEGISLATIVE) - economically practicable and prosperous solutions THE SUSTAINABILITY DIMENSIONS
  10. 10. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy THE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY [THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE] THE HARMFULNESS/IRREVERSIBILITY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS/EFFECTS . global warming . ozone layer depletion . acidification . eutrophication . toxicity . waste . …
  11. 11. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy serra greenhouse effect
  12. 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy atmospheric concentration of CO2 increased about: . period 1958-2012: 20% . period 1750 -2012: 40% atmospheric concentration of CO2, metan (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) are the highest registered through ice coring over the last 800.000 years www.ipcc.ch/report/ ATMOSPHERIC CONCENTRATION OF CO2
  13. 13. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE (global medium surface temperature, TMGS) . Last 3 decades: the warmers from 1850 . Las decade: the warmest ever registered www.ipcc.ch/report/
  14. 14. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SEA ICE EXTENSION (summer) period 1970-2012: sea ice extension (media per year) decreased about 3.5‐4.1% each decade www.ipcc.ch/report/
  15. 15. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy rise of sea level (global media): . period 1901-2010: 1.7mm/year . period 1993-2010: 3.2mm/year AVERAGE SEA LEVEL (global media) www.ipcc.ch/report/
  16. 16. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 2100: FUTURE CLIMATE? HOW THE TEMPERATURE CAN INCREASE? [1°C increase in 100 years is worrying] 1-1,5°C increase 4-7°C increase without specific interventions of CO2 reduction www.ipcc.ch/report/
  17. 17. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 2100: FUTURE CLIMATE? PRECIPITATION (AVERAGE) 10% decrease 10-20% decrease without specific interventions of CO2 reduction www.ipcc.ch/report/
  18. 18. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 2100: FUTURE CLIMATE? SEA LEVEL (global media) without specific mitigation actions the level will increase about 0,8 m (global media) www.ipcc.ch/report/
  19. 19. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ORIGIN AREAS OF GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG)
  20. 20. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ozono ozone layer deplation
  21. 21. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy eutrhophication
  22. 22. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy acidification
  23. 23. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy t o x i c i t y
  24. 24. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy wastes
  25. 25. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: ACTIONS PRESERVE THE RESOURCES less and more renewable PREVENT THE POLLUTION less and more bio-compatibilite emissions
  26. 26. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: SCENARIOS BIO-COMPATIBILITY resources flows compatible with the natural system NON-INTERFERENCE “self-financing” of the artificial system‟s resource flows DEMATERIALIZATION reduction of the resources flows to satisfy a particular social demand of needs and desires
  27. 27. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy EQUITY PRINCIPLE [UN, Johannesburg, 2002] “every person, in a fair distribution of resources, has a right to the same environmental space, i.e. to the same availability of global natural resources” (or better, to the same level of “satisfaction” that can be achieved from these resources in different ways) SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION [EU, SDS, 2006/2009] “promotion of a democratic, socially inclusive, cohesive, healthy, safe and just society with respect for fundamental rights and cultural diversity that creates equal opportunities and combats discrimination in all its forms” SOCIO-ETHICAL SUSTAINABILITY
  28. 28. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 11.2012: FAO THE STATE OF THE FOOD INSECURITY IN THE WORLD ERADICATIN POVERTY THE SOCIO-ETHICAL DIMENSION: ACTIONS
  29. 29. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy [. eradicating poverty] . promotion of principles and rules of democracy . promotion of human rights and freedom . achievement of peace and security . access to information, training, employment . respect for cultural diversity, regional identity THE SOCIO-ETHICAL DIM.: (OTHER) ACTIONS
  30. 30. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ECONOMIC PROSPERITY [EU, SDS, 2006/2009] promote a prosperous, innovative, knowledge-rich, competitive and eco-efficient economy which provides high living standards and full and high- quality employment ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
  31. 31. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PROPER ATTRIBUTION OF THE COSTS TO RESOURCES environmental resources‟ costs “internalisation” ORIENTING (MAIN) ONGOING TRANSITIONS interconnection, glocalization, services, information, etc. ENHANCING PROMISING (OF NICHE) ECONOMIC MODELS e.g. sustainable Product-Service System (PSS) innovation or Distributed Economies (DE) ECONOMIC (LEGISLATIVE) SUSTAINABILITY: ACTIONS
  32. 32. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy IN 50 YEARS A WORLD-WIDE EQUITABLE SYSTEMS OF PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SHOULD USE ~90% LESS RESOURCES THAN THE INDUSTRIALISED CONTEXTS ARE DOING TODAY SUSTAINABILITY: SIZE OF CHANGE . 1993: Wuppertal institute,vari report . 1993: WBCSD, Getting Eco-Efficient . 2004: Meadows, Meadows, Randers, Behrens, Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update . 2013: IPCC, Climate change report …
  33. 33. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SUSTAINABILITY: QUALITY OF CHANGE PROMOTE (EVEN) SYSTEM INNOVATIONS RADICAL CHANGE (“DISCONTINUITY”) DIFFUSED INNOVATION PROMOTE PLAUSIBLE AND “ATTRACTIVE” (SYSTEM) INNOVATIONS
  34. 34. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM INNOVATIONS from the process and product innovation to the system innovation: innovation of the value production system (of the interaction among related stakeholders) and of the mix of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of (customer) “satisfaction” “A value system includes the value chains of a firm's supplier (and their suppliers all the way back), the firm itself, the firm distribution channels, and the firm's buyers (and presumably extended to the buyers of their products, and so on).” [Michael Porter, 2006]

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