La Historia Oral y las Ciencias Sociales en inglés
The use of oral sources in the teaching of Social Sciences Prof. Laura Benadiba When we say a community “remembers”, what we are really saying is that in the first place, a past was actively transmitted to contemporary generations (…) and then that transmitted past was received charged with a sense of its own. In consequence, a community “forgets” when the generation that owns that past does not transmit it to the next, or when the latter rejects what it received or stops transmitting it too (…). But the principle remains the same: a community can never “forget” what it has not been transmitted before. Yosef Yerushalmi, Reflexiones sobre el olvido
Object of knowledge of Social Sciences:Social reality, meaning the set of relations manestablishes with his geographical surroundings, withthe past and with technological and scientificimprovements.
Teaching Social Sciences: Geography, in particular, must focus on society’s role as a constructive, active and modifying force regarding currentMust contribute to territorial concerns.the development of Must help students develop ana sense of historical awareness of plurality that willawareness that will reinforce democratic values andresult in the making enable all individuals to participateof conscious, aware actively in society, encouragingand active citizens. respect for what is different.
The teaching of Social Sciences shouldallow students develop a sense of realitythat will strengthen them as protagonists,not responsible for the past but for the future
Understanding that To integrate curricular projects of local emphasis with the need tolearning Social Sciences understand more general social processes, in a national and worldis an active process, in scale.constant construction anddevelopment. To come up with a work project that captures the complexity and richness of social reality. To elaborate strategies that will allow students overcome their difficulties to understand historical and social concepts To teach history with protagonists, but also avoiding: •The traditional outlook, that reduces the subject of study to the performance of prominent political and military characters. •An impersonalized vision of history, in which social actors are mere abstractions, withdrawn from life and, therefore, form the student’s possibilities to understand. •Allow students overcome their difficulty to handle time spans. • Introduce students into the methodology of social analysis, making them aware that in order to get to know about a specific period in time, it is necessary to question/analyze the sources we possess from it. Make students reflect upon the main characteristics of social and historical knowledge. •Awaken their curiosity and make them value the acknowledgement of issues and the quest for answers of their own.
In the teaching of history we usually find that traditional teaching methods (thatencourage the use of memory but do not produce or construct knowledge) arestill used.It is necessary to make teaching participative, where the activities of bothteachers and students are related to the school’s internal and external links andsurroundings, using methodological resources that will enable students graspand create historical knowledge.The teaching of history must allow students develop critical consciousness oftheir social surroundings, without feeling historical knowledge as something aliento them.
Oral Making and using oral sources for historical History reconstruction Creating them Helps students understand theWorking with oral characteristics ofsources Using historical knowledge them and the work of a historian.
“Oral history at school is useful to shorten the gap between academia and the community: taking history home, relating the world of classrooms, classes and school books, to the daily life and world of the community the student lives in.” He who narrates his past, can make it his own.Oral History promotes: research, which will no longerseem unfamiliar His family His neighborhood Research will be carried out in the world closest to him His town
• Helps grasp concrete historical experience• Puts children in contact with elderly people, confronting different temporalities• Encourages the collective construction of a near past• Revalues intergenerational bonds• Recreates history with the voices of protagonists that traditional sources haveignored or left aside• Offers students the chance to abandon a passive attitude towards the construction ofknowledge• Interviews help students learn how to tolerate others and their ideas
Oral sources: their main characteristics They are oral They are narrative They provide more information on the meaning of events than on events themselves Their reliability is different from that of other historical sources As all historical sources, they are not objective They are incomplete
How to use oral sources Why do we select a person to be interviewed? What are we looking for in an interview? What and how do we ask? What and how do we listen? How do we interpret what we have been told?
Oral sources allow us to know about: Popular sectors (common people) The majorities that have been marginalized from power Women The world of labor Migrating movements Through an oral interview light can be shed on certain aspects of recent history that, in some cases, “official history” has attempted to suppress and forget
This methodology allows the school and the community to be engaged in a bond of commitment to learn about a region, to be integrated and feel identified with itto rediscover local history To construct the region’s history as well
The school community and society are involved as a whole A line of communication between them will be established and the school will no longer be considered isolated from society.All of the above will contribute to the creation of a regionalmemory.