Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition of excessive proliferation of the cells of the endometrium-Endometrial glands & surrounding tissue(Stroma).
Endometrial hyperplasia is a non-cancerous condition.
May involve part or all of the endometrium.
Hyperplasia usually develops in the presence of continuous estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone.
The female hormones—estrogen and progesterone—control the changes in the uterine lining.
Estrogen builds up the uterine lining.
Progesterone maintains and controls this growth.
Estrogen without enough progesterone may cause the lining of the uterus to thicken.
Risks for developing Endometrial Hyperplasia
Estrogen replacement therapy -Take estrogen without progesterone to replace the estrogen their body is no longer making and to relieve symptoms of menopause
Polycystic ovary syndrome- women are anovulatory and have unopposed estrogen effect.
Estrogen producing tumours(e.g. granulosa cell tumour).
Irregular Menstrul Periods-Skipmenstrual periods or have no periods at all –continuous unopposed estrogen activity.
Classification of endometrial hyperplasia
Simple hyperplasia (cystic without atypia)
Complex hyperplasia (adenomatous without atypia)
Atypical simple hyperplasia (cystic with atypia)
Atypical complex hyperplasia (adenomatous with atypia)
Simple Endometrial Hyperlasia
Simple or Cystic Hyperplasia
Proliferation of glands and stroma.
Glands vary in size, some are cystic.
The epithelial cells are active with stratification and mitoses
Complex Endometrial Hyperlasia
a very complex gland pattern
abnormally shaped glands, in- and out-pouching.
Glands are crowded with very little endometrial stroma,
Increased gland density
Nuclear atypia - hyperchromatic, enlarged epithelial cells with an increased nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio.
Resembles well differentiated carcinoma.
Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia
On high power view the nuclear atypia can be seen:
Nuclei are of variable size, shape and chromatin distribution; prominent nucleoli.
Symptoms of Endometrial Hyperplasia
Bleeding between menstrual periods
Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods
Progressionof Endometrial Hyperplasia
Hyperplasia without atypia rarely progresses to endometrial cancer,
Hyperplasia with atypia is a precancerous condition that may progress to overt malignancy.
Dilation and curettage (D&C)
Focal Simple Hyperplasia
In most cases, endometrial hyperplasia can be treated with medication that is a form of the hormone progesterone.
Taking progesterone will cause the lining to shed and prevent it from building up again. It often will cause vaginal bleeding.
Treatment for endometrial hyperplasia without Atypia
In hyperplasia without atypia, cyclical progestin therapy is the recommended choice in women not seeking contraception.
10 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 10 to 14 days a month for 3 to 6 months.
If they have a normal biopsy and are asymptomatic, discontinue therapy.
If the hyperplasia is persistent, then continuous-dose progestin therapy is instituted with 20 mg/day for 3 to 6 months
In women desiring contraception, OCP can be used or an injectable depot preparation of medroxyprogesterone acetate ( Depo-Provera ) can be administered in the normal dose used for contraception - 150 mg every 12 weeks.
Commonly Used Progesterone- Only Agents
Generic Name Common Trade Names Common Dosage
Prometrium 200 mg PO
MedroxyprogesteroneProvera 10-20 mg PO
Acetate Depo-Provera 150 mg IM
Megestrol acetate Megace 40-320 mg PO
LevonorgestrelMirena IUS 1 intrauterine every 5 years
Treatment for Atypical endometrial hyperplasia
Ideal management is hysterectomy
If hysterectomy is not a viable option for young patient & patient is a very poor surgical candidate),
high-dose continuous progestin therapy can be used. Typically, 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily.
Another option is 40 to 160 mg megestrol acetate daily for 6 months.
biopsies every 6 months because of the high risk of recurrence.
Protecting Against EndometrialHyperplasia
Take estrogen with progesterone after menopause,
Women who don't have regular periods-Take oral contraceptives contain estrogen along with a form of progesterone.
If you are overweight, losing weight may help.