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Exclusion to Inclusion

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A presentation to the Surf Foundation and Handicappe de Studie in Utrecht

A presentation to the Surf Foundation and Handicappe de Studie in Utrecht

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  • A little bit about myself, I have a background in the communications industry, environmental sciences and educational technology. I’ll talk about my role in disability and education shortly, but first a little about my current role. I manage a programme for the JISC, Joint Information Services Committee. JISC's activities support education and research by promoting innovation in new technologies and by the central support of ICT services. JISC provides: A world-class network - JANET Access to electronic resources New environments for learning, teaching and research Guidance on institutional change Advisory and consultancy services My current role is to manage a programme which is looking at new and emergent technologies and their role in learning, teaching and research.
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    • 1. Exclusion to Inclusion: The UK experience of accessibility Joint Information Systems Committee Lawrie Phipps JISC Programme Manager Users and Innovation [email_address]
    • 2. About this presentation
      • Defining accessibility
      • The history of the UK’s route to accessibility
      • The JISC response to the need for the supporting of disabled students
      • The reaction to legislation
      • The evolution of an approach to accessibility in e-learning
      • What we learnt, what were our mistakes, what would we do different
    • 3. What do mean by accessibility
      • Accessibility is about removing barriers to participation
      • However, beware of a “one size fits all” approach
    • 4. Timeline
      • 1995: The Disability Discrimination Act
      • covers the rights of disabled people in:
        • Employment
        • Housing
        • Goods and Services
      • Education was not included in the original legislation
    • 5. Post 1995
      • The introduction of the Disability Rights Commission
        • "A society where all disabled people can participate fully as equal citizens"
      • The introduction of the Human Rights Act
        • Which guarantees education for all
      • The issue of access to education for disabled people had to be addressed.
      • The result was the introduction of the Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001)
    • 6. The legislation - some key elements Less Favourable Treatment
    • 7. The legislation - some key elements Reasonable Adjustment
    • 8. The legislation - some key elements Anticipation
    • 9. JISC and Disability
      • 2001, JISC creates a service to advise colleges and universities on how to support students on issues of technology and disability
      • TechDis
    • 10. TechDis
      • TechDis
      • www.techdis.ac.uk
      • Covers the UK in all post 16 education
    • 11. So what happened next…
    • 12. An unfortunate meeting
      • 2002
      • TechDis meet with several disability ‘lobby/pressure’ groups
      • Almost all of them only deal with a single issue
    • 13. The outcome of the meeting
    • 14. Why was this a mistake?
      • Legislation does not mention specific guidelines or standards.
      • UK legislation relies on interpretation, the spirit of the UK law should be the primary concern:
        • The principle behind the legislation is that disabled people should have the same opportunities as non-disabled people to benefit wherever possible from whatever education or other related provision is available.
    • 15. The standards approach
      • 2001, 2002: We (me, TechDis other Advisory Bodies, UKOLN, CETIS etc) advised Universities and Colleges to use the W3C guidelines as a standard
      • (AA ‘compliance)
      • All major education bodies responded, strategically and operationally.
    • 16. A reasonable question
      • What was the best approach for the most students?
      • Why were pushing a ‘standard’ that served less than 1000 HE students?
      • Were we excluding some disabled people by the approach we recommended?
    • 17. Exclusive approach!
      • The recommendations we issued served most effectively ~ 1000 disabled HE students
      • They were not useful for more than 150,000 disabled students
    • 18. Opening the debate
      • Kelly B, Sloan D and Phipps L (2003) Ideology Or Pragmatism? Open Standards And Cultural Heritage Web Sites
      • Why should public libraries and museums only support wheelchair access or blind people
      • Should the Van Gough museum be closed because it is all visual media?
    • 19. Articulating the standards problem
      • Kelly, B., Phipps, L. and Swift, E (2004) Developing A Holistic Approach For E-Learning Accessibility , Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology
      • Stating the problems with existing standards
      • How do we build a digital resource for both blind and deaf?
      • And then for students who have special educational needs?
    • 20. Challenging the establishment
      • Kelly, B., Sloan, D., Phipps, L., Petrie, H. and Hamilton, F. (2005) Forcing Standardization or Accommodating Diversity? A Framework for Applying the WCAG in the Real World
      • Was critical of the W3C approach
      • Received ‘letters’ in the press and personally
    • 21. Suggesting a third way
      • Kelly, B., Phipps, L. and Howell, C. (2005) Implementing A Holistic Approach To E-Learning Accessibility Paper published in the ALT-C 2005 Conference Proceedings
      • Recognises that accessibility is not black and white
      • Proposes a framework for supporting a diverse range of learners, including those with disability, of differing ethnicity, with religious commitments and ‘Normal’!
    • 22. 2005
      • Building of a complete set of resources around good practice in learning
      • Not standards based
      • Example resources in word, excel, html, flash, Lego, PAPER!
      • Some examples
    • 23. Doing it all again?
      • What would I (we) do different?
    • 24. Use the Community
      • We had isolated groups of people that had no way of communicating
      • Let them build the capacity
      • Emerge
    • 25. Engage with academia from the beginning
      • Academics like academics
      • They are in their jobs because of the way they think, think on that level
        • Write papers in their journals
        • Present at their conferences
        • Ask them to evidence their practice
    • 26. Listen to student voices
      • Gather student data, let them record their experience, blog, podcast…
      • Do a weekly podcast with a student?
      • These voices, telling their experiences, are powerful. Use them with all levels, Government, Academia, Public.
    • 27. Advocate for Staff
      • Understand the pressure that academics are under and empathise
      • Don’t sympathise
      • I know how you feel, I felt the same way, what I found was…
      • Not, I know how you feel, it’s terrible but we have to do it…
    • 28. Finally
      • I would spend more time in Utrecht
    • 29. Questions and thank you