Bind to healthy cell surfaces to inhibit viruses binding
Interferons are a family species-specific proteins synthesized by eukaryotic cells in response to viruses and a variety of natural and synthetic stimuli. There are several different interferons commonly used as therapeutics, termed alpha, beta, and gamma. These peptides are used to treat hairy cell leukemia, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, laryngeal papillomatosis, genital warts, and chronic granulomatous disease. Side effects include black tarry stools, blood in the urine, confusion, and loss of balance.
Retrovirus attaches to CD4 receptors of T helper cells
Transmission: Body fluids, i.e., blood, semen, breast milk, vaginal secretions
Immune Deficiency: AIDS
The Structure of HIV Figure 9.19
Time Course of the Progression of AIDS after HIV Infection Figure 9.21
Phase I: few weeks to a few years; flu like symptoms, swollen lymph nodes, chills, fever, fatigue, body aches. Virus is multiplying, antibodies are made but ineffective for complete virus removal
Phase II: within six months to 10 years; opportunistic infections present, Helper T cells affected, 5% may not progress to next phase
Phase III: Helper T cells fall below 200 per cubic millimeter of blood AND the person has an opportunistic infection or type of cancer. Person is now termed as having “AIDS” May include pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis, encephalitis, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin’s lumphoma….
More than 36 million infected with HIV worldwide
Most infections in sub-Sahara of Africa
Increasing spread in Asia and India
Most often spread by heterosexual contact outside U.S.