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Chapter9 jointsmarieb

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  • 1. Buy your lab coat and gloves!
  • 2. Chapter 9 Joints = Articulations Where ANY bones come together
  • 3. Functional Classification of Joints
    • 1) Synarthrosis (no movement)
      • Fibrous (Sutural or Gomphosis)
      • Cartilaginous (Synchondrosis often becomes synostosis)
      • Bony Fusion (Synostosis)
      • 2) Amphiarthrosis (little movement)
      • Fibrous (Syndesmosis – tibia to fibula)
      • Cartilaginous (Symphysis)
      • 3) Diarthrosis (free movement)
        • Three types of movement
        • Six Types of structure
  • 4. Structural Classification of Joints ( Marieb utilizes Structural Classification (p 205)
    • 1. Fibrous (no joint cavity)
      • Almost no movement, little CT
      • E.g, Sutures in calvarium
    • 2. Cartilaginous
      • E.g., Symphysis pubis, IV disks
    • 3. Synovial – by far most important
  • 5. 1. Fibrous (no joint cavity)
    • Sutures
      • Only in the skull
        • Lambdoidal, Coronal, etc.
        • Minimal movement
        • Growth allowed
    • Syndesmosis (pl. syndesmoses)
      • Ligamentous attachments
      • Minimal movement
      • E.g., distal tibia to distal fibula
    • Gomphosis (pl. gomphoses)
      • Teeth
      • Periodontal ligament
  • 6. 2. Cartilaginous = Union by cartilage
    • Synchondrosis
      • Epiphyseal plates
      • May become synostosis
    • Symphysis
      • Fibrocartilage
      • Intervertebral Disks, symphysis pubis
  • 7. 3. Synovial (with egg white) – most important!
    • Articular Cartilage
      • Hyaline
    • Joint Cavity or Space
    • Synovial Membrane
      • Synovial Fluid
        • Nourishes
        • Cushions
        • Lubricates
    • Joint Capsule
    • Reinforcing Ligaments
    • Nerves and blood supply
  • 8. 3. Synovial, cont’d
    • Depends on:
      • Shape of articular surfaces
      • Supporting Ligaments
      • Muscle Tone
    Joint Stability
  • 9. Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
    • Bags of synovial fluid
    • Lubrication and cushion
      • Tendons
      • Ligaments
    N.B.: Tendinitis, Synovitis
  • 10. Three Types of Motion at Synovial Joints
    • Linear motion = gliding
    • Angular motion :
      • flexion, extension, hyperextension
      • ab-, adduction
      • circumduction
    • Rotation
      • left - right, internal or medial, external or lateral
      • C 1 – C 2 , leg/foot, radius
  • 11. Special Movements
    • Supination, Pronation
      • Radius/ulna
    • Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion
    • Elevation, depression
    • Eversion, Inversion
    Table 9.4
  • 12. 6 types of Diarthroses (p 216)
    • Plane (Gliding) Joint
    • Hinge Joint
    • Pivot Joint
    • Condyloid (Ellipsoidal) Joint
    • Saddle joint
    • Ball & Socket joint
  • 13. Representative Articulations
    • Temporomandibular Joint
    • Mostly hinge joint, some gliding and rotation
    • Articular disc
  • 14. Intervertebral articulations
    • Gliding joints between vertebrae (facets)
    • Intervertebral discs: (Amphiarthroses) 
      • annulus fibrosus: tough outer layer (fibrocartilage)
      • nucleus pulposus: soft, gelatinous core
      • Account for ~25% of vertebral column height – H 2 O loss during aging
  • 15. Glenohumeral (shoulder) Joint
    • Greatest range of motion (due to loose capsule and shallow glenoid)
    • Most frequently dislocated
    • Stability provided by rotator cuff
  • 16. Hip Joint
    • Deep well fitted ball and socket joint
    • Stabilization:
      • Extracapsular and intracapsular ligaments (ligamentum teres = ligamentum capitis femoris)
      • Strong joint capsule
      • Extensive surrounding musculature
  • 17. Knee Joint
    • Much more complex than elbow
    • Less stable than other hinge joints
      • Some gliding and rotation
    • Structurally 3 separate joints
    • No single joint capsule
  • 18. More Knee
    • Extra- and intracapsular structures
      • Medial and lateral meniscus
      • Cruciate ligaments
      • Collateral ligaments (extracapsular)
      • Fat Pads
      • Patella and Patellar Tendon/ligament
    Anterior Posterior
  • 19.  
  • 20. Knee, sagittal section Ant. Cruc. Lig.
  • 21. The infamous ACL
    • Twisting
      • Soccer, skiing, etc.
    • 8X more common in women
      • Hormones
      • Strength
      • Geometry
    • Surgery is optional
      • Several techniques
    • Post-op period
  • 22. Total Knee Replacement
  • 23. Total Knee Replacement
  • 24. The Ankle and Foot
    • Hinge Joint
      • Deltoid and three Lateral Ligaments
    • Calcaneous = Heel Bone
      • Calcaneal/Achilles Tendon
    • Talus articulates with tibia
    • Intertarsal and Tarsometatarsal Joints
    • Cunieform bones
    • Metarsal and phalangeal bones
      • Similar to the hand
  • 25.  
  • 26.