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Chapter8 appendicularskeletonmarieb

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton
  • 2. The Girdles
    • Pectoral Girdle
      • Supports the Arms
      • Clavicle and Scapula
    • Pelvic Girdle
      • Supports the Legs
      • Pelvis
        • Ilium, ischium, pubic bone
  • 3. Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion Frequently fractured
  • 4. Scapula (shoulder blade)
    • Glenoid
    • Spine
    • Acromion
    • Acromioclavicular joint
    • Inferior and Superior Angles
    • Origin of biceps brachii muscle:
      • Coracoid Process
      • Supraglenoid tubercle
  • 5. The Arm
    • Synonym: Upper limb
      • Upper Arm = Brachium
      • Forearm = Antebrachium
    • Humerus, Radius and Ulna
    • Carpus (wrist)
    • Hand (manus)
  • 6. Humerus
    • Head
    • Greater and Lesser Tubercles
    • Intertubercular Sulcus
      • Biceps tendon
    • Coronoid Fossa
    • Olecranon Fossa
    • Trochlea
    • Medial and Lateral Epicondyles
  • 7. Radius Ulna
    • Head, neck, shaft
    • Insertion of biceps brachii:
      • Radial Tuberosity
    • Radial Styloid Process
    • Olecranon
    • Trochlear notch
    • Coronoid Process
    • Ulnar Styloid Process
    Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna) Note how the two bones can cross “ Funny bone”
  • 8. Carpus = Wrist
    • Four Proximal
      • Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
    • Four Distal
      • Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
    Scaphoid is frequently fractured
  • 9. Hand = Manus
    • Five metacarpal bones (1-5)
    • Five fingers
      • Labeled 1-5
      • Thumb = Pollex = digit 1
        • Two phalangeal bones
      • Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5
        • Three phalangeal bones
          • Proximal, middle, distal
  • 10. The Girdles
    • Pectoral Girdle
      • Supports the Arms
      • Clavicle and Scapula
    • Pelvic Girdle
      • Supports the Legs
      • Pelvis (os coxae)
  • 11. Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone)
    • Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
    • Anterior and posterior iliac spines meet to form the iliac crest
    • Greater and Lesser Sciatic Notches
    • Ischial Tuberosity
    • Acetabulum
      • Acetabular fossa
    • Obturator Foramen
  • 12. More Pelvis
    • Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum
    • Difference between male and female
    • Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis
      • Fibrocartilage
      • Stretches at childbirth (Relaxin)
  • 13. The leg
    • AKA Lower Limb
    • Femur
    • Patella
    • Tibia/fibula
    • Tarsus
    • Foot
  • 14. Femur
    • Head and fovea capitus
      • Articulate with pelvis
    • Neck (“fx pelvis”)
    • Greater and Lesser Trochanters
    • Shaft
    • Lateral and medial condyles and epicondyles
    • Intercondylar fossa
    • Patellar Surface
  • 15. Patella = knee cap
    • Sesamoid Bone
    • Enclosed in the tendon of the quadriceps group of muscles
    “ Skyline” MRI of patella
  • 16. Tibia = shin bone
    • Lateral and medial condyles
      • Intercondylar eminence
    • Tibial tuberosity
    • Inferior articular surface
    • Medial malleolus
      • (= ankle bone)
    Interosseous Membrane
  • 17. Fibula
    • Head
    • Shaft
    • Lateral malleolus
      • (= ankle bone)
    • Not weight bearing
      • Frequent fx
    Interosseous Membrane
  • 18. Tarsus (7 bones) Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate
    • Navicular
    • Cuboid
    • Cunieform (3)
    Calcaneus Talus
  • 19. Foot
    • Metatarsals (1-5)
    • Phalanges (3 per toe except big toe)
    • Longitudinal Arches
      • Medial and lateral
    • Transverse Arch
    Dancer’s fx Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate
  • 20. Fractures (a review)
    • Bleeding
      • Then clot
    • Periosteal reaction
      • Fibroblasts
      • Osteoblasts
    • Callus
      • New bone “collar”
    • Remodeling
  • 21. “ Hip” fracture
    • “ Grandma fell and broke her hip.”
      • More accurately, “Grandma broke her femoral neck and then fell.”
      • Sometimes the fx is at the intertrochanteric line
    • Diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis
    • 25% die from complications in first year mostly related to immobility:
      • Anesthesia
      • Muscle Atrophy
      • Pneumonia
      • Decubitus ulcers
      • Depression and disorientation
  • 22.
    • Douglas Iris