Chapter8 appendicularskeletonmarieb

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Chapter8 appendicularskeletonmarieb

  1. 1. Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2: The Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton = Everything that is not the Axial Skeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbs Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the appendicular skeleton
  2. 2. The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ilium, ischium, pubic bone </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion Frequently fractured
  4. 4. Scapula (shoulder blade) <ul><li>Glenoid </li></ul><ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><li>Acromion </li></ul><ul><li>Acromioclavicular joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior and Superior Angles </li></ul><ul><li>Origin of biceps brachii muscle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coracoid Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supraglenoid tubercle </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Arm <ul><li>Synonym: Upper limb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Arm = Brachium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forearm = Antebrachium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humerus, Radius and Ulna </li></ul><ul><li>Carpus (wrist) </li></ul><ul><li>Hand (manus) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Humerus <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Tubercles </li></ul><ul><li>Intertubercular Sulcus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps tendon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coronoid Fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon Fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlea </li></ul><ul><li>Medial and Lateral Epicondyles </li></ul>
  7. 7. Radius Ulna <ul><li>Head, neck, shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion of biceps brachii: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radial Tuberosity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radial Styloid Process </li></ul><ul><li>Olecranon </li></ul><ul><li>Trochlear notch </li></ul><ul><li>Coronoid Process </li></ul><ul><li>Ulnar Styloid Process </li></ul>Interosseous Membrane (between radius and ulna) Note how the two bones can cross “ Funny bone”
  8. 8. Carpus = Wrist <ul><li>Four Proximal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Distal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate </li></ul></ul>Scaphoid is frequently fractured
  9. 9. Hand = Manus <ul><li>Five metacarpal bones (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Five fingers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeled 1-5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumb = Pollex = digit 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two phalangeal bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three phalangeal bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal, middle, distal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Girdles <ul><li>Pectoral Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clavicle and Scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Girdle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports the Legs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvis (os coxae) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone) <ul><li>Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, Pubis </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior and posterior iliac spines meet to form the iliac crest </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Sciatic Notches </li></ul><ul><li>Ischial Tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Acetabulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acetabular fossa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obturator Foramen </li></ul>
  12. 12. More Pelvis <ul><li>Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between male and female </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretches at childbirth (Relaxin) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The leg <ul><li>AKA Lower Limb </li></ul><ul><li>Femur </li></ul><ul><li>Patella </li></ul><ul><li>Tibia/fibula </li></ul><ul><li>Tarsus </li></ul><ul><li>Foot </li></ul>
  14. 14. Femur <ul><li>Head and fovea capitus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulate with pelvis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neck (“fx pelvis”) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater and Lesser Trochanters </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral and medial condyles and epicondyles </li></ul><ul><li>Intercondylar fossa </li></ul><ul><li>Patellar Surface </li></ul>
  15. 15. Patella = knee cap <ul><li>Sesamoid Bone </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed in the tendon of the quadriceps group of muscles </li></ul>“ Skyline” MRI of patella
  16. 16. Tibia = shin bone <ul><li>Lateral and medial condyles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercondylar eminence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tibial tuberosity </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior articular surface </li></ul><ul><li>Medial malleolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(= ankle bone) </li></ul></ul>Interosseous Membrane
  17. 17. Fibula <ul><li>Head </li></ul><ul><li>Shaft </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral malleolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(= ankle bone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not weight bearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent fx </li></ul></ul>Interosseous Membrane
  18. 18. Tarsus (7 bones) Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate <ul><li>Navicular </li></ul><ul><li>Cuboid </li></ul><ul><li>Cunieform (3) </li></ul>Calcaneus Talus
  19. 19. Foot <ul><li>Metatarsals (1-5) </li></ul><ul><li>Phalanges (3 per toe except big toe) </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal Arches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial and lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transverse Arch </li></ul>Dancer’s fx Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate
  20. 20. Fractures (a review) <ul><li>Bleeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Then clot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Periosteal reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoblasts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Callus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New bone “collar” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remodeling </li></ul>
  21. 21. “ Hip” fracture <ul><li>“ Grandma fell and broke her hip.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More accurately, “Grandma broke her femoral neck and then fell.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the fx is at the intertrochanteric line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>25% die from complications in first year mostly related to immobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anesthesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle Atrophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decubitus ulcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression and disorientation </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Douglas Iris </li></ul>

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