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Chapter5 integumentarymarieb

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  • Lucid = translucent
  • Insensible perspiration about 500 ml / day
  • Subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia
  • Transcript

    • 1. You gotta have skin; All you really need is skin. Skin's the thing, that if you've got it outside, It helps keep your insides in. Alan Sherman (1924-1973) Ch 4: Integumentary System
    • 2.
      • Cutaneous Membrane
        • Epidermis
        • Dermis
        • Hypodermis
      • Accessory Structures
        • Excretory glands (?)
        • Hair
        • Nails
    • 3.  
    • 4.  
    • 5.
      • Type of Epithelium
      • Avascular
      • Different layers (=strata)
        • 4 layers in thin skin
        • 5 layers in thick skin
    • 6.
      • Cell types:
      • Stem cells (basal cells)
      • Melanocytes
      • Merkel cells (touch receptors in hairless skin only)
      Stratum germinativum = stratum basale Innermost, single layer
    • 7.
      • Stem cell daughter cells (some can still divide)
      • Establishment of Desmosomes
        • The desmosomes create the “spines” as artifact pulls the cells apart
      Several cells thick Stratum spinosum
    • 8.
      • Cells displaced from stratum spinosum  Keratinocytes
      • Production of keratohyalin and keratin fibers
      • Cells start to die. Dehydration leaves interlocked layers of keratin and keratohyalin
      Stratum granulosum Small granules of keratin
    • 9.
      • In “thick skin”, i.e., palms of hands and soles of feet
      • Cells do not stain well  clear (lucid) looking
      Stratum lucidum Mostly keratin
    • 10.
      • Many layers of flattened, dead cells, filled with keratin
      • Continually sloughed
      • Water-resistant but not water proof (  insensible perspiration)
      • Relatively dry - advantage?
      • Keratinization occurs everywhere except for anterior surface of eye
      Stratum corneum 15-30 layers (much thicker in thick skin)
    • 11.
      • Up to 6 x thicker
      • Where??
      • Average 0.08 mm
      • Most of body
      Refers to epidermis
    • 12. c c
    • 13.
      • Hemoglobin (dermal blood supply)
        • Reddish tones
        • Pale, due to?
        • Bluish (=?), due to?
      • Melanin
        • Produced by melanocytes of stratum basale
      • Carotene
        • Obtained from plant foods
      Depends on 3 pigments:
    • 14. Number of melanocytes same in all people, production levels differ ! Function ? UV protection?
    • 15. Albinism Vitiligo
    • 16.
      • 1. Papillary layer Areolar (loose) c.t.
      • 2. Reticular layer dense irregular c.t.
    • 17. Review of Connective Tissue This is similar to Table 4.2
      • Loose (areolar)
      • Reticular
      • Adipose
      • Hyaline
      • Elastic
      • Fibrocartilage
      • Irregular
      • Regular
      • Elastic
      • Compact
      • Spongy
    • 18.
      • Dermal papillae project between epidermal ridges.
      • Consist of
      • Loose c.t.
      • Capillaries
      • Tactile receptors
      M 
    • 19.
      • Consist of
      • Dense irregular c.t.
      • Accessory Structures
        • Hair
        • Glands
        • Nerves
        • Blood Supply
    • 20.
      • 2 other names
        • Subcutaneous Layer (subcutis)
        • Superficial fascia
      • Indistinct boundary (c.t. fibers interwoven)
        • Loose c.t.
      • Function
        • Stabilization of skin while allowing for independent movement
    • 21.
      • Wrinkles
      • Stretch marks (lineae albicantes)
      • Decubitus
      • Transdermal medication
        • Advantage and disadvantage?
        • Examples?
      • Hypodermic needles
    • 22.
      • Hair follicles and hair
      • Glands
        • 1. Sebaceous Glands
        • 2. Apocrine glands
        • 3. Eccrine sweat glands
      • Nails
    • 23.
      • 5 million hairs/human body. (98% not on top of head)
      • Three hair types (vellus – intermediate – terminal)
      • Function ?
      • Hair color
      • Growth cycle
    • 24. Skin Glands
    • 25.
      • Sebum discharged mostly into hair follicles
        • (lubrication & bactericidal)
      Sebaceous follicles , = Large sebaceous glands, discharge directly to epidermis Folliculitis; furuncle (boil); acne
    • 26.
      • Empty into hair follicle
      • Location: armpits, groin, nipples
      • Viscous, cloudy secretion  good nutrient source for bacteria (odor !!)
      • Secretion may contain Pheromones
      • Secretion begins at puberty and is stimulated during emotional distress (cold sweat)
    • 27.  
    • 28.
      • Merocrine secretion
      • Empty directly onto skin surface
      • Location: most all over body (esp. abundant on palms & soles: ~ 500/cm 2 )
      • Clear, watery secretion (99% H 2 O; rest NaCl + some waste products)
      • Sensible perspiration; Function: ?
    • 29.  
    • 30.
      • Other integumentary Glands:
      • Mammary glands : Modified apocrine sweat glands
      • Ceruminous glands : Modified sweat glands in ears
    • 31.  
    • 32.
      • Basal Cell Carcinoma (Epithelioma)
        • Most common, not malignant
      • Squamous Cell CA
        • Stratum spinosum
      • Melanoma
      BCC SCC Iris Melanoma Dermal Melanoma
    • 33. Skin and Aging Process
    • 34.