Chapter5 integumentarymarieb


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  • Lucid = translucent
  • Insensible perspiration about 500 ml / day
  • Subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia
  • Chapter5 integumentarymarieb

    1. 1. You gotta have skin; All you really need is skin. Skin's the thing, that if you've got it outside, It helps keep your insides in. Alan Sherman (1924-1973) Ch 4: Integumentary System
    2. 2. <ul><li>Cutaneous Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypodermis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretory glands (?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul></ul>
    3. 5. <ul><li>Type of Epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Avascular </li></ul><ul><li>Different layers (=strata) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 layers in thin skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 layers in thick skin </li></ul></ul>
    4. 6. <ul><li>Cell types: </li></ul><ul><li>Stem cells (basal cells) </li></ul><ul><li>Melanocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Merkel cells (touch receptors in hairless skin only) </li></ul>Stratum germinativum = stratum basale Innermost, single layer
    5. 7. <ul><li>Stem cell daughter cells (some can still divide) </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of Desmosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The desmosomes create the “spines” as artifact pulls the cells apart </li></ul></ul>Several cells thick Stratum spinosum
    6. 8. <ul><li>Cells displaced from stratum spinosum  Keratinocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Production of keratohyalin and keratin fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Cells start to die. Dehydration leaves interlocked layers of keratin and keratohyalin </li></ul>Stratum granulosum Small granules of keratin
    7. 9. <ul><li>In “thick skin”, i.e., palms of hands and soles of feet </li></ul><ul><li>Cells do not stain well  clear (lucid) looking </li></ul>Stratum lucidum Mostly keratin
    8. 10. <ul><li>Many layers of flattened, dead cells, filled with keratin </li></ul><ul><li>Continually sloughed </li></ul><ul><li>Water-resistant but not water proof (  insensible perspiration) </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively dry - advantage? </li></ul><ul><li>Keratinization occurs everywhere except for anterior surface of eye </li></ul>Stratum corneum 15-30 layers (much thicker in thick skin)
    9. 11. <ul><li>Up to 6 x thicker </li></ul><ul><li>Where?? </li></ul><ul><li>Average 0.08 mm </li></ul><ul><li>Most of body </li></ul>Refers to epidermis
    10. 12. c c
    11. 13. <ul><li>Hemoglobin (dermal blood supply) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reddish tones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pale, due to? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluish (=?), due to? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melanin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by melanocytes of stratum basale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carotene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtained from plant foods </li></ul></ul>Depends on 3 pigments:
    12. 14. Number of melanocytes same in all people, production levels differ ! Function ? UV protection?
    13. 15. Albinism Vitiligo
    14. 16. <ul><li>1. Papillary layer Areolar (loose) c.t. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reticular layer dense irregular c.t. </li></ul>
    15. 17. Review of Connective Tissue This is similar to Table 4.2 <ul><li>Loose (areolar) </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose </li></ul><ul><li>Hyaline </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrocartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Regular </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul><ul><li>Compact </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy </li></ul>
    16. 18. <ul><li>Dermal papillae project between epidermal ridges. </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of </li></ul><ul><li>Loose c.t. </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile receptors </li></ul>M 
    17. 19. <ul><li>Consist of </li></ul><ul><li>Dense irregular c.t. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessory Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Supply </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. <ul><li>2 other names </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcutaneous Layer (subcutis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial fascia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indistinct boundary (c.t. fibers interwoven) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose c.t. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilization of skin while allowing for independent movement </li></ul></ul>
    19. 21. <ul><li>Wrinkles </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch marks (lineae albicantes) </li></ul><ul><li>Decubitus </li></ul><ul><li>Transdermal medication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage and disadvantage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypodermic needles </li></ul>
    20. 22. <ul><li>Hair follicles and hair </li></ul><ul><li>Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Sebaceous Glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Apocrine glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Eccrine sweat glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>5 million hairs/human body. (98% not on top of head) </li></ul><ul><li>Three hair types (vellus – intermediate – terminal) </li></ul><ul><li>Function ? </li></ul><ul><li>Hair color </li></ul><ul><li>Growth cycle </li></ul>
    22. 24. Skin Glands
    23. 25. <ul><li>Sebum discharged mostly into hair follicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(lubrication & bactericidal) </li></ul></ul>Sebaceous follicles , = Large sebaceous glands, discharge directly to epidermis Folliculitis; furuncle (boil); acne
    24. 26. <ul><li>Empty into hair follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Location: armpits, groin, nipples </li></ul><ul><li>Viscous, cloudy secretion  good nutrient source for bacteria (odor !!) </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion may contain Pheromones </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion begins at puberty and is stimulated during emotional distress (cold sweat) </li></ul>
    25. 28. <ul><li>Merocrine secretion </li></ul><ul><li>Empty directly onto skin surface </li></ul><ul><li>Location: most all over body (esp. abundant on palms & soles: ~ 500/cm 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, watery secretion (99% H 2 O; rest NaCl + some waste products) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensible perspiration; Function: ? </li></ul>
    26. 30. <ul><li>Other integumentary Glands: </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands : Modified apocrine sweat glands </li></ul><ul><li>Ceruminous glands : Modified sweat glands in ears </li></ul>
    27. 32. <ul><li>Basal Cell Carcinoma (Epithelioma) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common, not malignant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Squamous Cell CA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stratum spinosum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melanoma </li></ul>BCC SCC Iris Melanoma Dermal Melanoma
    28. 33. Skin and Aging Process
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