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Ch 13: Central Nervous System  Part 1: The Brain  p 378 <ul><li>Discuss the organization of the brain, including the major...
Ventricles of the Brain <ul><li>CSF filled chambers </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating with central canal of spinal cord </li...
Four Major Brain Subdivisions  <ul><li>Brain Stem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul...
1) Brain stem <ul><li>Location of autonomic nuclei involved in respiratory and cardiovascular control </li></ul><ul><li>Re...
1a) Medulla oblongata <ul><li>Pyramids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decussation </li></ul...
1b) Pons  <ul><li>Pons = bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial Nerves </li></ul><ul><u...
1c) Midbrain <ul><li>Cerebral aqueduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old term:  Aqueduct of Sylvius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several...
2) Cerebellum <ul><li>Dorsal to the Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Two hemispheres  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by the vermis ...
3) Diencephalon 3a.  Epithalamus 3b.  Thalamus 3c.  Hypothalamus
3a.  Epithalamus <ul><ul><li>Pineal gland - produces melatonin, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sets diurnal cycles </li></ul><...
3b.  Thalamus <ul><li>(80% of diencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>Next to 3 rd  ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with...
3c.  Hypothalamus <ul><li>Just superior to optic chiasma </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum - connects to pituitary gland </li...
 
4) Cerebrum ( Telencephalon ) <ul><li>83% of total brain mass </li></ul><ul><li>The right and left halves (cerebral hemisp...
4) Cerebral Hemispheres, cont’d <ul><li>. . have  functional regions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory and motor areas </li><...
 
fMRI <ul><li>An fMRI of the brain. Green areas were active while subjects remembered information presented visually. Red a...
4) Cerebrum, cont’d <ul><li>Lobes named after the bones of the calvarium </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory vs. Motor Areas </li></...
4) Cerebral Cortex and Central White Matter <ul><li>Gray surface (cortex), 2-4 mm thick, is mostly neuron cell bodies with...
 
Basal Ganglia  p 402 More proper term:  basal nuclei A collection of several nuclei Gray matter deep to the cerebral corte...
Gray & White Matter Organization <ul><li>In  brain stem  similar to spinal cord ( nuclei around ventricles, tracts on outs...
 
Contrast enhanced MRI
 
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Chapter13 cns part1marieb

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  • Thalamus = 80% of diencephalon. Gateway (relay station) to the cerebral cortex not just for sensory input but for all info. Processing and editing also takes place. About 12 nuclei Hypothalamus also about 12 nuclei. Main visceral control center of the body
  • In 90-95% of people left side has more control over language, math and logic. Right side is more involved withy visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion, artistic and musical skill.
  • In 90-95% of people left side has more control over language, math and logic. Right side is more involved withy visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion, artistic and musical skill.
  • Substantia nigra is in mesencephalon
  • sagittal image showing brain and normal pituitary with bright spot in posterior, neurohypophysis, which is secretory granules which are made in base of brain and transported down infundibulum or pituitary stalk.
  • contrast enhances pituitary because of no blood brain barrier, the adenoma has  less blood supply and is therefore less enhanced.  The Pit. is an endocrine organ so it is highly vascular to release various endocrine hormones into the circulation quickly.
  • Transcript of "Chapter13 cns part1marieb"

    1. 1. Ch 13: Central Nervous System Part 1: The Brain p 378 <ul><li>Discuss the organization of the brain, including the major structures and how they relate to one another </li></ul><ul><li>Review the meninges of the spinal cord and brain, and integrate the formation and flow of CSF with this information. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Ventricles of the Brain <ul><li>CSF filled chambers </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating with central canal of spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Lined by ependymal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Central Canal of Spinal Cord </li></ul>
    3. 3. Four Major Brain Subdivisions <ul><li>Brain Stem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus and Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebral Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA Cerebrum </li></ul></ul>Fig 13.9
    4. 4. 1) Brain stem <ul><li>Location of autonomic nuclei involved in respiratory and cardiovascular control </li></ul><ul><li>Relay stations for sensory and motor neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Decussation </li></ul>a. Medulla oblongata b. Pons c. Midbrain
    5. 5. 1a) Medulla oblongata <ul><li>Pyramids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decussation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration, sleep, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VIII, IX, X, XI, XII </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. 1b) Pons <ul><li>Pons = bridge </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial Nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V, VI, VII </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. 1c) Midbrain <ul><li>Cerebral aqueduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old term: Aqueduct of Sylvius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several nuclei (ganglia) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory reflexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aural, visual </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. 2) Cerebellum <ul><li>Dorsal to the Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Two hemispheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected by the vermis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintains posture and equilibrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooths motor activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cortex - gray surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purkinje cells (not in book), axons of which become arbor vitae (white matter) in center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large cell bodies visible in gray matter of cerebellum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>White matter: Arbor Vitae </li></ul>
    9. 9. 3) Diencephalon 3a. Epithalamus 3b. Thalamus 3c. Hypothalamus
    10. 10. 3a. Epithalamus <ul><ul><li>Pineal gland - produces melatonin, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sets diurnal cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choroid Plexus – produces CSF </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. 3b. Thalamus <ul><li>(80% of diencephalon) </li></ul><ul><li>Next to 3 rd ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with hemispheres </li></ul>
    12. 12. 3c. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Just superior to optic chiasma </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum - connects to pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Some functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of autonomic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of nervous and endocrine systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secretion of hormones - ADH and oxytocin </li></ul>
    13. 14. 4) Cerebrum ( Telencephalon ) <ul><li>83% of total brain mass </li></ul><ul><li>The right and left halves (cerebral hemispheres) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are separated by the Longitudinal Fissure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and connected by the Corpus Callosum and Anterior Commissure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are separated from the cerebellum by the transverse fissure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sulcus and Gyrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Sulcus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gray Matter vs. White Matter </li></ul><ul><li>The cortex (gray matter) is the site of conscious thought </li></ul>
    14. 15. 4) Cerebral Hemispheres, cont’d <ul><li>. . have functional regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory and motor areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Broca’s area (speech) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefrontal Cortex (Cognitive functions) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. . . have some functional differences (in spite of anatomical resemblance) -> Lateralization of cortical functioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right brain: artistic skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left Brain: math, logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>. . . receive sensory information and generate commands for opposite side of body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decussation of sensory input is in the spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decussation of motor output is in the pyramids </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. fMRI <ul><li>An fMRI of the brain. Green areas were active while subjects remembered information presented visually. Red areas were active while they remembered information presented aurally. Yellow areas were active for both types. </li></ul>
    16. 18. 4) Cerebrum, cont’d <ul><li>Lobes named after the bones of the calvarium </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory vs. Motor Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homunculus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gyrus and Sulcus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Sulcus </li></ul></ul>Regions of the Cortex
    17. 19. 4) Cerebral Cortex and Central White Matter <ul><li>Gray surface (cortex), 2-4 mm thick, is mostly neuron cell bodies with white tracts internally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection tracts (fibers) – connect more or less vertically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Association tracts (fibers) – connect one gyrus to another in the same hemisphere </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. Basal Ganglia p 402 More proper term: basal nuclei A collection of several nuclei Gray matter deep to the cerebral cortex, below floor of lateral ventricles. Function: modulate motor output from the cerebral cortex. Subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and coordination of learned movement patterns. Parkinson's disease is caused by the loss of at least 80% of the dopaminergic neurons in basal nuclei and substantia nigra (resting tremor)
    19. 22. Gray & White Matter Organization <ul><li>In brain stem similar to spinal cord ( nuclei around ventricles, tracts on outside) </li></ul><ul><li>In cerebrum and cerebellum : white matter covered with layer of neural cortex (grey) </li></ul>
    20. 24. Contrast enhanced MRI
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