Blood

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Blood

  1. 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 10 Blood
  2. 2. Blood Slide 10.1a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>The only fluid tissue in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>Taste, Odor, 5x thicker than water </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as a connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living cells = formed elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-living matrix = plasma (90% water) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Characteristics of Blood Slide 10.2 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Color range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen-rich blood is scarlet red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen-poor blood is dull red </li></ul></ul><ul><li>pH must remain between 7.35–7.45 </li></ul><ul><li>Slightly alkaline </li></ul><ul><li>Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>5-6 Liters or about 6 quarts /body </li></ul>
  4. 4. Blood Slide 10.1b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.1
  5. 5. Blood Plasma Slide 10.3 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Composed of approximately 90 percent water </li></ul><ul><li>Includes many dissolved substances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients, Salts (metal ions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins, Waste products </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Plasma Proteins Slide 10.4 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Albumin – regulates osmotic pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Clotting proteins – help to stem blood loss when a blood vessel is injured </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies – help protect the body from antigens </li></ul>
  7. 7. Formed Elements Slide 10.5a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Erythrocytes = red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Leukocytes = white blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets = cell fragments </li></ul>
  8. 8. Slide 10.5b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Slide 10.5c Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) Slide 10.6 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>The main function is to carry oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biconcave disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially bags of hemoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anucleate (no nucleus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain very few organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outnumber white blood cells 1000:1 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hemoglobin Slide 10.7 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Iron-containing protein </li></ul><ul><li>Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Each hemoglobin molecule has four oxygen binding sites </li></ul><ul><li>Each erythrocyte has 250 million hemoglobin molecules </li></ul>
  12. 12. Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Slide 10.8 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Crucial in the body’s defense against disease </li></ul><ul><li>These are complete cells, with a nucleus and organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Able to move into and out of blood vessels (diapedesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues </li></ul>
  13. 13. Leukocyte Levels in the Blood Slide 10.9 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Normal levels =4,000 to 11,000 cells/ml </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal leukocyte levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally indicates an infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leukopenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormally low leukocyte level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly caused by certain drugs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Leukocytes Slide 10.10a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Granulocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils </li></ul></ul>Figure 10.4
  15. 15. Types of Leukocytes Slide 10.10b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Agranulocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack visible cytoplasmic granules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include lymphocytes and monocytes </li></ul></ul>Figure 10.4
  16. 16. Granulocytes Slide 10.11a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Neutrophils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilobed nucleus with fine granules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as phagocytes at active sites of infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eosinophils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in repsonse to allergies and parasitic worms </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Granulocytes Slide 10.11b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Basophils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have histamine-containing granules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate inflammation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Agranulocytes Slide 10.12 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus fills most of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play an important role in the immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest of the white blood cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function as macrophages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in fighting chronic infection </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Platelets Slide 10.13 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for the clotting process </li></ul><ul><li>Normal platelet count = 300,000/mm 3 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Hematopoiesis – Blood Cell Formation Slide 10.14 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Occurs in red bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>All blood cells are derived from a common stem cell (hemocytoblast) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Fate of Erythrocytes Slide 10.15 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Wear out in 100 to 120 days </li></ul><ul><li>When worn out, are eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver </li></ul><ul><li>Lost cells are replaced by division of stem cells </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hemostasis Slide 10.18 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Stoppage of blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>Result of a break in a blood vessel </li></ul><ul><li>Hemostasis involves three phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelet plug formation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular spasms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coagulation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Vessel damage, blood loss 2. Vascular spasm. </li></ul>                                                       
  24. 24. <ul><li>Platelet plug forms 4. Coagulation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Platelet Plug Formation Slide 10.19 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Collagen fibers are exposed by a break in a blood vessel </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets become “sticky” and cling to fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Anchored platelets release chemicals to attract more platelets </li></ul><ul><li>Platelets pile up to form a platelet plug </li></ul>
  26. 26. Vascular Spasms Slide 10.20 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Anchored platelets release serotonin </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin causes blood vessel muscles to spasm </li></ul><ul><li>Spasms narrow the blood vessel, decreasing blood loss </li></ul>
  27. 27. Coagulation Slide 10.21a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Injured tissues release thromboplastin </li></ul><ul><li>PF 3 (a phospholipid) interacts with thromboplastin, blood protein clotting factors, and calcium ions to trigger a clotting cascade </li></ul><ul><li>Prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin (an enzyme) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Coagulation, cont. Slide 10.21b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Thrombin joins fibrinogen proteins into hair-like fibrin </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrin forms a meshwork (the basis for a clot) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Blood Clotting Slide 10.22 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Blood usually clots within 3 to 6 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>The clot remains as endothelium regenerates </li></ul><ul><li>The clot is broken down after tissue repair </li></ul>
  30. 30. Undesirable Clotting Slide 10.23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Thrombus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clot in an unbroken blood vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be deadly in areas like the heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embolus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A thrombus that breaks away and floats freely in the bloodstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can later clog vessels in critical areas such as the brain </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Bleeding Disorders Slide 10.24 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Thrombocytopenia (caused by viruses, medications or post-bone CA trtment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Platelet deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even normal movements can cause bleeding from small blood vessels that require platelets for clotting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemophilia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary bleeding disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal clotting factors are missing </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Blood Groups and Transfusions Slide 10.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Large losses of blood have serious consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of 15 to 30 percent causes weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of over 30 percent causes shock, which can be fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transfusions are the only way to replace blood quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Transfused blood must be of the same blood group </li></ul>
  33. 33. Human Blood Groups Slide 10.26a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Blood contains genetically determined proteins </li></ul><ul><li>A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is “typed” by using antibodies that will cause blood with certain proteins to clump (agglutination) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Human Blood Groups Slide 10.26b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>There are over 30 common red blood cell antigens </li></ul><ul><li>The most vigorous transfusion reactions are caused by ABO and Rh blood group antigens </li></ul>
  35. 35. ABO Blood Groups Slide 10.27a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Based on the presence or absence of two antigens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The lack of these antigens is called type O </li></ul>
  36. 36. Blood Types Determine Blood Compatibility Figure 7.11
  37. 37. ABO Blood Groups Slide 10.27b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>The presence of both A and B is called type AB </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of either A or B is called types A and B, respectively </li></ul>
  38. 38. Rh Blood Groups Slide 10.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Named because of the presence or absence of one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen D) </li></ul><ul><li>Most Americans are Rh + </li></ul><ul><li>Problems can occur in mixing Rh + blood into a body with Rh – blood </li></ul>
  39. 40. Rh Dangers During Pregnancy Slide 10.29a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Danger is only when the mother is Rh – and the father is Rh + , and the child inherits the Rh + factor </li></ul>
  40. 41. Rh Dangers During Pregnancy Slide 10.29b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>The mismatch of an Rh – mother carrying an Rh + baby can cause problems for the unborn child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first pregnancy usually proceeds without problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The immune system is sensitized after the first pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a second pregnancy, the mother’s immune system produces antibodies to attack the Rh + blood (hemolytic disease of the newborn) </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Blood Typing Slide 10.30 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings <ul><li>Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and anti-B serum </li></ul><ul><li>Coagulation or no coagulation leads to determining blood type </li></ul><ul><li>Typing for ABO and Rh factors is done in the same manner </li></ul><ul><li>Cross matching – testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipient’s serum, and vice versa </li></ul>

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