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  • 1. Introduction to Arthrology
    Dr: Mohammed Faez
  • 2. Objective of The Lecture
    To know about definition of Arthrology.
    To know about classification of joints
    To master the basic structure and movement of joints.
  • 3. Arthrology
    Greek, (arthro= joint), (logos= science).
    Arthrology is the scientific study of joints , and articulations.
    Site where rigid elements of the skeleton meet are called articulations.
  • 4. Joints
    Joints are places of union between two or more skeletal elements
  • 5. Classification of Joints
    • Classification based on function
    • 6. Classification based on structure
  • Classification Based on Structure
    Based on the material that binds the bones together, and on the presence or absence of joint cavity.
    Fibrous joints are fixed , and immovable
    Cartilagenous joints are slightly moveable, semimovable
    Synovial joints are movable.
  • 7. Fibrous Joints
    Bones connected by fibrous tissue
    No joint cavity
  • 8. Sutures
    Thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue uniting bones of the skull
    Irregular/interlocking edges give added strength & prevent fracture
    Synarthrosis because immovable
    Synostosis = suture that has fused completely & been replaced by bone
  • 9. Syndesmoses
    Greater distance between articulating bones & more fibrous C.T. than sutures
    Arrangements of C.T.
    bundles = ligament
    sheets = inteross. memb.
    Amphiarthrosis: limited movement
    Anterior tibiofibular joint
    Interosseous membranes in forearm and leg
  • 10. Gomphoses
    Dentoalveolar joints: cone-shaped pegs in bony socket
    Only example = teeth in alveolar processes of maxillae and mandible
  • 11. Cartilaginous joints
    • The bones are united by cartilage
    • 12. There is no joint cavity
    Synchondrosis( hyaline cartilage unites the bones)
    Symphyses( fibrocartilage unites the bones)
  • 13. Synchondrosis
    Connecting material = hyaline cartilage
    Epiphyseal plates
    Articulation of first rib w/ manubrium of sternum
    Become synostoses when bone replaces cartilage
  • 14. Symphysis
    Ends of articulating bones covered w/ hyaline cartilage
    Thin disc of fibrocartilaginous connects bones
    All occur in midline of body
    Intervertebral disc
    Pubic symphysis
  • 15. Synovial Joints
    Most movable joints in the body
    There is a joint cavity.( Synovial cavity, synovial fluid)
    Articular cartilage( covers the ends of the opposing bones)
    Articular capsule( it enclses the joint cavity.2 layered)
    Reinforcing ligaments
    Movement vs stability
  • 16. Classification Based on Function
    Synarthroses-immovable joints (sutures)
    Amphiarthroses- slightly movable joints( fibrous connection)( intervetebral discs)
    Diarthroses-freely movable joints( synovial)
    Synarthroses and amphiarthroses are largely restricted to the axial skeleton
    Diarthroses predominate in the limbs.
  • 17. Synarthrosis
    • Also called a synostosis or syndesmosis
    • 18. is a bone to bone union
    • 19. begins as a joint where there is a fibrous membrane between the two bones.
    • 20. They are sometime Fibrous Joints or Ligamentous
    • 21. Non moveable
    • 22. Fontanelles are examples
  • Amphiarthrosis
    (cartilagenous joints)
    - Moveable and immoveable
    - Cartilage between two bones
    - These joints allow some movement while still providing protection.
  • 23. Diarthrosis
    (Synovial Joints)
    Allow for free movement
    Have 3 characteristics:
    Synovial membrane: A serous membrane that produces synovial fluid which reduces friction and absorbs shock.
    Articular cartilage
    Capsule: Dense connective tissue covering the joint
  • 24. Summary of Joint Classification
  • 25. Types of Joints (Articulations)
    Ball and Socket Joint
    - Allow for the most freedom of movement
    - Triaxial movement – flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumflexion, and rotation
  • 26. Types of Joints (Articulations)
    Hinge joint
    - Uniaxial – allows movement in only one direction. Back and forth
    - Allows only flexion and extension in one plane (sagittal)
    - Many times the articular surfaces will have a distinct shape (ie: spool shaped trochlear surface of the humerus)
  • 27. Types of Joints (Articulations)
    Pivot joint
    - Allows rotation (uniaxial)
    - Rounded, pointed, or conical surface on one bone that fits into a ring of bone on another.
    Saddle joint
    - Biaxial
    - Allows flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction.
    - Surfaces are inverted relative to each other.
  • 28. Types of Joints (Articulations)
    Condyloid joint
    - Biaxial
    - One bone is concave (hollowed out depression) and the other is convex (rounded or elliptical).
    - Allows flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction.
    - No rotation
  • 29. Types of Joints (Articulations)
    Sliding or gliding joint
    - Biaxial
    - Side to side, back and forth
    - Two flat surfaces that slide over each other
    - No angular motion
  • 30. Types of Joints (Articulations)
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 33. Basic Structure & General Anatomy
    Articular capsule encloses joint cavity
    continuous with periosteum
    lined by synovial membrane
    Synovial fluid = slippery fluid; feeds cartilages
    Articular cartilage = hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces
    Articular discs and menisci
    jaw, wrist, sternoclavicular and knee joints
    absorbs shock, guides bone movements and distributes forces
    Tendon attaches muscle to bone
    Ligament attaches bone to bone
  • 34. Tendon Sheaths and Bursae
    Bursa = saclike extension of joint capsule
    between nearby structures so slide more easily past each other
    Tendon sheaths = cylinders of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and wrapped around a tendon
  • 35. Bursae and Tendon Sheaths