Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Motivation Workshop
Workbook
Wales Quality Centre

Lawrence Hallett

tion
tiva
Mo

Novemb...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Motivation
Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards ...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Motivation - Exercise
You have been assigned a project by your managing director to creat...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

De-motivation - Exercise
Imagine you are a manager with a staff of 20. Productivity and m...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

WHAT IT IS TO BE MOTIVATED
Motivation is an internal state. so recall an experience in wh...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Previous examples of phrases generated
Positive

Negative

Reward

Anger

Involved

Reven...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Types of theories and models
motivational theories A class of theories about why people d...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

are the same. Desires take many different forms and have many different responses or
resu...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of
a...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

aspects of motivation in the shape of pull factors. Then again pull factors are issues th...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

other people. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation,...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

drive the drive's strength is reduced. The theory is based on diverse ideas from the
theo...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Need theories
Motivation, as defined by Pritchard and Ashwood, is the process used to allo...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

He distinguished between:
•

Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibil...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

be universal, innate and psychological and include the need for competence, autonomy,
and...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

3.

They want to hear continuous recognition, as well as feedback, in order for them to
k...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Thematic Appreception Test
Psychologists David C. McClelland and John W. Atkinson argued ...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

their feeling of disappointment as motivation to rely on a different study source other t...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

What would you do!!
At Smart High School, there are different levels of math classes and ...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

We have to be motivated to motivate
It is impossible to motivate another person if you yo...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

9 Self Motivating Tips
 
No one can motivate anyone to do anything. All a person can do f...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Dealing with Motivation drains
Finding a sales reps “motivation drain” is a skill every s...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

How to Change Your Limiting Beliefs – The Ultimate Guide

The following article was extra...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

And to break a limiting belief, you will first need to get rid of the superglue, then get ...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

3. Get rid of the emotional superglue
Very often, beliefs have an emotional charge attach...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

4. Re-frame the evidence
Remember how a belief is just the best available explanation for...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Also, sometimes you will find it hard, or even impossible to reframe all of the evidence.
...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

And once the new belief become entrenched in your mind, it will start to accumulate even
...
Exercise

Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Pair up with someone from the course and use the information from the limiting ...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Motivation requires a goal
Motivation is at best difficult for individuals, groups, teams ...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

The health Warning - Why Setting Goals Can Do More Harm Than Good

Goal Setting
Before yo...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Galinsky, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University; and Max Bazerman,
Harvar...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Q: One side effect of goal setting that your team identified is a rise in unethical behavi...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

while increasing risk-taking and unethical behavior, their simple implementation can
beco...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Goal setting model within a coaching approach
The GROW model
The GROW model was developed...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Example
This is a very simple example of using the GROW model to achieve a goal. This exa...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Try it out – Exercise
Individually - Construct a CV - containing your planned achievement...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Everybody Has a Motivational Fuse
This law says that everybody can be motivated. They may...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Consider a Colleague
Think of a number of your colleagues and try to identify what you be...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Once established Motivation never lasts
This law stems from a common
management mis-judge...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

We must all understand what really demotivates us and
then take steps to prevent
it happe...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Motivation requires recognition
This is such a powerful law. Continue to break it and you...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

The motivation Video
Watch the video and record any relevant conclusions regarding the co...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Participation Motivates
There has been an enormous trend, starting in the mid-1980s, of c...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Seeing Ourselves Progressing Motivates Us
This is another law that you must understand fu...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Challenge Only Motivates If You Can Win
A challenge will only motivate a person if they t...
Motivation
Wales Quality Centre

Motivation - Exercise
You have been assigned a project by your managing director to creat...
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  1. 1. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Motivation Workshop Workbook Wales Quality Centre Lawrence Hallett tion tiva Mo November 201! 1
  2. 2. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Motivation Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits,controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal. For example, hunger is a motivation that elicits a desire to eat. Motivation is the purpose or psychological cause of an action. Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social areas. Motivation may be rooted in a basic impulse to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. It can also originate from specific physical needs such as eating, sleeping or resting, and sex. Motivation is an inner drive to behave or act in a certain manner. "It's the difference between waking up before dawn to pound the pavement and lazing around the house all day."These inner conditions such as wishes, desires, goals, activate to move in a particular direction in behavior. What sort of manger would you like to be managed by? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ November 201! 2
  3. 3. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Motivation - Exercise You have been assigned a project by your managing director to create a proposal to enable higher motivation levels within your business. Prepare a 2 minute presentation outlining what you believe to be the key factors in the execution of your proposal ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ November 201! 3
  4. 4. Motivation Wales Quality Centre De-motivation - Exercise Imagine you are a manager with a staff of 20. Productivity and morale are at an all time high. Your objective is to interfere with productivity and morale by ruining employees’ motivation within one week. Describe what you could say and do to frustrate people, lower morale and productivity, get poor performance, and encourage self-defeating, neurotic behavior. Prepare a 2 mins presentation ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________ November 201! 4
  5. 5. Motivation Wales Quality Centre WHAT IT IS TO BE MOTIVATED Motivation is an internal state. so recall an experience in which you were highly motivated-excited, intensely involved in an endeavor etc. Record adjectives that describe your experiences in that highly motivated state. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ November 201! 5
  6. 6. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Previous examples of phrases generated Positive Negative Reward Anger Involved Revenge Challenged Social pressure Interested Stress Making someone happy Conflict Encouraged Jealousy Emotional Saving face Purpose Competing Appreciated Fear of failure Increasing prestige Fear Respected Bored Gaining Insight Resentment Accomplishment Envy Completion Hate Doing it No choice SEEKING November 201! AVOIDANCE 6
  7. 7. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Types of theories and models motivational theories A class of theories about why people do things seeks to reduce the number of factors down to one and explain all behaviour through that one factor. For example, economics has been criticized for using self-interest as a mono-motivational theory. Mono-motivational theories are often criticized for being too reductive or too abstract. Conscious and unconscious motivations A number of motivational theories emphasize the distinction between conscious and unconscious motivations. In evolutionary psychology, the "ultimate", unconscious motivation may be a cold evolutionary calculation, the conscious motivation could be more benign or even positive emotions. For example, while it may be in the best interest of a male's genes to have multiple partners and thus break up with or divorce one before moving onto the next, the conscious rationalization could be, "I loved her at the time". Freud is associated with the idea that human beings have many unconscious motivations that cause them to make important decisions because of these unconscious forces, such as choosing a partner. Non-psychological theories Platonic theory of motivation In The Republic, Plato advances a tri-partite theory of the soul, which consists of three parts: reason, spirit and appetite. All parts of the soul have desires, however not all desires November 201! 7
  8. 8. Motivation Wales Quality Centre are the same. Desires take many different forms and have many different responses or results. Machiavellianism Machiavellism argues that human beings are motivated to seek power and status above all. Modern research argues that people who are high in this trait do indeed seek power and money, and are willing to use others as instruments towards that end. Psychological theories and models Rational motivations The idea that human beings are rational and human behaviour is guided by reason is an old one. However, recent research (on Satisficing for example) has significantly undermined the idea of homo economicus or of perfect rationality in favour of a more bounded rationality. The field of behavioural economics is particularly concerned with the limits of rationality in economic agents. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Motivation can be divided into two types: intrinsic (internal) motivation and extrinsic (external) motivation. Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for reward. Intrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s.The November 201! 8
  9. 9. Motivation Wales Quality Centre phenomenon of intrinsic motivation was first acknowledged within experimental studies of animal behavior. In these studies, it was evident that the organisms would engage in playful and curiosity driven behaviors in the absence of reward. Intrinsic motivation is a natural motivational tendency and is a critical element in cognitive, social, and physical development. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: • attribute their educational results to factors under their own control, also known as autonomy • believe they have the skills to be effective agents in reaching their desired goals, also known as self-efficacy beliefs • are interested in mastering a topic, not just in achieving good grades Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation refers to the performance of an activity in order to attain an outcome, whether or not that activity is also intrinsically motivated. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards (for example money or grades) for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehavior. Competition is in an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy are also extrinsic incentives. Comparison of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition. While the provision of extrinsic rewards might reduce the desirability of an activity, the use of extrinsic constraints, such as the threat of punishment, against performing an activity has actually been found to increase one's intrinsic interest in that activity. In one study, when children were given mild threats against playing with an attractive toy, it was found that the threat actually served to increase the child's interest in the toy, which was previously undesirable to the child in the absence of threat. For those children who received no extrinsic reward, self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalized by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs. Operant conditioning Operant conditioning a term coined by B.F. Skinner, is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behaviour; instead to look at external, observable causes of human behaviour. His theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day. Push and pull This model is usually used when discussing motivation within the context of tourism. Push factors determine the desire to go on holiday, whereas pull factors determine the choice of destination. Push motives are connected with internal forces, for example the need for relaxation or escapism, while pull factors are the external factors, such as landscape, cultural image or the climate of a destination, that induce a traveller to visit a certain location.[citation needed] Push factors can be stimulated by external and situational November 201! 9
  10. 10. Motivation Wales Quality Centre aspects of motivation in the shape of pull factors. Then again pull factors are issues that can arise from a location itself and therefore ‘push’ an individual to choose to experience it. Since then, a large number of theories have been developed over the years in many studies there is no single theory that illustrates all motivational aspects of travelling. Many researchers have highlighted that because several motives may occur at the same time it should not be assumed that only one motive drives an individual to perform an action, as was presumed in previous studies. On the other hand, since people are not able to satisfy all their needs at once, they usually seek to satisfy some or a few of them.[citation needed] Self-control The self-control aspect of motivation is increasingly considered to be a subset of emotional intelligence; it is suggested that although a person may be classed as highly intelligent (as measured by many traditional intelligence tests), they may remain unmotivated to pursue intellectual endeavours. Vroom's "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people may decide to exert self-control in pursuit of a particular goal. Drives Main article: Drive theory A drive or desire can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive.These drives are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. Another basic drive is the sexual drive which like food motivates us because it is essential to our survival.The desire for sex is wired deep into the brain of all human beings as glands secrete hormones that travel through the blood to the brain and stimulates the onset of sexual desire. The hormone involved in the initial onset of sexual desire is called dihydroepiandosterone (DHEA). The hormonal basis of both men and women's sex drives is testosterone. By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process. Incentive theory A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intention of causing the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as delay lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and November 201! 10
  11. 11. Motivation Wales Quality Centre other people. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Reinforcers and reinforcement principles of behavior differ from the hypothetical construct of reward. A reinforcer is any stimulus change following a response that increases the future frequency or magnitude of that response, therefore the cognitive approach is certainly the way forward as in 1973 Maslow described it as being the golden pineapple. Positive reinforcement is demonstrated by an increase in the future frequency or magnitude of a response due to in the past being followed contingently by a reinforcing stimulus. Negative reinforcement involves stimulus change consisting of the removal of an aversive stimulus following a response. Positive reinforcement involves a stimulus change consisting of the presentation or magnification of a positive stimulus following a response. From this perspective, motivation is mediated by environmental events, and the concept of distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic forces is irrelevant. Applying proper motivational techniques can be much harder than it seems. Steven Kerr notes that when creating a reward system, it can be easy to reward A, while hoping for B, and in the process, reap harmful effects that can jeopardize your goals. Incentive theory in psychology treats motivation and behavior of the individual as they are influenced by beliefs, such as engaging in activities that are expected to be profitable. Incentive theory is promoted by behavioral psychologists, such as B.F. Skinner and literalized by behaviorists, especially by Skinner in his philosophy of Radical behaviorism, to mean that a person's actions always have social ramifications: and if actions are positively received people are more likely to act in this manner, or if negatively received people are less likely to act in this manner. Incentive theory distinguishes itself from other motivation theories, such as drive theory, in the direction of the motivation. In incentive theory, stimuli "attract", to use the term above, a person towards them, as opposed to the body seeking to reestablish homeostasis and pushing towards the stimulus. In terms of behaviorism, incentive theory involves positive reinforcement: the reinforcing stimulus has been conditioned to make the person happier. For instance, a person knows that eating food, drinking water, or gaining social capital will make them happier. As opposed to in drive theory, which involves negative reinforcement: a stimulus has been associated with the removal of the punishment—the lack of homeostasis in the body. For example, a person has come to know that if they eat when hungry, it will eliminate that negative feeling of hunger, or if they drink when thirsty, it will eliminate that negative feeling of thirst. Escape-seeking dichotomy model Escapism and seeking are major factors influencing decision making. Escapism is a need to breakaway from a daily life routine, turning on the television and watching an adventure film, whereas seeking is described as the desire to learn, turning on the television to watch a documentary. Both motivations have some interpersonal and personal facets for example individuals would like to escape from family problems (personal) or from problems with work colleagues (interpersonal). This model can also be easily adapted with regard to different studies. Drive-reduction theory There are a number of drive theories. The Drive Reduction Theory grows out of the concept that people have certain biological drives, such as hunger. As time passes the strength of the drive increases if it is not satisfied (in this case by eating). Upon satisfying a November 201! 11
  12. 12. Motivation Wales Quality Centre drive the drive's strength is reduced. The theory is based on diverse ideas from the theories of Freud to the ideas of feedback control systems, such as a thermostat. Drive theory has some intuitive or folk validity. For instance when preparing food, the drive model appears to be compatible with sensations of rising hunger as the food is prepared, and, after the food has been consumed, a decrease in subjective hunger. There are several problems, however, that leave the validity of drive reduction open for debate. The first problem is that it does not explain how secondary reinforcers reduce drive. For example, money satisfies no biological or psychological needs, but a pay check appears to reduce drive through second-order conditioning. Secondly, a drive, such as hunger, is viewed as having a "desire" to eat, making the drive a homuncular being—a feature criticized as simply moving the fundamental problem behind this "small man" and his desires. Drive reduction theory cannot be a complete theory of behavior, or a hungry human could not prepare a meal without eating the food before he finished cooking it. The ability of drive theory to cope with all kinds of behavior, from not satisfying a drive (by adding on other traits such as restraint), or adding additional drives for "tasty" food, which combine with drives for food in order to explain cooking render it hard to test. Cognitive dissonance theory Suggested by Leon Festinger, cognitive dissonance occurs when an individual experiences some degree of discomfort resulting from an inconsistency between two cognitions: their views on the world around them, and their own personal feelings and actions. For example, a consumer may seek to reassure themselves regarding a purchase, feeling in retrospect that another decision may have been preferable. Their feeling that another purchase would have been preferable is inconsistent with their action of purchasing the item. The difference between their feelings and beliefs causes dissonance, so they seek to reassure themselves. While not a theory of motivation, per se, the theory of cognitive dissonance proposes that people have a motivational drive to reduce dissonance. The cognitive miser perspective makes people want to justify things in a simple way in order to reduce the effort they put into cognition. They do this by changing their attitudes, beliefs, or actions, rather than facing the inconsistencies, because dissonance is a mental strain. Dissonance is also reduced by justifying, blaming, and denying. It is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology. November 201! 12
  13. 13. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Need theories Motivation, as defined by Pritchard and Ashwood, is the process used to allocate energy to maximize the satisfaction of needs. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Content theory of human motivation includes both Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory. Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of five hierarchic classes. According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highestlatest) are as follows: • Physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.) • Safety/Security/Shelter/Health • Belongingness/Love/Friendship • Self-esteem/Recognition/Achievement • Self actualization The basic requirements build upon the first step in the pyramid: physiology. If there are deficits on this level, all behavior will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Essentially, if you have not slept or eaten adequately, you won't be interested in your self-esteem desires. Subsequently we have the second level, which awakens a need for security. After securing those two levels, the motives shift to the social sphere, the third level. Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self-actualization. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory • Human beings have wants behavior. Only unsatisfied needs do not. can be summarized as follows: and desires which influence their needs influence behavior, satisfied •Needs are arranged in order of importance to human life, from the basic to the complex. •The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. •The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show. Herzberg's two-factor theory Main article: Two-factor theory Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory, a.k.a. intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life. November 201! 13
  14. 14. Motivation Wales Quality Centre He distinguished between: • Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and • Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation. The name hygiene factors is used because, like hygiene, the presence will not improve health, but absence can cause health deterioration. Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction such as computer user satisfaction. Alderfer's ERG theory Alderfer, expanding on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, created the ERG theory. This theory posits that there are three groups of core needs — existence, relatedness, and growth, hence the label: ERG theory. The existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. They include the items that Maslow considered to be physiological and safety needs. The second group of needs are those of relatedness- the desire we have for maintaining important personal relationships. These social and status desires require interaction with others if they are to be satisfied, and they align with Maslow's social need and the external component of Maslow's esteem classification. Finally, Alderfer isolates growth needs as an intrinsic desire for personal development. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow's esteem category and the characteristics included under self-actualization. Self-determination theory Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, during the early nineties, proposed the theory of self-determination; focusing on the degree to which an individual’s behaviour is selfmotivated and self-determined. According to Deci and Ryan, the three psychological needs motivate the self to initiate specific behaviour and mental nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being for an individual. These needs are said to November 201! 14
  15. 15. Motivation Wales Quality Centre be universal, innate and psychological and include the need for competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness. When these needs are satisfied, there are positive consequence (e.g. well being and growth), we're motivated, productive and happy. When they’re thwarted, our motivation, productivity and happiness plummet. Deci and Vansteenkiste claim that there are three essential elements to the theory: 1. Humans are inherently proactive with their potential and mastering their inner forces (such as drive and emotions). 2. Humans have an inherent tendency towards growth, development and integrated functioning. 3. Optimal development and actions are inherent in humans but they don’t happen automatically. Whether this aspect of our humanity emerges in our lives depends on whether the conditions around us support it. The main mechanisms of Motivation 2.0 are more stifling than supportive. Of course these are necessary, as stated earlier, but the less salient they are made, the better. Instead, we should focus our efforts on creating environments (at our workplace, schools, home) for our innate psychological needs to flourish. Other researchers also reach the same conclusion, i.e. human beings have an innate drive to be autonomous, self-determined yet connected to one another. When these conditions are met, internal drive is liberated and people achieve more and live richer lives. Temporal motivation theory The latest approach in developing a broad, integrative theory of motivation is Temporal Motivation Theory. Introduced in a 2006 Academy of Management Review article, it synthesizes into a single formulation the primary aspects of several other major motivational theories, including Incentive Theory, Drive Theory, Need Theory, Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting. It simplifies the field of motivation and allows findings from one theory to be translated into terms of another. Another journal article that helped to develop the Temporal Motivation Theory, "The Nature of Procrastination," received American Psychological Association's George A. Miller award for outstanding contribution to general science. Achievement motivation[edit] Achievement motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. The emphasis on performance seeks to integrate formerly separate approaches as Need for Achievement with, for example, social motives like dominance. Personality is intimately tied to performance and achievement motivation, including such characteristics as tolerance for risk, fear of failure, and others.The Achievement Motivation Inventory is based on this theory and assesses three factors (in 17 separated scales) relevant to vocational and professional success. This motivation has repeatedly been linked with adaptive motivational patterns, including working hard, a willingness to pick learning tasks with much difficulty, and contributing success to effort. Achievement motivation was studied intensively by David C. McClelland, John W. Atkinson and their colleagues since the early 1950s.[25] Their research showed that business managers who were successful demonstrated a high need to achieve no matter the culture. There are three major characteristics of people who have a great need to achieve according to McClelland’s research. 1. 2. They would prefer a work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems. They would take calculated risk and establish moderate, attainable goals. November 201! 15
  16. 16. Motivation Wales Quality Centre 3. They want to hear continuous recognition, as well as feedback, in order for them to know how well they are doing. Cognitive theories Goal-setting theory Goal-setting theory is based on the notion that individuals sometimes have a drive to reach a clearly defined end state. Often, this end state is a reward in itself. A goal's efficiency is affected by three features: proximity, difficulty and specificity. Good goal setting incorporates the SMART criteria, in which goals are: specific, measurable, accurate, realistic, and timely. An ideal goal should present a situation where the time between the initiation of behavior and the end state is close. This explains why some children are more motivated to learn how to ride a bike than to master algebra. A goal should be moderate, not too hard or too easy to complete. In both cases, most people are not optimally motivated, as many want a challenge (which assumes some kind of insecurity of success). At the same time people want to feel that there is a substantial probability that they will succeed. Specificity concerns the description of the goal in their class. The goal should be objectively defined and intelligible for the individual. A classic example of a poorly specified goal is to get the highest possible grade. Most children have no idea how much effort they need to reach that goal. Models of behavior change Social-cognitive models of behavior change include the constructs of motivation and volition. Motivation is seen as a process that leads to the forming of behavioral intentions. Volition is seen as a process that leads from intention to actual behavior. In other words, motivation and volition refer to goal setting and goal pursuit, respectively. Both processes require self-regulatory efforts. Several self-regulatory constructs are needed to operate in orchestration to attain goals. An example of such a motivational and volitional construct is perceived self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is supposed to facilitate the forming of behavioral intentions, the development of action plans, and the initiation of action. It can support the translation of intentions into action. John W. Atkinson, David Birch and their colleagues developed the theory of "Dynamics of Action" to mathematically model change in behavior as a consequence of the interaction of motivation and associated tendencies toward specific actions. The theory posits that change in behavior occurs when the tendency for a new, unexpressed behavior becomes dominant over the tendency currently motivating action. In the theory, the strength of tendencies rises and falls as a consequence of internal and external stimuli (sources of instigation), inhibitory factors, and consummatory in factors such as performing an action. In this theory, there are three causes responsible for behavior and change in behavior: 1. 2. Instigation (Ts) - increases tendency when an activity has intrinsic ability to satisfy; Inhibition (Taf) - decreases tendency when there are obstacles to performing an activity; and 3. Consummation - decreases a tendency as it is performed. Conscious motivation This is a kind of motivation that people are aware of. Unconscious motivation Some psychologists believe that a significant portion of human behavior is energized and directed by unconscious motives. According to Maslow, "Psychoanalysis has often demonstrated that the relationship between a conscious desire and the ultimate unconscious aim that underlies it need not be at all direct." November 201! 16
  17. 17. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Thematic Appreception Test Psychologists David C. McClelland and John W. Atkinson argued that motivation should be unconscious. They refined measures of motivation by means of content analysis of imaginative thought using, for example, the Thematic Apperception Test.' Intrinsic motivation and the 16 basic desires theory Starting from studies involving more than 6,000 people, Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that found 16 basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior. The 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities are: • • • • • • • • Acceptance, the need for approval Curiosity, the need to learn Eating, the need for food Family, the need to raise children Honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one's clan/ethnic group Idealism, the need for social justice Independence, the need for individuality Order, the need for organized, stable, predictable environments • Physical activity, the need for exercise • Power, the need for influence of will • Romance, the need for sex and for beauty • Saving, the need to collect • Social contact, the need for friends (peer relationships) • Social status, the need for social standing/importance • Tranquility, the need to be safe • Vengeance, the need to strike back and to compete Attribution Theory The attribution theory is a theory developed by psychologist, Fritz Heider that describes the processes by which individuals explain the causes of their behavior and events. A form of attribution theory developed by psychologist, Bernard Weiner describes an individual’s beliefs about how the causes of success or failure affect their emotions and motivations. Bernard Weiner’s theory can be defined into two perspectives: intrapersonal or interpersonal. The intrapersonal perspective includes self-directed thoughts and emotions that are attributed to the self. The interpersonal perspective includes beliefs about the responsibility of others and other directed affects of emotions; the individual would place the blame on another individual. Individuals formulate explanatory attributions to understand the events they experience and to seek reasons for their failures. When individuals seek positive feedback from their failures, they use the feedback as motivation to show improved performances. For example, using the intrapersonal perspective, a student who failed a test may attribute their failure for not studying enough and would use their emotion of shame or embarrassment as motivation to study harder for the next test. A student who blames their test failure on the teacher would be using the interpersonal perspective, and would use November 201! 17
  18. 18. Motivation Wales Quality Centre their feeling of disappointment as motivation to rely on a different study source other than the teacher for the next test. Approach versus avoidance Approach motivation is a motivation to experience a positive outcome. In contrast, avoidance motivation is a motivation not to experience a negative outcome.[ Research suggests that, all else being equal, avoidance motivations tend to be more powerful than approach motivations. Because people expect losses to have more powerful emotional consequences than equal-size gains, they will take more risks to avoid a loss than to achieve a gain. Practical applications The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approaches of motivation training, but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. To understand how to control motivation it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation. Exercise Consider an individual in your organisation who is less than fully motivated. List the perceived reasons for their de-motivation ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ November 201! 18
  19. 19. Motivation Wales Quality Centre What would you do!! At Smart High School, there are different levels of math classes and Ms. Write teaches an remedial section.Ms. Write has had a student for the past year who she has become more concerned with, Kelly. Kelly is very withdrawn and indifferent. She seems to just get by. The students in the class perform well below grade level, but Kelly seems to have the most difficulty. Ms. Write is concerned with the fact that Kelly never speaks in class and that she does not interact with classmates. Kelly is a teenage girl but acts more like a younger isolated child. Kelly is also the only girl in the class but Ms. Write believes that Kelly is a teenager so interacting with male students should not be a concern. While teaching a one day, Ms. Write tried to included everyone in the class, however, whenever she called upon Kelly, Kelly just stared blankly. There would be a delay and the class was being affected by Kelly's attitudes and actions. If Kelly did speak she would speak only one or two words softly. Ms.Write would have to repeat everything Kelly would say, so the whole class could hear. Again another setback because of Kelly. When the students are asked to work in groups Kelly never initiates conversation and she never works with others unless forced to.The delays and the special attention Ms. Write has to give Kelly, just to get Kelly to speak a few words,was having a negative impact on her students. The students were having a hard enough time paying attention and often Ms. Write lost the students. She found herself repeating lesson plans. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ November 201! 19
  20. 20. Motivation Wales Quality Centre We have to be motivated to motivate It is impossible to motivate another person if you yourself are not motivated. What sort of manager do you want to be managed by? The manager who arrives at work before anybody else, who is enthusiastic, positive, always has a bit of good news to pass on, is loyal and leads by example? A manager who has a purpose – in other words, a MOTIVATED MANAGER? Many managers who demand and expect that their employees should be more motivated, yet in looking at these managers themselves it is absolutely apparent why they are not getting what they hope for. At a recent conference for some two hundred senior managers of a major UK public company. It became apparent that this was their second conference at attempting to launch a new management style and strategy. Not only was the new system not fully understood but it had not been enthusiastically embraced by the senior executives. It came to light that one of the root causes for the lack of enthusiasm and motivation to change lay on the shoulders of one person. They key manager responsible for the roll-out of the programme had been made redundant shortly before the first conference and was then invited back for a six-month contract just to communicate and implement the strategy. What an odd management decision! If you want to motivate another person you have to be motivated yourself November 201! 20
  21. 21. Motivation Wales Quality Centre 9 Self Motivating Tips   No one can motivate anyone to do anything. All a person can do for another is provide them with incentives to motivate themselves. Here are ten very effective strategies to help you get up and get moving toward actualizing your enormous, untapped potential. - Record their relevance to you with examples 1.* Be willing to leave your comfort zone. The greatest barrier to achieving your potential is your comfort zone. Great things happen when you make friends with your discomfort zone. 2.* Don’t be afraid to make mistakes. Wisdom helps us avoid making mistakes and comes from making a million of them. 3.* Don’t indulge in self-limiting thinking. Think empowering, expansive thoughts. 4.*Choose to be happy. Happy people are easily motivated. Happiness is your birthright so don’t settle for anything else. 5.* Spend at least one hour a day in self-development. Read good books or listen to inspiring tapes. Driving to and from work provides an excellent opportunity to listen to selfimprovement tapes. 6.* Train yourself to finish what you start. So many of us become scattered as we try to accomplish a task. Finish one task before you begin another. 7.* Live fully in the present moment. When you live in the past or the future you aren’t able to make things happen in the present. 8.* Never quit when you experience a setback or frustration. Success could be just around the corner. 9.* Dare to dream big dreams. If there is anything to the law of expectation then we are moving in the direction of our dreams, goals and expectations. The real tragedy in life is not in how much we suffer, but rather in how much we miss, so don’t miss a thing. Charles Dubois once said, “We must be prepared, at any moment, to sacrifice who we are for who we are capable of becoming.” November 201! 21
  22. 22. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Dealing with Motivation drains Finding a sales reps “motivation drain” is a skill every sales manager should sharpen. It is needed when specific sales activity slows or stops.  I was working with a client and his motivation and activity to making new appointment calls had stopped. He had excuses and reasons for not calling which in many cases will frustrate a sales manager and lead to a quick “pump them up” or “shake them down”. Rather than do that, invest a little time, build trust, educate and increase motivation by helping your rep find their “motivation drain”. In order to do this you need to understand the activity chain related to the problem. This is the activity chain that leads to making new appointments for my client. 1. 2. 3. 4. Develop a list of people to call for one-on-one appointment meetings you feel good about Schedule a time to call for appointments Make the calls Schedule appointments To identify the drain, search for the activity they still have motivation for and work on the step just above it. In this case he did not feel motivated about any activity, so we needed to focus on step one, the list. I asked if he felt 100% comfortable that each person on the list was the type of client he would like to meet with and his answer was no. Every time he looked at the list all he could see were the names he did not want to call. This was the motivation drain. His assignment was to trim the list down to only people he was motivated to call. His list went from 50 down to 11. He started making calls again and scheduling new appointments. The total amount of time invested in this exercise for me as his manager was 5-10 minutes. He now understands how to find this drain next time.  I did not need to pump him up, or chew him out. My job as a manager was to identify the drain, plug it and let him get back to business. When you have clearly defined sales processes it will make it easier to find and review activity chains. You can then more easily identify motivation drains and help your reps sell more products and services. November 201! 22
  23. 23. Motivation Wales Quality Centre How to Change Your Limiting Beliefs – The Ultimate Guide The following article was extracted from http://vladdolezal.com/blog/2010/limiting-beliefs/ . This acts as a template to enable us recognize and remove those self limiting beliefs that hold our coaches back. Elephant keepers in India have an interesting way of keeping their elephants from running away. They tie them to a wooden peg with a rope. It doesn’t make sense on the surface, since a rope like that has no hope of holding a grown elephant. But ask any elephant keeper and he will chuckle and explain: When a baby elephant is born, the herder ties it to a peg with a rope. At this point, the rope is strong enough to hold the elephant. The baby elephant quickly learns that trying to escape the rope is futile. And he keeps that learning with him, even as he grows up and the rope becomes far too weak to hold him. And like that rope, we often form beliefs that might be useful at first, but then hold us back in life, long after the original reasons are gone. What is a belief, exactly? • there is no “true” or “false” with beliefs, only useful and detrimental • a belief is just the best available explanation of the evidence you observe Think of a belief as a tabletop. The legs are the supporting evidence. And sometimes the legs are even superglued to the floor of your mind with emotions. November 201! 23
  24. 24. Motivation Wales Quality Centre And to break a limiting belief, you will first need to get rid of the superglue, then get rid of the evidence, and only then can you change it. Here’s the step-by-step process: Changing your limiting beliefs This will work best if you pick a limiting belief, and go through this process with that in mind. 1. Identify a limiting belief Take a few moments to think about beliefs you hold that might be holding you back. It can be in the form “I am …” or just about the world in general. As long as you think it might be holding you back, that will work. Remember, there is no true or false with beliefs. Only useful and detrimental. Don’t worry about “truth”, and instead decide if it’s useful to you, or if a different belief would be more useful. For example, you might believe that “The recession is a bad time to start a business”. That would definitely be more limiting than “There will always be demand for exceptional products and services.” Take a few moments to pick a limiting belief. You can still carry on reading if you can’t think of anything, but it would be really helpful if you do. 2. Choose a belief you would like to have instead This will become important later (when we dislodge the evidence for your old, limiting belief and replace it with evidence for the new one). Here are two examples: old: “I am unattractive.” new: “I can attract just the right partner for me.” old: “I will never earn over $30,000 a year.” new: “I can earn as much as I want for my ideal life.” November 201! 24
  25. 25. Motivation Wales Quality Centre 3. Get rid of the emotional superglue Very often, beliefs have an emotional charge attached to them. Once you’ve identified your limiting belief, think about the emotional payoff it gives you. For example, thinking you suck at maths might give you: • commiserating with friends who also claim to suck at maths • giving up responsibility for your maths grade • avoiding being called a “geek” • and many others… The emotional payoff you get is unique to you. Once you’ve figured out what it gives you, it’s time for the all-important question: Is the emotional payoff worth holding on to this belief? Take a good few moments to answer this. Because you know what? Sometimes the answer is “yes”. In which case you can stop right there, because no technique (except advanced psychotherapy) will help you change something you don’t want to change. But let’s say you decide the emotional payoff isn’t really worth the limitation. You decide you want to change! At this point, you’ve already begun dissolving the emotional superglue. There’s still some left, but every time you remind yourself that you really want to change, it gets weaker. November 201! 25
  26. 26. Motivation Wales Quality Centre 4. Re-frame the evidence Remember how a belief is just the best available explanation for the evidence? Well, you decide what is the “best” explanation for the evidence! You can easily choose an alternate explanation that doesn’t limit you. And once you do, this new way of thinking about the evidence often makes more sense than the old one! Let’s go with the tabletop, and re-frame the evidence so it no longer supports “I suck at maths”: Evidence 1: I failed the last two tests Alternate explanation: I haven’t studied properly for them. I used the wrong studying methods. Evidence 2: I got an answer wrong in class Alternate explanation: I was tired or Even the best students sometimes get it wrong. Getting an answer wrong is not an indication of maths skills. or I have become better at maths by stepping up and getting the chance to fail and get feedback. Evidence 3: My mother said it’s her genes Alternate explanation: Robert has parents who claim they suck at maths, yet he’s a maths genius. Notice how the evidence no longer supports “I suck at maths”? Some evidence might take a bit of skill to re-frame. But with a bit of practice, you can easily dislodge most evidence for your negative beliefs quickly. Take a moment now to re-frame the evidence for you own limiting belief. (You’re carrying one in mind as we go along, right?) November 201! 26
  27. 27. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Also, sometimes you will find it hard, or even impossible to reframe all of the evidence. That’s ok. As long as you take away as many supporting legs as possible, you will be able to shift the belief with this next step: 5. Find evidence for your new belief Beliefs have a funny way of operating. They focus your mind on certain things… so you completely miss things that are inconsistent with those beliefs. If you believe you’re unattractive, you will notice all the snide remarks and dirty looks – yet completely miss the smiles, greetings and compliments, or just discount them as irrelevant. Because of this, beliefs automatically snowball. Once a belief gains certain weight, it will start to tack on more and more legs of evidence, and ignore any contrary evidence. So deep-seated beliefs might take several sessions like this, over several days, to get rid of. But the process still works. In this step, you will actively find all the evidence you can think of to support your new belief! Think back to all the things that happened in your life, no matter how small or irrelevant they seem, that support it. The goal here is to establish as many legs as possible. If you get enough evidence, this new belief will blow the old one right out. November 201! 27
  28. 28. Motivation Wales Quality Centre And once the new belief become entrenched in your mind, it will start to accumulate even more evidence for itself! Suddenly, the snowballing effect works in your favour! So take a few moments to remember all the evidence from your life that supports your new belief. Summary and next actions To summarize: 1. Identify a limiting belief 2. Pick a belief you would like to hold instead 3. Get rid of the emotional superglue 4. Cut off the table legs of evidence by reframing them 5. Gather as much evidence as possible for your new empowering belief And as you practice this method, it will become ever easier and more effective. You might even start noticing limiting beliefs that your friends hold. And even though the effect might be small at first… it builds up over time. November 201! 28
  29. 29. Exercise Motivation Wales Quality Centre Pair up with someone from the course and use the information from the limiting belief article and try the methodology out on your test partner To enable this activity to work you will need to plan how you work through the steps of the methodology –try it out on yourself first – We are not looking for perfect performance but we are looking for a desire to learn a technique that will improve your capacity to help with both your own and colleagues low motivation levels. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ November 201! 29
  30. 30. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Motivation requires a goal Motivation is at best difficult for individuals, groups, teams etc if you don’t have a goal Without a goal there is no purpose - motivation becomes an intent rather than a reality. We all need hope and a reason to strive to achieve. Goals are central to motivation We must be looking forward to something so goals and objectives must be set November 201! 30
  31. 31. Motivation Wales Quality Centre The health Warning - Why Setting Goals Can Do More Harm Than Good Goal Setting Before you set out to make and keep a list of new year’s resolutions for you and your company, consider this:  Researchers from four top business schools have shown that goals often do more harm than good.   Sean Silverthorne interviews HBS Professor Max Bazerman about the findings in this this Q&A, which first appeared on the HBS Working Knowledge website.    It’s the rare manager who doesn’t partake in quarterly or annual goal-setting exercises. And woe to those who don’t make their goals SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely). But do these goals really work? Researchers from four top business schools have collaborated to show that in many cases goals do more harm than good. Worse, they can cause real damage to organizations and individuals using them. “We argue that the beneficial effects of goal setting have been overstated and that systematic harm caused by goal setting has been largely ignored,” the researchers conclude. Bad “side effects” produced by goal-setting programs include a rise in unethical behavior, over-focus on one area while neglecting other parts of the business, distorted risk preferences, corrosion of organizational culture, and reduced intrinsic motivation. One example: the explosive Ford Pinto. Presented with a goal to build a car “under 2,000 pounds and under $2,000″ by 1970, employees overlooked safety testing and designed a car where the gas tank was vulnerable to explosion from rear-end collisions. Fifty-three people died as a result. Used wisely, goals can inspire employees and improve performance, the authors agree. But goal setting must be prescribed in doses, not as a standard remedy to increase productivity. They even offer a warning label and list 10 questions managers should ask themselves before starting goal setting. The working paper, “Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Over-Prescribing Goals Setting,” was authored by Lisa D. Ordóñez, Eller College of Management, University of Arizona; Maurice E. Schweitzer, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania; Adam D. November 201! 31
  32. 32. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Galinsky, Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University; and Max Bazerman, Harvard Business School. We asked Professor Bazerman to explore in more depth some of the paper’s findings. Sean Silverthorne: So, are you against incentives and goals? Max Bazerman: No, my coauthors and I are not against incentives. We believe in incentives. And each of us has found goals useful in limited domains. But we are concerned about the simple specification of stretch goals that permeates the goal setting and management by objectives literature. Q: How can goal setting go wrong? A: When people focus on a specific stretch goal, and fail to perform other valued activities that are needed by the organization, goals are failing. This is what Staw and Boettger found many years ago. When employees care exclusively about reaching a goal, and bad things can happen if they fail, cheating goes up. This is the most important result in the goal setting literature— found by my coauthors Lisa Ordóñez and Maurice Schweitzer. Q: Are goals by themselves a problem, or is it the way we use them? A: When we can so easily predict the dysfunctional behavior that will ensue, I would argue that it is the goals themselves. Far too often, people want to blame the individual. But when organizations and governments create dysfunctional systems that can be predicted to lead to bad behaviors, I see the problem starting with the dysfunctional system. And I see the creating of optimal systems as a key leadership function. Q: Specifically, what is wrong with managers designing stretch goals for employees to expand their knowledge or capabilities? A: If you know the exact specific behaviors you want, stretch goals may be just fine. But, if you want employees to engage in other pro-social behaviors (e.g., helping others in the organization) and/or to act ethically, you need to be a lot more careful than simply providing a stretch goal. Additionally, there is a growing set of research that shows “learning or mastery” goals have much more positive effects on performance and internal motivation than “performance” goals. Q: Your paper is rife with examples of goals gone wild, everything from overcharging by Sears auto mechanics, to disappearing New York cab drivers, to Enron. Do you see goals as a contributor to our current economic collapse? A: There are lots of culprits, which certainly include dysfunctional reward systems. And I am sure that goals played a role. But I certainly do not mean to blame the crisis on a set of specific goals. November 201! 32
  33. 33. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Q: One side effect of goal setting that your team identified is a rise in unethical behavior. Example: Your paper mentions that Bausch & Lomb employees falsified financial statements to meet earnings goals. I know bounded ethicality is an area of study for you, so could you explain a little more the correlation between goals and unethical behavior? A: Sure! The majority of my recent work is on bounded ethicality, or the ways in which even ethical people engage in unethical behavior without their own awareness. Thus, many good people engage in sexist behavior without knowing that they are doing so. Or they claim credit based on the false belief that their role on the team was more important than reality would dictate. And they are affected by conflicts of interest without knowing that conflicts of interest affect them. Similarly, good people can focus so much on reaching the stretch goal that they fail to realize how this has dumped other work on their co-workers, led the company to accept mortgages that are too risky, etc. This behavior prompted by stretch goals is leading to unethical behavior, without the knowledge of the protagonists of the unethical action—or what we call bounded ethicality. Also, Adam Barsky theorizes that focusing on goals actually distorts our perception of what is unethical behavior so that we are less likely to consider the ethical implications of our actions. Q: If goal setting is so pernicious, how did it become such an embedded, accepted (and for publishers, profitable) practice? A: It is easy to implement. It is easy to measure. It is easy to document successes. And in laboratory experiments, it has been shown to be extremely successful at improving the measured behavior. Lisa, Maurice, Adam, and I simply argue that goals have gone wild in terms of their impact on other unmeasured outcomes. When we factor in the consistent findings that stretch and specific goals both narrow focus on a limited set of behaviors November 201! 33
  34. 34. Motivation Wales Quality Centre while increasing risk-taking and unethical behavior, their simple implementation can become a vice. Q: When are goals appropriate, and what ingredients should be included? A: Goals are appropriate when you know exactly what behaviors you want, you aren’t concerned about secondary behaviors, and unethical behavior is not a big risk. In other cases, you still might want to use goals, but we recommend doing so with caution, and our paper discusses the needed steps to take (e.g., strong leaders who model appropriate behavior, oversight to prevent unethical behavior, etc.). Q: One of the most famous stretch goals was delivered by President John F. Kennedy: “I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth.” Good goal? A: It was excellent for motivating behavior. It was a stretch goal that got us going. And as a side effect, it increased training and funding in the sciences. It may have also increased the degree to which the United States and the Soviet Union spent limited funds on mutually unhelpful defense expenditures. So, I think the answer is in the eyes of the beholder. Personally, I think society might have better spent the extra funds that went to NASA. Q: If not goals, what? A: Creating environments where people want to achieve, where they want to help the organization, and where they want to do so in an ethical manner. Research shows that an even stronger effect than goals is intrinsic motivation, having individuals do an activity because they find the work rewarding in and of itself. Given that goals can undermine this intrinsic value of work, sometimes the best solution is no specific stretch goal at all or at the very least mastery or learning goals. I do not need someone to set a stretch goal for me. I am happy to help make HBS, Harvard, and the broader society a better place. And if I do not want externally imposed stretch goals, and believe that I do not need them, I think there are many others out there in the same condition. November 201! 34
  35. 35. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Goal setting model within a coaching approach The GROW model The GROW model was developed in the United Kingdom and was used extensively in the corporate coaching market in the late 1980s and 1990s. There have been many claims to authorship of GROW as a way of achieving goals and solving problems. While no one person can be clearly identified as the originator Graham Alexander, Alan Fine, Sir John Whitmore,who are well known in the world of coaching, made significant contributions. Max Landsberg also describes GROW in his book The Tao of Coaching[ GROW is very well known in the business arena but it also has many applications in everyday life. The particular value of GROW is that it provides an effective, structured methodology which both helps set goals effectively and is a problem solving process. It can be used by anyone without special training. The value of GROW is that it is easily understood, straightforward to apply and very thorough. In addition it is possible to apply it to a large variety of issues in a very effective way. G Goal This is the end point, where the client wants to be. The goal has to be defined in such a way that it is very clear to the client when they have achieved it. R Reality This is how far the client is away from their goal. If the client were to look at all the steps they need to take in order to achieve the goal, the Reality would be the number of those steps they have completed so far. O Obstacles There will be Obstacles stopping the client getting from where they are now to where they want to go. If there were no Obstacles the client would already have reached their goal. Options Once Obstacles have been identified, the client needs to find ways of dealing with them if they are to make progress. These are the Options. W Way Forward The Options then need to be converted into action steps which will take the client to their goal. These are the Way Forward. November 201! 35
  36. 36. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Example This is a very simple example of using the GROW model to achieve a goal. This example deals with weight loss. The client wants: ‘To bring my weight down to 120 pounds in three months and keep it down’. That is their Goal. The GROW approach would then be to establish the Reality by stating what their weight is now. The coach would then ask awareness questions to deepen understanding of what is happening when the client tries to lose weight, thus identifying the Obstacles. These questions could include: • When you have been able to lose weight – what made the difference? • What is the difference between the times you are able to keep weight off and the times when you put it on again? • What would have to change for you to be sure you could lose the weight and keep it off? If the client genuinely answers these questions they will discover new information about what works and does not work for them in terms of weight loss, and create some potential for change. It then becomes possible to create some strategies or Options which get around the Obstacles. These could include looking at which diets or exercise regimes work best, or finding a specific type of support. Once the client knows the strategies that are likely to work they can establish a Way Forward which involves taking action steps. This is where they commit to what they will do in the short term to put the strategies into effect. For instance, one action might be asking a particular person for support, and another might be to buy a different selection of foods. November 201! 36
  37. 37. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Try it out – Exercise Individually - Construct a CV - containing your planned achievements for the forthcoming year In pairs - Coach using 1 of the coaching models, working on the assumption that you are meeting in 1 month ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ November 201! 37
  38. 38. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Everybody Has a Motivational Fuse This law says that everybody can be motivated. They may have the fuse but we don’t know at what point it will ignite. Sometimes it is just not cost effective to continue trying to spark a person into activity or greater performance. Every one of us does have a fuse, and an effective motivational manager will try many ways to spark somebody into a more motivated mode of behaviour. When one tries and fails, the manager in many cases blames himself; and for any manager one of the most unpleasant duties is to fire an employee. But sometimes this can be the best course of action because, as we have already said, it may be the environment that is not conducive to effective performance. On the other hand, it could be the attitude of the individual that is determinedly unwilling to change; the individual that perpetually points the finger and says: ‘It’s not my fault, it’s everybody else’s. It’s the company, the product, the paperwork. It’s the manager. In fact, my job is a lousy job. Isn’t it extraordinary how jobs don’t care about people? It is what people care about the job that makes the difference. One person can quite emphatically state and believe it is the worst job humanity has ever created. Yet another taking on that same job, with a different attitude, will say and believe it is the greatest job ever created and how fortunate they are to have it. So in handling this law, as a motivator, you must understand that everybody does have a fuse and they can be sparked into life. Equally you must accept that sometimes the effort and time involved just might not be cost effective. You must understand that everybody does have a fuse and they can be sparked into life. November 201! 38
  39. 39. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Consider a Colleague Think of a number of your colleagues and try to identify what you believe their motivational fuse would be ignited by: ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ November 201! 39
  40. 40. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Once established Motivation never lasts This law stems from a common management mis-judgement. I attend many conferences every year and one of the main objectives of company conferences is to get everybody together, impart information on past performance, tell them the news and set out the goals and plans for the future. The overall objective is to send the participants and delegates back home with their batteries recharged and highly motivated. And most conferences do achieve that objective. But that motivation and warm feeling does not last. It is a bit like blowing up a balloon – if you don’t tie a knot in the inlet, the air will come back out again. Motivation should and must be an ongoing process. It is not a once a year booster. Some organisations have a yearly appraisal where each member of staff meets for private discussion with their superior and where their performance is appraised. This, of course, can be a motivational exercise as well as a demotivational one. But the purpose of appraisal, if it is conducted correctly, is motivational – where one discusses strengths and weaknesses and draws up plans of action and self-improvement for the future. But in some organisations this is the only time a person’s performance is discussed with a superior – just once a year. Therefore, accepting that appraisals can be motivational, apart from the essential requirement of correcting unproductive performance or behaviour, it makes sense to have a more regular, perhaps quarterly, schedule of mini-appraisals as well. That is only one example of on-going motivation, but please do accept that just because an individual might be motivated today, it doesn’t mean they will be motivated tomorrow. A person can be motivated at their workplace and be demotivated in their home environment and vice versa. That alone is a good enough reason why every individual should understand the power of motivation, understand themselves, how they feel and why they react; what causes them to be happy or unhappy and what inspires them to do just that little bit more. November 201! 40
  41. 41. Motivation Wales Quality Centre We must all understand what really demotivates us and then take steps to prevent it happening as frequently as possible. I can be demotivated by a motor car that won’t go or a letter on a Saturday morning from my bank manager. I have since taken the steps necessary to prevent or eliminate those causes of demotivation. Regular care and maintenance of the vehicle is certainly extremely effective. As far as the bank is concerned, when I have either changed banks or my manager has changed, we have an interview and I explain the terms upon which my account will be conducted and if ever a letter arrives on a Saturday morning, the account will be removed! Redesign the appraisal process Appraisals are often used as the medium to praise aide and improve motivation levels despite the overwhelming purpose of an appraisal being motivational unfortunately these events can often have the opposite effect I.e. de-motivational. You have been assigned the task of making the appraisal process in your organisation more motivational. Howe would you change the appraisal process ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ November 201! 41
  42. 42. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Motivation requires recognition This is such a powerful law. Continue to break it and you will never have around you people who are truly motivated.Recognition comes in so many different forms: from the Peerage to the ‘thank you’ letter; from the way you introduce somebody to the admiring of a vase of flowers at home. People will strive harder for recognition than for almost any other single thing in life. Recognition can be a compliment. If you are a parent you no doubt have experienced your child returning home from school with some work. It may be a picture he or she has painted, and you as a parent admire that picture, show it to other members of the family and pin it up on the wall. The result will be, as I am sure you have noticed, not only a motivated child but also more pictures. Genuine compliments are a form of recognition and it takes a ‘big thinking’ person to give another a compliment. Small minded people are unable ever to recognise the achievements of others. In business, companies give recognition at conferences where they thank members of staff for performance, achievement and loyalty, etc. It is a golden rule that when giving recognition, nobody should be forgotten. At one particular conference I attended, the chairman was awarding bottles of champagne to star performers and these bottles had been earned by sales volume achieved. As he finished handing out the last bottle, he asked the audience whether he had left anybody out. One poor individual raised his hand in the air. A dumfounded expression appeared on the chairman’s face and he was overheard to say to the assistant on the platform. ‘Who the bloody hell is that?’ Fortunately, the assistant knew the salesperson’s name. They both peered into a bundle of record forms and in due course the chairman announced that, yes, the individual was right. They had made a mistake but, luckily, they had a spare bottle and the poor fellow came to get his reward. An otherwise successful recognition event had been devalued. It takes a ‘big thinking’ person to give another a compliment November 201! 42
  43. 43. Motivation Wales Quality Centre The motivation Video Watch the video and record any relevant conclusions regarding the content related to recognition ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ November 201! 43
  44. 44. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Participation Motivates There has been an enormous trend, starting in the mid-1980s, of company management buy-outs, and in many cases what previously were fairly unprofitable companies were turned round to become enormous successes. In many of these schemes there was greater share ownership with the employees demonstrating that participation does motivate. People are often more motivated by how they are used in a job than by how they are treated. Where people feel they are part of an experiment or part of a project they will show a much higher level of motivation. So by getting people involved you will create a more motivated individual or group of people. Many managers do not share their plans, goals and objectives. They do not let people experience a pioneering spirit. In January 1993, I was running a two-day sales course. Having arrived at the hotel, I met up with some of the delegates and discovered a demotivated. and demoralised group. I discovered, by asking a lot of questions, that there had been a senior management change. The sales team now felt that they were being dictated to, that their opinions were no longer sought or valued and that they were not involved in decision making. Here was a situation I had to resolve. Next morning, I met with the new manager and we spent two hours successfully sorting out the various viewpoints. The new manager had not been communicating at all prior to our meeting. Sell your ideas. Don’t just tell them. Get your people to embrace them. November 201! 44
  45. 45. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Seeing Ourselves Progressing Motivates Us This is another law that you must understand fully. When we see ourselves progressing, moving forward and achieving, we will always be more motivated. When we see ourselves going backwards, we will be demotivated In the early 1990s, the UK experienced a period of dramatic demotivation. This was in part caused by the rapid decrease in property values in the late 1980s. Due to world economic problems and various other factors, house and land prices fell from anything up to 50 per cent in certain parts of Britain.People saw themselves as less wealthy, albeit paper wealth, and the resulting response was a dramatic loss of confidence, uncertainty, demotivation, a feeling of being out of control and very little unnecessary expenditure. Money was channelled to the essentials rather than the luxuries. Also during this time there was a tremendous demotivation amongst the property owning fraternity as they saw houses rapidly losing value and mortgages exceeded their new net worth. The nation and its people were in recession and they saw no proverbial light at the end of the tunnel – so there was massive demotivation. This is an example of demotivation caused by circumstances outside the majority of people’s control. This, in turn, led to massive under-confidence. The importance of this example is understanding why or how one feels. This knowledge will help people’s action to become motivated and, in turn, they will find and develop ways of progressing. I have met many people who find tremendous peace of mind after bankruptcy. The devastating period of desperation and worry is removed once the bankruptcy takes place. From then on, one can only go back up again. It’s the fear of wondering what else can go wrong or can happen that causes the demotivated feeling. It is a human characteristic that when we see ourselves progressing in whatever form that may be, we are definitely more motivated. Whether in our private or business life, our hobbies, sports and interests, when we see ourselves moving forward, we just want to go further. This law has to be used, worked on, managed and planned in order to maintain a high level of motivation November 201! 45
  46. 46. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Challenge Only Motivates If You Can Win A challenge will only motivate a person if they think they have a chance of success. I have seen too many contests and competitions organised by sales managers with the object of inspiring people to greater sales results.They have not understood this law and then wondered why only one or two people were motivated by the contest to raise their performance, grasp the challenge and reap the reward. Contests, competitions and challenges are extremely effective and most certainly do inspire people to greater activity. But those who should be participating must believe that they have a chance to win. I have seen an instance where a company provided a two-week holiday for two in the Bahamas as a prize. It was open to all members of a forty strong sales force. The prize was to be awarded to the person who got the most sales in a three-month period. Three people out of the sales team of forty set out on the challenge. These three had the biggest area by territory, had the biggest volume of customers and enquiries all ready to handle. They had also consistently been in the top three for the previous two years. The remainder of the sales force were in actual fact demotivated by this challenge as they knew they had little or no chance of success. The difference between them was so vast that it was near enough impossible to make up the ground.Challenge does motivate. People will rise to the occasion. Challenge them to get something worthwhile done and nine times out of ten they will do it. More and more managers are finding that work in itself can be a motivator. Not just work as a drudgery but other aspects of work such as responsibility, challenge and a feeling of doing something worthwhile. One can make a person’s work more challenging by giving them the biggest job he or she can handle - and with the responsibility must, of course, come the credit of achievement. November 201! 46
  47. 47. Motivation Wales Quality Centre Motivation - Exercise You have been assigned a project by your managing director to create a proposal to enable higher motivation levels within your business. Prepare a 2 minute presentation outlining what you believe to be the key factors in the execution of your proposal ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Those who should be participating must believe that they have a chance to win November 201! 47

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