Customer journey mapping


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Customer journey mapping

  1. 1. Customer Journey Mapping Lawrence Hallett Wales Quality Centre Monday, 8 July 13
  2. 2. Key Differences • Less but more depth • Customer Focus • Less overlap • Greater support • Improved self assessment tool • continual improvement cycle Monday, 8 July 13
  3. 3.  Customer Insight The culture of the organisation Information and Access Delivery Timeliness and Quality of Service Monday, 8 July 13
  4. 4. Exercise Who are your customers and prioritise their importance to you Monday, 8 July 13
  5. 5. The worst of Customer Service, WHY? Monday, 8 July 13
  6. 6. The worst of Customer Service, Because... Monday, 8 July 13
  7. 7. Monday, 8 July 13
  8. 8. 85% Defect Monday, 8 July 13
  9. 9. 8% repurchase Source: habit by Neale Martin Monday, 8 July 13
  10. 10. Results So Far: Self Assessment 0 15.00 30.00 45.00 60.00 % Customer Insight Culture Information & Accesss Delivery Timeliness & Quality CSE Criteria Fully Meet Partially meet Fail to meet Monday, 8 July 13
  11. 11. How to map a customer’s journey? The different types of journey map can be used alone or in combination to better understand customer experiences. Monday, 8 July 13
  12. 12. Customer journey mapping is the process of tracking and describing all the experiences that customers have as they encounter a service or set of services, taking into account not only what happens to them, but also their responses to their experiences. Monday, 8 July 13
  13. 13. The 3 Types of Customer Journey Mapping •Customer Experience •Process Mapping •Measuring the experience Monday, 8 July 13
  14. 14. CUSTOMER JOURNEYS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR Many customer journeys dealt with by THE PUBLIC SECTOR cut across departmental boundaries. Journey mapping can be particularly valuable here. INDIVIDUAL JOURNEYS BUSINESS JOURNEYS  Maternity leave  Ante-natal care  Registering birth  Benefits  Trust fund Birth or adoption  Ofsted reports  Applying for school  Pre-school boosters Starting school  Benefits  Taxes  Registration  Name change Getting married Starting a business  Registration  VAT  Financing  Applying for grants Tax/compliance  End of year returns  VAT  Auditing requirements Employing someone  Jobcentre Plus  PAYE  National insurance Health & safety  Registration  HSE inspections  Local authority regulations  Legal system  Applying for pension  Tax on retirement income Retiring  Registering death  Pensions  Notifying change of circumstances Bereavement Closing down  Changing name, address or status  Redundancy payments  Tax & accounts Monday, 8 July 13
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  19. 19. Try Mapping your experience Select a process Define the basic stages Define each step Qualify the level of emotional experience Monday, 8 July 13
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  21. 21. MORE ON JOURNEY MAPPING… There are also a number of publications that can tell you more: Customer Journey Mapping - Guide for Practitioners is a practical reference document for people who will be carrying out the process of journey mapping. An expanded ‘toolkit’, also on the CIF website, gives more tools to use in journey mapping. A set of four online training modules serves as a quick introduction to journey mapping, and can be found on the CIF website. Customer Journey Mapping - Guide for Managers is relevant to those involved in leading and supporting cross-government service transformation. Monday, 8 July 13
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  23. 23. INPUT OUTPUT THE ORGANISATION CONSTRAINTS RESOURCES The process model. Monday, 8 July 13
  24. 24. The Card game Aim To score as many points as possible by the exchange of cards Time limit 10 mins Exchange rate 1 for 1 or 1 for 2 Points Spades - 20 points Hearts - 15 points Clubs - 10 points Diamonds -5 points Monday, 8 July 13
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  26. 26. suppliers Customers The ‘Birds Nest of Processes Monday, 8 July 13
  27. 27. START PROCESS STEP DECISION STOP Monday, 8 July 13
  28. 28. Additional Symbols 1.8 Constructing a Flow Chart - contd. Shadow signifies additional flow chart A major task has sub-tasks e.g. filling kettle sub-tasks are:- • pick up kettle • fill with water • plug in • switch onA A Continuation References the continuation of the chart on another page Monday, 8 July 13
  31. 31. Dept A Dept B Dept C Dept D Task A1 Task D1 Task A2 Task B1 Task C1 Task B2 Task B3 Task C2 Monday, 8 July 13
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  33. 33. MAPPING THE SYSTEM (PROCESS MAPPING) FREE SCHOOL MEALS EXAMPLE KEY STEPS IN SYSTEM/CUSTOMER JOURNEY Tameside council FSM section NOTES ON PROCESS AND CRITICAL INCIDENTS End to end system definition Process of making a new application for FSM from becoming eligible through to receiving meals Objectives/ scope Map Free School Meals (FSM) to identify how to deliver a better customer service and achieve cost savings Customer segment All new applicants Core system goals Goal 1: Deliver an important benefit consistently and without delays Goal 2: Minimise the number of entitled people leaving the process without obtaining the benefit Goal 3: Contribute towards a required 3% efficiency improvement across the council Customer Becomes eligible/ aware of eligibility Finds out about FSM and how to apply Receives request for more informatio n/ verification Receives confirmatio n of FSM entitlement Sends extra informatio n/ verification Child starts receiving meals Do I want to apply? Can I/ do I want to proceed? School Receive report on entitlement Provides meals Receive and check application Add claim dates and authorisati on Report sent to school and confirmatio n to parent Bring up child’s record and add note Is all correct info provided? Leaves process Leave process Completes application form (4 routes leading to same process) No No Sometimes can verify internally , sometimes have to go back to the customer Wasted materials often associated with this step Will continue to receive benefit until next review, even if eligibility changes On-line application s have earlier start date than paper ones Four different routes have very different associated costs Application rates may vary by area; in some places there’s more stigma attached Critical moment Critical moment No Yes Yes Yes  Sharing what the current process looks like  Identifying duplications and deviations from the norm – where do things go wrong?  Identifying how and where things can be improved  Comparing the view of staff with the view of customers  Training – showing how things should be done Monday, 8 July 13
  34. 34. CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MAPPING BORDERS AND IMMIGRATION AGENCY EXAMPLE Objectives, scope & journey type Applying for entry clearance to the UK Customer segment Short-term student from China (Sichin) Moments of truth © Oxford Strategic Marketing Key Journey Steps Key Journey Steps VISA received Finds information Application submitted Payment processed Query from UK Visas received Receive interview request Biometrics and interview Key Journey Steps Postal delivery of visa Can be sent with more info on immigration Website; needs to be easy to access 24/7 Supporting phone line Currently no contact. Opportunity to confirm receipt Payment goes through bank – no direct acknow- ledgement Query sent by email. Opportunity to update on progress and timing Letter sent out. Opportunity to say more about the process Face to face contact with interviewer. Could say more about process to reassure Touchpoints Visa arrives in the post. Hugely relieved and can now look forward to and finalise her plans for coming to England Sichin has details of her course and tries to find out about visa application. Finds the website easily and is encouraged Sichin applies online and sends supporting documents by secure post. Expensive but can’t risk losing them Payment has gone through but she’s heard nothing yet. It’s a big sum of money – hope all’s OK Application and checks have shown one of the documents is missing. Sichin finds this but more expense Contacted for interview. Worried – biometrics sounds alarming. Anxious now about timing – all taking a long time Attends her interview. Nervous – building intimidates her. Hope it’s gone OK but hard to tell Actions, feelings, thoughts and reactions at each step  Getting managers and other staff to think about how people think, feel and act at every journey step  Identifying key points where we can act to transform the experience  Bringing this to life to ‘sell’ internally Monday, 8 July 13
  35. 35. THE HEART MONITOR MINISTRY OF JUSTICE EXAMPLE Objectives, scope & journey type Track the process experienced by jurors to improve levels of service Customer segment Jurors Moments of truth © Oxford Strategic Marketing Key Journey Steps Key Journey Steps Post trial Receive summon s Jury selection In court pre-trial In court – during trial Deliber- ation Delivery of verdict Key journey steps Comms: Ensure follow- up letter goes out re sentencing Comms: Manage expectations Channel: 24 hour access Customer face: Explain delays Environment: Make the wait as painless as possible Process: Simplify expenses system Look at time- keeping Comms: Make jurors aware of role played by all the evidence Environment: Provide adequate facilities Comms: Brief on verdict delivery Customer face: Talk to jurors – stress the importance of what they’ve done Levers for solution hunting Great +100 -100 Poor Customer Satisfaction Rating Receive letter – looking forward to it Easy to change date by email Judge was ‘professional ’ Slow selection process Judge thanks jury – much appreciated Locked in No preparation for delivering verdict Finishing was a relief Not sent information about sentencing Only small amount of evidence useful Trial was impersonal Late start most days Expenses ‘a hassle’ Victims family start to cry – ‘lowest point’  Expressing a journey in a highly visual way that can engage and motivate stakeholders  Identifying the highs and lows of the experience  Clearly highlighting the areas where we need to take action most urgently Monday, 8 July 13
  36. 36. Generating a picture of the customer journey is a valuable way to understand how customers experience public services Levelofsatisfaction Reporting the crime Before the trial At court After the trial NeutralPositiveNegative Police investigation Reported crime immediately. Police ‘very good’ – told him what to do and who was coming. Felt secure Identity parade. No coaching, no reassurance wouldn’t meet attacker Barrister not very confidence inspiring Drove him home - grateful, but didn’t feel like standard service Would report a crime again, because found out defendant had been held for 5 months. But court experience was a ‘waste of time’ Received call from detective Gave statement in police car – felt were ‘helping him’ Drove around looking for attacker – ‘waste of time’ as in marked car Had to go to the detective – ‘foreign territory’. Police station ‘disconcerting’ Gave formal statement. Worried whether justice would be done. Detective seemed ‘dim’. Changed the statement into his own words Phone conversation s with detective – ‘kept in touch’ Called up to identify criminal on computer system seemed ‘efficient’ Identified attacker – ‘felt good, this will be straightforward’ Few days before trial, still no information on process Called Witness Service as wanted to speak to barrister. Told to arrive early on the day. Seemed ‘disorganised’ Pack from Witness Service. Personal contact became formal. No information about process ahead Case submitted to CPS. Unclear where next contact from. Had to ask detective Didn’t see barrister, and detective late In locked witness room – ‘cut off’ Little contact with anyone – only detective Didn’t go into court at all on day 1. No information on why. Lack of information most frustrating thing Witnesses have to be flexible but judges aren’t (lunch 12-1). Annoying Food terrible – had to go out Told to come back next day. Not a big problem Asked to see barrister again. Did – but he wasn’t informativ e Called - court room an alien situation. From a tiny room to a theatre. Everyone else in the know Judge asked if he would like to sit – only introduction Jury is a ‘sea of faces’ Accused got off Got off because he had been identified on computer system before line-up (which made evidence invalid. Police knew this was a problem, so why didn’t victim? Other reason was that a detail of appearance had changed. Frustrating, ‘knew it was him’ Only communication with detective. Happy to explain situation Detective told him ‘You should have said…’ Too late now Detective gave him background to accused: first offence, had been held since arrest. ‘Felt a bit better’ Worried attacker could come to house September March Source: DCA Customer journey through court: Victims of crime Monday, 8 July 13
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  38. 38. Your Organisation Exercise 1 - page 3 Monday, 8 July 13
  39. 39. •Questions •Frequency •Who will collect •How will data be collected •How will it be actioned Exercise 3 - page 11 Monday, 8 July 13
  40. 40. Why do we need satisfaction data? Exercise 2 - page 5 Monday, 8 July 13
  41. 41. Why? •Listen •Enhance profit •Retention •Comparison •Research •Venting •Targeted Monday, 8 July 13
  42. 42. Problems •Too many •Respondents •No action •Link to profit •Disguised Marketing •Pain •Targeted •Why? •The butt brush Monday, 8 July 13
  43. 43. 90%of companies refer to customer satisfaction in their mission Monday, 8 July 13
  44. 44. Survey Success •Define your goals •Keep it short •Right type of questions •Specific questions •Scale - easy •Start easy •Test it Monday, 8 July 13
  45. 45. Addressing rising customer expectations Monday, 8 July 13
  46. 46. Using Customer Databases Daily One-to-one relationship selling is the oldest game around, but if you're not working it in conjunction with a well-maintained customer database, opportunities are slipping by. Silverman's, a men's-apparel chain in North and South Dakota, has a close enough relationship with customers that its database is filled with up-to-date information about individual shoppers' sizes, buying habits, and preferences--even products they tried on and didn't buy. Salespeople use the information to help friends buy gifts and to follow up on big sales; a self- generated computer report two weeks after the sale reminds the salesperson to call and check that everything is satisfactory. "Most customers would rather stop shopping at a store than take the trouble to complain," says third-generation clothier Stephen M.Silverman. The marketing department uses the database to target its efforts. It produces a simple postcard announcing the arrival of, for instance, bathrobes made by a prominent designer. The computer selects customers who have previously purchased the designer's merchandise and have not purchased bathrobes in the past year. Silverman says that such targeted mailings typically elicit a 25% response rate in four weeks for his business—and that's with no discount. Monday, 8 July 13
  47. 47. Measurements are key. If you cannot measure it, you cannot control it. If you cannot control it, you cannot manage it. If you cannot manage it, you cannot improve it. Monday, 8 July 13
  48. 48. 48 Process Step Activity Processing time - Hrs Cycle Time - Hrs 1 HR inform manager of employees appraisal due date 0.2 0.3 2 Managers informs staff member to complete the appraisal form online 0.05 24 3 Employee completes form 1 48 4 Employee emails form to manager 0.05 1 5 Manager reviews form and completes his comments 2 24 6 Undertake the appraisal 2 72 7 Manager updates appraisal 1 48 8 Manager circulates form for approval from senior manager, copy to HR and employee 0.05 96 9 Manager files appraisal for future reference 0.2 24 Total 6.55 337.3 Monday, 8 July 13
  49. 49. There are 12 cornerstone tools to streamlining, and they are applied in the following order:- Bureaucracy elimination Duplication elimination Value-added assessment Simplification Process cycle-time reduction Error proofing Upgrading Simple language Standardisation Supplier partnerships Big picture improvement Automation and/or mechanisation Monday, 8 July 13
  50. 50. Value Added = Value after processing - value before processing Monday, 8 July 13
  51. 51. Contribute to Customer Requirements Necessary to Produce Output? Activity Contribute to Business Functions Activities That Must be Performed to Meet Customer Requirements Activities That Do Not Contribute to Meeting Customer Requirements. These Activities Could be Eliminated Without Deterioration in Product/Service Functionality No Yes No Yes Yes No Real Value Added Record Order Type Policy Research Data Record Claim Business Value Added Record Data Received Order Forms Update Personnel Records Prepare Financial Reports No Value Added Review and Approval Rework Movement Storage Value-added assessment Monday, 8 July 13
  52. 52. How to undertake a value added analysis Step1 Define the Process Step 2 Define the customer requirements Step 3 Redraw the Process with value-added steps only Step 4 Rationalise the difference between actual and theoretical Step 5 Construct an action plan Step 6 Implement changes Step 7 Test for Success Monday, 8 July 13
  53. 53. Ongoing stock levels £20 million Cost of catalogue production £2.5 million Order new ranges Undertake print run Organise photographic shoots Decide on new range Formulate catalogue Distribute 50,000 catalogues Sales Agents take orders Store product no Is product available Deliver to customer Order Product no Approve 1st print run Yes Monday, 8 July 13
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  55. 55. “Re-engineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements”. Monday, 8 July 13