Standards and Stems Review Book By: Lawrence Sahagun Period 3 Biology!
1a. I know that cells are together with semi permeable membranes that control their relations with what is around them Cell membranes protectcellorganelles and things can enter through it with either diffusion or osmosis. Notice how the picture below is not cyan colored. That’s because its black and white.
1b. I understand that enzymes are proteins that connect to biochemical reactions without changing the reactions stability and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings. Enzymes are substances that has the superpower of being able to speed up a chemical reaction. The three factors with the ability to affect an enzymes activity is temperature, pH level of the area around it.
1c. I understand the differences of prokaryotic ,eukaryotic, and viruses are diverse in complexity and general structure Prokaryotic cells are single celled organisms without a nucleus; also know as bacteria cells. Eukaryote cells are cells that have a nucleus wrapped around a cell membrane. Viruses are strands of nucleic acid held in a protein coat that infects cells and duplicate in them.
1d. I understand the view of molecular biology draws information from transcription of RNA in the nucleus to translation or proteins on the ribosomes from the cytoplasm. RNA or ribonucleic acid is what is used to take part in protein synthesis. Transcription is the stage of protein synthesis when the information in DNA that has the information to create a protein is transmitted to the RNA. Translation is the stage of gene expression when data of mRNA is used to make proteins.
1e. I understand the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in proteins The endoplasmic reticulum the system of membranes that move proteins substances. The Golgi apparatus is the packaging and distribution center of the cell.
1f. I know the useable energy that is captured from sunlight by chloroplast and is kept through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis is a process in with light energy is converted, by the chloroplast, into chemical energy, also know as sugar, and organisms use light energy obtained from the sun to give birth to organic compounds.
1g. I know the mitochondria role in making stored chemical-bond energy useable to cells by finishing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide. Mitochondria are the cell's power producers. -Found in all eukaryotic cells . -They convert energy from organic compounds to make ATP. -They are located in the cytoplasm.
1h. I know most of the macromolecules in cells and organisms are synthesized from little parts of simple precursors A macromolecule is a molecule containing a large number of, or molecules with at least one-hundred atoms. Also known as polymers. Polysaccharides are large molecules made from smaller molecules. They function as storehouses of the energy contained in sugars. OMG MACROMOLECULE
2a. I understand how meiosis is the prime step in sexual reproduction when pair of chromosomes separate and segregate at random times during cell division to produce gametes with one chromosome of each type Meiosis is the stage that occurs before mitosis. It’s a form of cell division that splits the number of chromosomes when forming specific reproductive cells such as gametes or spores. It involves two divisions of the nucleus, meiosis I, and meiosis II. Each division is subdivided into the four stages of, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Before meiosis begins, the DNA in the original cell is replicated.
2b. I know only some special cells of a multi cellular organism experience meiosis Only certain cells endure the meiosis . The reproductive cells also known as the 23rd pair in the chromosome of the reproductive cell does this.
2c. I understand how random chromosomes segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be a gamete Random chromosome segregation explains that a particular allele will be in a gamete. Two alleles for a trait segregate. The chromosomes pair off with their similar homologous chromosome. In mitosis, a complete copy of each one is made. In meiosis, one chromosome from each pair migrates to opposite ends of the cell and the genes are split to make a gamete.
2d. I know that new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes New combinations of alleles are generated in a zygote through the fusion of make and female gametes which is the process of fertilization. In animals, meiosis always results in the formation of gametes, while in other organisms it can give increase to spores. Two cell divisions separate the replicated chromosomes into four haploid gametes or spores.
2e. I know why approximately half of an individuals DNA sequence comes from each parent. In humans, they take only 23 chromosomes from each parent in their DNA sequence because when they are combined they will have 46. Each individual sperm and egg which comes from the parents have 23 unpaired chromosomes. If you combined two cells with the same number of chromosomes then you'd have twice as many chromosomes as each parent and so if you have half the number of chromosomes as body cells then each generation will then have as many chromosomes as the one before it did.
2f. I know the role of chromosomes in determining an individuals sex Everyone receives two chromosomes . If they contain two X's then they are considered as a female, but if they receive the chromosomes: XY then they are the gender male. They receive these from each parent the mother always gives an X chromosome and the male either gives and X or a Y, and that will determines the child's sex.
4a. I understand the general pathway by which ribosome synthesize proteins using tRNAs to translate generic information in mRNA. The general pathway by which ribosome synthesize proteins are by the components of cells that make proteins from amino acids. One of the central dogma of biology is that DNA makes RNA which makes proteins. tRNAhave anticodonsthat are complementary to the codons in mRNA and they can be charged covalently with amino acids at their 3' terminal CCA ends. Individual rRNAs are charged with specific amino acids by enzymes known as aminoacidtRNAsynthetases, which have high specificity for both their cognate amino acids and tRNAs.
4b. I know how to apply genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA You can apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA by using the Genetic Code. Sixty-four different codons produce twenty different amino acids. The first rule is that you always start with the codonAUG and the stop codons are UAA, UAG, and UGA.
4c. I know how mutations on the DNA sequence of a gene may be or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein Mutations are changes in DNA sequence of a cell's genome and are caused by radiation, viruses, transposes, and mutagenic chemicals. Mutations can result in several different types of change in DNA sequences have no effect, alter the product of a gene, or prevent the gene from functioning properly. Mutations change the proteins and seventy percent of mutations have damaging effects but the remainder of the mutations are usually neutral or weakly beneficial.
4d. I know the specialization of cells in multi cellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather then to differences of the genes themselves Specialization is one of the four basic principles of multi cellular systems which is a general characteristic of multi-level biological systems. The most important benefit of specialization is that it allows a complexity trade off. The individual elements become more simple and the orchestration of these simpler elements becomes more complex. Specialization begins at the level of individual cells in multi cellular organisms.
4e. I know proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequences of amino acids. Proteins differ from one another in the number of sequence of amino acids because the number of amino acids and their exact sequence in the polypeptide chain is different for each protein this is called the primary structure, and it determines the secondary structure of the protein which is the unique three dimensional shape that the protein can fold into.
5a. I understand the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and proteins DNA is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self- replication and synthesis of RNA. DNA consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between the bases [complementary]. RNA is a polymeric constituent of all living cells and many viruses, consisting of a long, usually single-stranded chain of alternating phosphate and ribose units with the bases ATCG. And proteins are any of a group of complex organic macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur and are composed of amino acid chains.
5b. I know how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semi consecutive replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA To explain precise copying of DNA during semi conservation replication and transcription of information from DNA to mRNA you would need to apply the base pairing rules. The base pairing rules is that adenine is paired with thymine and guanine is paired with cytosine. The pyrimidinebases are thymine and cytosine while the purines are adenine and guanine.