Diversity in Calorie Sources and Undernourishment during Rapid Economic Growth<br />lavleshs@gmail.com<br />
Topics to becovered<br />Introduction<br />Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br />Calorie Shares of Food items<br />...
Introduction<br />Comparingdietarydiversity and under-nourishment in India and Vietnam fromearly 1990s to the middle of th...
Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br />National Sample Survey (NSS) rounds taken:<br />Indian Data Set used:<br />43...
Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br />Vietnamese Living Standard Survey (VLSS)<br />Vietnamese Data Set used:<br />...
Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br /><ul><li>A household is classified as “undernourished”, if its observed calori...
The POU is measured to be the percentage of households who are unable to meet their daily calorie requirements
To calculate the prevalence of under nutrition (POU) rates, age gender specific daily calorie requirements for rural Indians
The corresponding urban figures were obtained by scaling down these numbers by a factor of 0.875</li></li></ul><li>Data Se...
 For minor food items and “eating out” for which quantity information wasn’t available, the available expenditure informat...
 This was done by using the average price of calories to the household from the rest of the food items, i.e., those for wh...
Expenditure Shares of Food items<br />
% Calorie Share of Rice in Vietnam<br />
% Calorie Share of Rice in India<br />
Calorie Shares of Food items<br />In bothIndia and Vietnam, nutritional importance of riceis of much higher order than tha...
% Calorie Share of Food items in India(by expenditure class)<br />Urban<br />Rural<br />
% Calorie Share of Food items in Vietnam(by expenditure class)<br />Urban<br />Rural<br />
Comparison of Prevalence of Under nutrition (POU)<br />The POU measureisregarded as a “direct” method of measuring poverty...
POU versus POV in India<br />
POU in Vietnam<br />
Principal Determinants of Dietary changes in Vietnam<br />Dietary changes in favour of increaseddietarydiversity have been...
Principal Determinants of Dietary changes in Vietnam<br />This raises a question: Which are the factorsthat have been driv...
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India v/s Vietnam : Diversity in Calorie Sources and Undernourishment

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India and Vietnam are the two countries which have experienced rapid economic growth in the recent past. This presentation discusses up-to what what extent they have been successful in maintaining balance between controlling under nutrition and flourishing the economy.

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  • Rice, dairy, rice&lt;&gt;meat
  • The Vietnamese experience shows that it is possible to translate rapid economic growth to not only expenditure poverty reduction but also lower calorie based undernourishment. , though the two indicators moved in the same direction in Vietnam during much of the period considered in this study.
  • India v/s Vietnam : Diversity in Calorie Sources and Undernourishment

    1. 1. Diversity in Calorie Sources and Undernourishment during Rapid Economic Growth<br />lavleshs@gmail.com<br />
    2. 2. Topics to becovered<br />Introduction<br />Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br />Calorie Shares of Food items<br />Comparison of Prevalence of Under nutrition (POU)<br />Principal Determinants of Dietary changes in Vietnam<br />Conclusion<br />
    3. 3. Introduction<br />Comparingdietarydiversity and under-nourishment in India and Vietnam fromearly 1990s to the middle of the first decade of the new millennium<br />Studying the differencebetweenpovertylinesbased on expenditure (POV) and calorie based (POU)<br />
    4. 4. Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br />National Sample Survey (NSS) rounds taken:<br />Indian Data Set used:<br />43rd<br />(June 1987 – June 1988)<br />50th<br />(June 1993 – June 1994)<br />55th<br />(June 1999 – June 2000)<br />57th<br />(June 2001 – June 2002)<br />
    5. 5. Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br />Vietnamese Living Standard Survey (VLSS)<br />Vietnamese Data Set used:<br />Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS)<br />1992-93<br />1997-98<br />2002<br />2004<br />
    6. 6. Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br /><ul><li>A household is classified as “undernourished”, if its observed calorie intake is less than its required amount, given its household size and composition
    7. 7. The POU is measured to be the percentage of households who are unable to meet their daily calorie requirements
    8. 8. To calculate the prevalence of under nutrition (POU) rates, age gender specific daily calorie requirements for rural Indians
    9. 9. The corresponding urban figures were obtained by scaling down these numbers by a factor of 0.875</li></li></ul><li>Data Sets and Food Consumption Patterns<br /><ul><li> Quantities consumed were converted into calorie intake by applying FAO conversion factors
    10. 10. For minor food items and “eating out” for which quantity information wasn’t available, the available expenditure information on these items was converted into calorie
    11. 11. This was done by using the average price of calories to the household from the rest of the food items, i.e., those for which the quantity information was available</li></li></ul><li>Per capita consumption of Food items<br />(in kg/30 days)<br />
    12. 12. Expenditure Shares of Food items<br />
    13. 13. % Calorie Share of Rice in Vietnam<br />
    14. 14. % Calorie Share of Rice in India<br />
    15. 15. Calorie Shares of Food items<br />In bothIndia and Vietnam, nutritional importance of riceis of much higher order than that suggested by its expenditure share<br />This confirms that, in both countries, rice and other cereal items were performing a useful role as an inexpensive calorie source, especially for poorer households<br />
    16. 16. % Calorie Share of Food items in India(by expenditure class)<br />Urban<br />Rural<br />
    17. 17. % Calorie Share of Food items in Vietnam(by expenditure class)<br />Urban<br />Rural<br />
    18. 18. Comparison of Prevalence of Under nutrition (POU)<br />The POU measureisregarded as a “direct” method of measuring poverty unlike the more commonly used expenditure based poverty rates (POV) that are referred to as “indirect” methods<br />This suggests a weakening of the link between the official poverty lines and calorie requirements due to the changes in dietary practices in India that have been reported above<br />Unlike in India, the decline in the POU rates in Vietnam is consistent with the decline in her POV rates [World Bank 2000]<br />
    19. 19. POU versus POV in India<br />
    20. 20. POU in Vietnam<br />
    21. 21. Principal Determinants of Dietary changes in Vietnam<br />Dietary changes in favour of increaseddietarydiversity have been muchlarger in Vietnam than in India<br />Increaseddietarydiversityisassociatedwith an increase in calorie consumption<br />Traditionaldietary pattern in Vietnam has been high in carbohydrates and low in fat; but the situation ischangingfastwithrapidincreases in calorie intake<br />
    22. 22. Principal Determinants of Dietary changes in Vietnam<br />This raises a question: Which are the factorsthat have been drivingtheselargerdietary changes in Vietnam?<br />Overall, the Vietnamese results suggest that differential income growth between regions, ethnic communities, and expenditure classes, during a period of strong economic growth, along with increased education levels and changes in household composition, lead to large dietary changes with nutritional implications for the country as a whole<br />
    23. 23. Conclusion<br />The Indian budget surveys show a decline in calorie intake and rise in undernourishment rates throughout the 1990s, the Vietnamese data shows the exact reverse with a sharp increase in calorie intake in the late 1990s<br />The Vietnamese diet showed much greater changes in favour of increased diversity than happened in case of India<br />There is clearly scope for greater diversification in the Vietnamese diet with a potentially greater role for fruits, vegetables and dairy products<br />
    24. 24. Conclusion<br />One of the chief conclusions of this study is that there is nothing inevitable in the Indian experience of declining calorie intake and increasing undernourishment during a period of rapid economic growth<br />The Indian evidence shows that one should not automatically associate poverty reduction with a reduction in undernourishment<br />
    25. 25. Thank You!<br />
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