21. national education policy


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21. national education policy

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • The main objectives of educational policy are: i. To fulfil development requirements; ii. To create social integration and national unity. • The task of nation-building would be difficult without social and political stability.
  3. 3. COLONIAL EDUCATION POLICY • kept various communities as separate and distinct entities • education system developed into FOUR segregated streams:  English  Malay  Chinese  Tamil • each school had its own aims • each school had its own syllabus content
  4. 4. TOWARDS THE CREATION OF A NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM THE CHEESEMAN PLAN • • 1. 2. 3. 4. • • British began to take steps to streamline the education system to promote communal unity. The Cheeseman Plan proposed: Free places given to children attending vernacular primary schools. English language used in all primary schools. Two types of secondary schools be established. Vocational education be implemented fully. Was not carried out as rejected by Federal Legislative Council. Reason: no element of unity
  5. 5. THE BARNES REPORT • In 1950, the British formed a committee under L.J. Barnes to look into the education system. • The Barnes Report suggested: i. Primary schools be made foundation of unity for people ii. Only national schools should exist in the country iii. Malay language – main language of instruction iv. English language – second medium of instruction v. School-going age: 6-12 years old vi. Pupils in primary schools enter English secondary schools vii. Education be provided free viii. Local government must bear part of school expenses
  6. 6. THE FENN-WU REPORT • • Non-Malays opposed to Barnes Report – particularly Chinese Appointed two experts in Chinese education to study the problems – – • i. Dr W.P. Fenn Dr Wu Teh Yau Suggestions: Chinese language be made third language in school system ii. National type schools be continued iii. Education in Chinese schools should be Malayanoriented
  7. 7. THE 1952 EDUCATION ORDINANCE • • i. ii. iii. iv. v. • Outcome of the integration of two earlier reports. Main details of the Ordinance are: Two types of school were recommended a. Malay-medium schools b. English-medium schools Facilities prepared for the study of Chinese and Tamil Chinese and Tamil schools be excluded from the national education system English be taught from Standard 1 in Malay-medium schools Malay to be taught from Standard 3 in English-medium schools not implemented due to financial problems caused by economic recession
  8. 8. THE RAZAK STATEMENT 1956 • Committee was formed to prepare a national education system. • Headed by Dato’ Abdul Razak Hussein. • Proposal of the Razak Statement: i. Every child be given opportunity for education ii. should be only one education system – the National Education System iii. Should be two types of school: a. public schools using Malay as medium b. public schools using English, Chinese or Tamil iv. Malay and English to be compulsory in all schools v. Chinese and Tamil be taught if more than 15 students or if requested by parents vi. Aid to be given to all schools vii. National secondary schools to be established a. national secondary schools b. national type secondary schools
  9. 9. THE RAHMAN TALIB STATEMENT 1960 and EDUCATION ACT 1961 • Was released in 1960 and its proposals were included in Education Act of 1961. • Details of the act are: i. Children in primary schools be given the opportunity to further studies in secondary schools ii. Education should be free iii. School-going age: 6 – 15 years old iv. Fail to enter academic schools – should admit to vocational schools v. Curriculum and examination should be coordinated in both national and national-type schools vi. Malay as national language taught in all primary schools, replacing English as medium of instruction vii. Chinese and Tamil should be taught; should there be at least 15 pupils or parents request it viii. Islamic knowledge should be taught; should there be at least 15 Muslim students
  10. 10. EDUCATION AFTER 1961 1961 – 1970 • Aimed at improving the level of education in the rural regions through: – widening opportunities for pupils to further their education in secondary schools – improving pupils participation in secondary level education After 1970 • Emphasized given to the quality of education as well as solidarity through: – renewing of curriculum – diversifying subjects offered in line with development of science and technology
  11. 11. EDUCATION REFORMS CABINET COMMITTEE • • • • i. ii. Chaired by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad and was formed in 1974. To study the implementation of the National Education policy. Released its findings, the Mahathir Report in 1979. The report suggested: Education should meet the country’s manpower needs, especially in science and technology Education should foster development of noble values
  12. 12. • i. The objectives: To improve the conditions and quality of the educational system; ii. To fix a system of education that is “flexible” to current development. • Consequent to this report, the New Primary School Curriculum (KBSR) was launched in 1983 and the New Secondary School Curriculum (KBSM) in 1989.
  13. 13. • i. ii. • • • THE SMART SCHOOL The objectives: To produce students to be thinking citizens with religious beliefs. To create an atmosphere of teaching and learning that is in line with the latest development in education. The main feature is the use of information technology in the process of teaching and learning. It means that lesson in class will shift from being techer-centred to pupil-centred. The school will cultivate the skills to solve problems in a creative manner to meet with the new situations.