MANAGING THE CROWD
A STUDY ON VIDEOGRAPHY APPLICATION

Lauri Pitkänen & Joni Salminen
ABAEI, 18.11.2013
Howe 2006
Belk 2005
Kozinets & Belk 2006
Rokka 2010
Hietanen 2012
1)  Defines the method of managing
crowds
2)  Defines how it could be applied
3)  How the application of the
method could ...
GUIDANCE

REPRESENTATION	
  /	
  OUTCOME

INCENTIVES

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Model for videographic crowds...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Guidance – Quality: How the researcher gu...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Guidance – Representation: How the resear...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Guidance – Incentives: How the researcher...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Quality – Guidance: The quality of materi...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Quality – Representation: The quality of ...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Quality – Incentives: The quality of mate...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Incentives – Guidance: Instead of removin...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Incentives – Quality: Incentives may have...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Representation – Guidance: When creating ...
GUIDANCE

INCENTIVES

REPRESENTATION	
  

QUALITY

Design and communication	
  

Representation – Quality: When creating t...
1. Posted info about the research to different Facebook groups

2. Asked people to join research by downloading our specif...
GUIDANCE
•  Theory
–  Tradeoff between too much and too little –
what is the optimal amount of guidance?
–  Agency problem...
QUALITY
•  Theory
–  How to distinguish between low-quality and
high-quality crowd members?
–  What are the methods for as...
INCENTIVES
•  Theory
–  To which extent do crowd members follow
economic rationality?
–  What is the cost structure of man...
OUTCOME
•  Theory
–  What are the types of outcomes firms pursue
when engaging the crowd?
–  How satisfied are they with t...
SUMMARY
1. Model for crowdsourcing and crowd management
2. Applied in the focal study: Producing videographic
research dat...
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Managing the Crow

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Presentation for our paper in the ABEAI 2013 Conference (Applied Business and Entrepreneurship Association International (ABEAI), Hawaii 14-20.11.2013)


This paper examines the principles of managing groups of digital workers, known as crowds. So far empirical work on managing crowds (i.e. crowdsourcing practices) has been scarce. We present a case study in which a mobile application was utilized to gather qualitative research data. The learning from the process is reported in regards to guidance, incentives, quality and outcomes. Managing crowds is a complex process and requires managers to update their thinking and know-how. Our paper offers practical guidance based on first-hand experience.

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Managing the Crow

  1. 1. MANAGING THE CROWD A STUDY ON VIDEOGRAPHY APPLICATION Lauri Pitkänen & Joni Salminen ABAEI, 18.11.2013
  2. 2. Howe 2006
  3. 3. Belk 2005 Kozinets & Belk 2006 Rokka 2010 Hietanen 2012
  4. 4. 1)  Defines the method of managing crowds 2)  Defines how it could be applied 3)  How the application of the method could be evaluated à supports the development of crowd management in theoretical and practical level
  5. 5. GUIDANCE REPRESENTATION  /  OUTCOME INCENTIVES QUALITY Design and communication   Model for videographic crowdsourcing (Pitkänen & Salminen 2012)
  6. 6. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Guidance – Quality: How the researcher guides, interacts and communicates with the crowd affects the quality of material produced.
  7. 7. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Guidance – Representation: How the researcher guides, interacts and communicates with the crowd frames the possible research outcomes, or representations.
  8. 8. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Guidance – Incentives: How the researcher guides, interacts and communicates with the crowd may in some cases act as an incentive to participate per se.
  9. 9. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Quality – Guidance: The quality of material collected affects how the researcher is evaluating and improving future guidance.
  10. 10. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Quality – Representation: The quality of the material collected frames the possible representations that the researcher can create.
  11. 11. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Quality – Incentives: The quality of material collected affects how the researcher is evaluating and improving future incentives.
  12. 12. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Incentives – Guidance: Instead of removing the need for guidance, incentives may even increase it if the number of participants increases (in complex tasks).
  13. 13. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Incentives – Quality: Incentives may have a positive effect on quality, although this cannot be interpreted as a rule due to fuzziness of personal (hidden) motives.
  14. 14. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Representation – Guidance: When creating the representation, the researcher strives to hold consistency with the guidance given to participants.
  15. 15. GUIDANCE INCENTIVES REPRESENTATION   QUALITY Design and communication   Representation – Quality: When creating the representation, the researcher is considering different criteria for judging quality.
  16. 16. 1. Posted info about the research to different Facebook groups 2. Asked people to join research by downloading our specific app 3. Sent a research task to people who downloaded the app “Please show through video what kind of situation you are in and verbally tell why you want to play the game in this specific place at this moment. … explore situations in which consumers might want to play mobile multiplayer games.” 4. Received videos from crowds
  17. 17. GUIDANCE •  Theory –  Tradeoff between too much and too little – what is the optimal amount of guidance? –  Agency problems – how much monitoring is needed? •  Practice –  Need to be concise and unambiguous when giving instructions –  Need to reserve time for two-way communication
  18. 18. QUALITY •  Theory –  How to distinguish between low-quality and high-quality crowd members? –  What are the methods for assessing quality in different contexts? •  Practice –  Set your own quality criteria and tolerance level before engaging the crowd –  Remember the association with guidance and incentives
  19. 19. INCENTIVES •  Theory –  To which extent do crowd members follow economic rationality? –  What is the cost structure of managing crowds? –  How can the firm create and/or influence nonmonetary incentives? –  Pricing strategies for crowd labor •  Practice –  Understand what drives “your crowd” –  Start low and increase rewards if you have time; start high if you’re in a hurry to get things done
  20. 20. OUTCOME •  Theory –  What are the types of outcomes firms pursue when engaging the crowd? –  How satisfied are they with the outcomes? •  Practice –  Connect the outcome to your firm’s processes –  Consider chaining crowd contributions in a meaningful way – use intervention if needed
  21. 21. SUMMARY 1. Model for crowdsourcing and crowd management 2. Applied in the focal study: Producing videographic research data 3. Evaluated the application of model à Development of crowd management in theoretical and practical level
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