Africa: A New Architecture - healing the disruption of native African culture


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An exploration of the evolution of modern architecture from Africa's roots of tribalism and apartheid

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Africa: A New Architecture - healing the disruption of native African culture

  1. 1. African Safari and a new Architecture Healing the colonial disruption of native African culture Savannahs and bush country of South Africa By Laurie Barlow, AIA © 2007
  2. 2. The true owners of Kruger Park Preserve
  3. 3. The shade of a Baobab tree is a place of communal gathering, whether for school, meetings of a community or social exchange. Pre Historic native South African structures – late stone age
  4. 4. Courtyard Historic native South African structures Traditional Khoi-Khoi thatched huts of the pre-colonial era. Three or four huts form a family compound in a low-walled courtyard. Prior to the colonial period starting 1652.
  5. 5. Colonial era Afrikaan (Cape Dutch) structures Stellenbosch and the wine region Dutch settlers (Afrikaners) leave the Cape in 1835, when the British again take over, regain independence in 1881 in the Voortrek to the Transvaal. Britain dominates South Africa and relinquished the government in 1906 to whites only. The Dutch East India Company founds a refreshment station at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, slaves imported from Indonesia, Africa and India through the 1795 British incursion
  6. 6. Robben Island is a former leper colony off of the Victoria waterfront used as a prison. Nelson Mandela and ANC resistance were incarcerated there beginning 1964. Historical Summary: In the 1680's, Dutch, French and Germans fled religious persecution in Europe and settled in Southern Africa. They called themselves the Afrikaners, White Africans. For the next 250 years, the British Empire fought the Afrikaners for control of the land, the gold, and 20 million native Africans. In 1948, a conservative Afrikaner government was voted into power. A system of racial segregation first introduced by the English was declared the law of the land. Its new roots were in the now- defeated Nazi party. This new government ostracized the British subjects in retaliation for the earlier British class warfare. The English never gave the system a name. The Afrikaners called it Apartheid. It used the same tactics of intimidation, ghettoization in townships, discrimination and abuse – pass laws - that had been established to control and exterminate the Jews in Europe, except that now it particularly targeted the native tribal black population.
  7. 7. 1978 Apartheid Era ends 1989 DeKlerk succeeds Botha, unbans ANC, releases Mandela 1994 Mandela is President Interim constitution & in 1996 a permanent constitution is adopted Apartheid Museum, Johannesburg 1906 Britain turns govt over, 1948 Afrikaner National Party wins 1950 Segregation & Pass Laws 1961 So Africa becomes a Republic 1964 Mandela life imprisonment As a young lawyer who arrived in 1893 Gandhi returns to India in 1914, instills Democracy through passive resistance movement British settlers in 1820, 1828-38 slavery repealed. Voortrekkers leave Cape Colony 1835-40 Diamond mining 1867 Gold in 1885, Johannesburg Boer War 1899-1902 Portuguese 1487 Dutch arrive in 1652, slaves imported until 1795 1795-1812 British takeovers Anthem: Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrica
  8. 8. The official version of the national anthem, combining Nkosi sikelel' iAfrika, Die Stem and The Call of South Africa: Nkosi sikelel' iAfrika Maluphakanyisw' uphondo lwayo, Yizwa imithandazo yethu, Nkosi sikelela, thina lusapho lwayo. Morena boloka setjhaba sa heso, O fedise dintwa la matshwenyeho, O se boloke, O se boloke setjhaba sa heso, Setjhaba sa South Afrika - South Afrika. Uit die blou van onse hemel, Uit die diepte van ons see, Oor ons ewige gebergtes, Waar die kranse antwoord gee, Sounds the call to come together, And united we shall stand, Let us live and strive for freedom, In South Africa our land. A much longer classic Xhosa version of Nkosi sikelel' iAfrika predates this adopted version. Xhosa stanza Afrikaans stanza English stanza
  9. 9. Metro Mall Transport Facility & Traders Market Johannesburg: Linkages – inner city minibus taxis and street traders Provides for the taxis for commuters between their homes in the townships and their workplaces in the inner city, as well as stalls for the street traders Image: Contemporary South African Architecture, by Deckler, Graupner, Rasmuss
  10. 10. Baragwanth Public Transport Interchange, Soweto connection between Johannesburg/Soweto Soweto Central Johannesburg Transit linkages are developed to provide access between the major cities and the townships as the first step in Africa’s post- apartheid transformation, and recognizes the design vocabulary of the townships. Image: Contemporary South African Architecture, by Deckler, Graupner, Rasmuss
  11. 11. Diamond Hill Toll Plaza (Mozambique/So Africa) Image: Contemporary South African Architecture, by Deckler, Graupner, Rasmuss
  12. 12. Baobab Toll Plaza The Baobab tree can live for thousands of years and is incorporated into the Limpopo Province coat of arms, being native to that region. Image: Contemporary South African Architecture, by Deckler, Graupner, Rasmuss
  13. 13. “Making Democracy Work” is a linocut identified by the architects, omm design workshop and Urban Solutions, as a representation of the project brief. Assembled in the shade of a tree, the elders seek Justice with a TV cameraman to one side. Constitutional Court, Johannesburg In 1994, several months after the end of apartheid, this building was completed on the site of the notorious Old Fort Prison in central Johannesburg, incorporating some of its brick structures. “Light on a Hill” - from dismantling apartheid to rebuilding culture & justice