Standard 4.4.1 Railroads Lesson
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Standard 4.4.1 Railroads Lesson Document Transcript

  • 1. American Democracy in Word and Deed MDUSD/UCB H-SSP 4 Grade Lesson: “Railroads” thDeveloped by: Carol Wallis, Christi Hadley, Kimberly Leyden, Laura Ferguson, and Lauren WeaverTeaching American History Grant Focus Question: How have the words and deeds of people and institutions shaped democracy in the U.S.?California History Standards: 4.4, 4.4.1Unit Focus: Unit 4 Growth and Development: Transportation, Communication, and a Growing Economy.Lesson Focus Question: How did railroads affect California’s economy in the late 1800s?Lesson Working Thesis: The growth of railroads in the late 1800s affected California’s economy in both positive and negative ways.Reading and Writing Strategies: • READING Strategy: Analyzing a Political Cartoon o Cause and Effect • WRITING Strategy: o Cause and Effect paragraph, scaffolded outlineSuggested Amount of Time: One to two class periodsTextbook: California: A Changing State. Orlando, Florida: Reflection Series, Harcourt School Publishers, 2007, Chapter 7, pp287-288 and 295-297Primary Source Citations: G. F. Keller. The Curse of California. Illustration. The Wasp. 19 August 1882. [Optional] Hart, Alfred A. “Traveler’s Own Map of the Central Pacific Railroad of California,” The Travelers Own Book: A Panorama of Overland Travel, from Chicago to San Francisco, Chicago, Horton & Leonard, 1870. For reference only, can be viewed at: http://cprr.org/Museum/Maps/_hart_1870_travelers_map.html [Optional]Southern Pacific Company. Map of California. Color Lithographed Map.8th edition,1901Context of the lesson in the unit (and its connection to American Democracy in Word and Deed): Students will be analyzing a political cartoon and connecting it to the section in the textbook about the affect of the railroads on California’s economy in the 1800s. 1
  • 2. Teacher Lesson Procedure:1. Introduction • Review CH 7, Lesson 2, “Building the Transcontinental Railroad” [p.4]. Review the “Big Four” and teach vocabulary as needed. o Primary Source Option: To show students the extent of the Central Pacific’s railroad lines (especially the railroad lines east of Sacramento through the Sierra Nevada), visit the following copyrighted map: http://cprr.org/Museum/Maps/_hart_1870_travelers_map.html • Pass out Analyzing a Political Cartoon worksheet [p.5, teacher reference/key p6, full page copy for the elmo or overhead projector p7] • Explain the purpose of political cartoons • Students work in pairs to describe what they see and complete DAY 1 Questions box [p.5, cartoon key with additional info. p6, extra copy to project on overhead or Elmo p7] • Save DAY 2 Analyzing a Political Cartoon Question to revisit later2. Reading Strategy • Pass out “Rails Across California” reading from textbook [p9] and Cause and Effect chart [p10, teacher key p11, student sample p14] • Teacher guided choral reading of “Rails Across California” o Primary Source Option, Map of California [p8]: Teacher may choose to project this map to visually illustrate the Southern Pacific Railroad as the “octopus” that spread out across California • Review/explain cause and effect • Teacher completes the cause and effect chart with the students • When the chart is complete, teacher guides students in a discussion of how the railroads affected California’s economy • Return to political cartoon and have students complete DAY 2: Analyzing a Political Cartoon [p5] • Teacher leads a discussion linking the reading with the cartoon • Students work in pairs to complete the analysis question • Teacher guides a discussion about the meaning of the cartoon3. Writing Strategy • Pass out Paragraph Outline with Writing Prompt [p12, teacher key p13, student sample p15] • Teacher scaffolds the writing assignment to show students how they will be using the Cause and Effect chart [p10] to aid them as they complete the outline • Paragraph can be written as a class, with partners or individually 2
  • 3. LESSON STANDARDSHistory-Social Science Content Standards: 4.4 Students explain how California became an agricultural and industrial power, tracing the transformation of the California economy and its political and cultural development since the 1850s. 1. Understand the story and lasting influence of the Pony Express, Overland Mail Service, Western Union, and the building of the transcontinental railroad, including the contributions of Chinese workers to its construction.Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills: Research, Evidence, and Point of View • Students pose relevant questions about events they encounter in historical documents, eyewitness accounts, oral histories, letters, diaries, artifacts, photographs, maps, artworks, and architecture. Historical Interpretation • Students identify and interpret the multiple causes and effects of historical events.Common Core English Language Arts Standards: Reading Informational Text, Grade 4 Key Ideas and Details RI.4.3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. -Textbook excerpts, pp287-88 and 295-97 Craft and Structure RI.4.5. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. -Cause and Effect Textbook Reading, pp295-97 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RI.4.7. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. -Political Cartoon Writing, Grade 4 Text Types and Purposes W.4.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. 3
  • 4. • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented -Cause and Effect scaffolded paragraph outline Building the Transcontinental Railroad Chapter 7 Lesson 2, excerpt from pages 287-88 Hoping for a Railroad Many people supported the idea of a transcontinental railroad (a railroad that wouldcross the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific.) In addition to improving travel,many thought a transcontinental railroad would increase trade. Goods from California andgoods brought to California from Asia could be carried by train to the East Coast. A young man named Theodore Judah took a special interest in the idea of atranscontinental railroad. Judah was an engineer, someone who plans and builds railroadsand other structures. He knew the hardest part of the building a railroad to Californiawould be crossing the Sierra Nevada. Building the Railroad Building a transcontinental railroad would cost millions of dollars. Judah began tolook for people willing to invest in the railroad. Judah found four men who wanted toinvest—Leland Stanford, Collis P. Huntington, Mark Hopkins, and Charles Crocker. Theybecame known as the Big Four. In 1861, Judah and the Big Four formed the Central Pacific Railroad Company . . .In 1862, Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act. The United States would providemoney and land for the Central Pacific Railroad Company to build a railroad east from 4
  • 5. Sacramento. Another railroad company, the Union Pacific, would lay tracks west fromCouncil Bluffs, Iowa. The two railroad lines would meet in between. From textbook: California: A Changing State. Orlando, Florida: Reflection Series, Harcourt School Publishers, 2007, pages 287-88 Lesson Question: How did railroads affect California’s economy in the late 1800s? 5
  • 6. Analyzing a Political Cartoon NAME_____________________________ DAY 1 Questions: 1. What is the name of the cartoon? 2. What is the name of the octopus? 3. What is the octopus holding in his tentacles? 4. Describe the eyes. G. F. Keller. The Curse of California. Illustration. The Wasp. 19 August 1882. DAY 2 Questions: Analyzing the Political Cartoon 1. According to the cartoonist, how did the Big Four affect California’s economy? 6
  • 7. TEACHER REFERENCEADDITIONAL TEACHER INFORMATION Nob Hill is a wealthy area in San Francisco and one of the owners of the Southern Pacific Railroad (SPRR) owned ahome there. The railroad also owned their own telegraph lines and ships, and they only used their telegraph lines and wouldonly transport items using their own ships. Not only that, but the railroad lines only went to their own ports. This took nearlyall the business away from the other telegraph lines and shipping companies. They were also the only railroad around, so anyfarmers or others who wanted to transport goods were forced to pay whatever prices the railroad wanted. Another industrythat suffered was the stagecoach industry. The railroad was a much faster and much more reliable source of transportation. Mussel Slough was a town in the central valley where squatters were living on the land owned by SPRR. Therailroad owners sent the Federal Marshals into Mussel Slough to get the squatters off the land. In the struggle that ensued, 7people were killed by the Marshals. 7
  • 8. G. F. Keller. The Curse of California. Illustration. The Wasp. 19 August 1882. 8
  • 9. Southern Pacific Company: Map of California, 1901http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~22098~780011:Map-of-California-compiled-from-latMap of California compiled from latest official & authentic information, by the Southern Pacific Company. (8th. edn. 1901)Collection: David Rumsey Historical Map, Author: Southern Pacific Company, Title: Map of California, Date: 1901, Publisher:Southern Pacific Company, San Francisco [Note: Col. lithographed map. Relief shown by hachures. Shows drainage, settlements,railroads, counties, etc. Includes indexes, and tables of temperature and county populations. David Rumsey Collection copy hasannotations in red ink. "No. 74. 8-2-01-50M". 9
  • 10. Rails Across California Effects of the Railroad When the transcontinental railroad was completed, Californians were thrilled.People in Sacramento hoped that the railroad would help the city grow. In San Francisco,business owners were eager to send goods from Asia by rail to the East coast. The railroad did lead to growth. However, it also caused problems for somebusinesses. It brought new products into the state that sometimes cost less that goodsmade and sold in California. Many businesses in the state suffered and closed. More Railroads Before the transcontinental railroad was finished, the Big Four had begun buildingother railroads in California. One of these was the Southern Pacific Railroad. Part of thisrailroad ran through the Central Valley from Stockton to Los Angeles. Towns along therailroad’s route –such as Bakersfield, Modesto, Fresno, and Merced—grew quickly. In return for building tracks, the Southern Pacific Railroad had gained more than11million acres of land. This was a result of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. The actgranted large areas of land surrounding railroad tracks to the railroad company that laidthe tracks. The Big Four gained more and more land with every new railroad track that theylaid in California. As they grew wealthier, they bought or started other railroads,including the Western Pacific and the California Southern. The railroads owned by theBig Four stretched in so many directions that they were nicknamed “the Octopus.” For almost 20 years, the Big Four’s railroads had little competition in California. Inbusiness, competition is a contest among companies to get the most customers or to sellthe most products. Because the railroads owned by the Big Four had little competition,they could charge high prices for train tickets. At one time, a round-trip ticket from theEast to California cost more than $200. This is equal to about $3578 in today’s money. From textbook: California: A Changing State. Orlando, Florida: Reflection Series, Harcourt School Publishers, 2007, pages 295-297 10
  • 11. Lesson Question: How did railroads affect California’s economy in the late 1800s? 11
  • 12. NAME_____________________________________ Cause and Effect Chart: The Railroads in California Cause Effect[Because]… the transcontinental railroad was completed The railroad did lead to growth.[Because] It brought new products into the state that ________________________________sometimes cost less that goods made and sold ________________________________in California.[Because] Towns along the railroad’s route –such asPart of the Southern Pacific Railroad ran Bakersfield, Modesto, Fresno, and Merced—through the Central Valley from Stockton to _______________________Los Angeles.[Because]________________________________ The act granted large areas of land surrounding railroad tracks to the railroad________________________________ company that laid the tracks.[Because]The act granted large areas of land In return for building tracks, the Southernsurrounding railroad tracks to the railroad Pacific Railroad (the Big Four) had gainedcompany that laid the tracks. more than 11 million acres of land.[Because]The Big Four gained more and more land withevery new railroad track that they laid in ________________________________California.[Because] they bought or started other railroads,As they grew wealthier, including the Western Pacific and the California Southern.[Because]The railroads owned by the Big Four stretched that they were nicknamed ___________in so many directions _____________________. For almost 20 years, the Big Four’s railroads had little competition in California.[Because]Because the railroads owned by the Big Four ________________________________had little competition, ________________________________ Lesson Question: How did railroads affect California’s economy in the late 1800s? 12
  • 13. TEACHER KEY Cause and Effect KEY Cause Effect[Because]… the transcontinental railroad was completed The railroad did lead to growth.[Because] It brought new products into the state that Many businesses in the state sufferedsometimes cost less than goods made and sold and closed.in California.[Because]Part of the Southern Pacific Railroad ran Towns along the railroad’s route –such asthrough the Central Valley from Stockton to Bakersfield, Modesto, Fresno, and MercedLos Angeles. —grew quickly.[Because] The act granted large areas of landThe Pacific Railroad Act of 1862. surrounding railroad tracks to the railroad company that laid the tracks.[Because] In return for building tracks, the SouthernThe act granted large areas of land surrounding Pacific Railroad (the Big Four) had gainedrailroad tracks to the railroad company that laid more than 11 million acres of land.the tracks.[Because]The Big Four gained more and more land with They grew wealthier.every new railroad track that they laid inCalifornia.[Because] they bought or started other railroads,As they grew wealthier, including the Western Pacific and the California Southern.[Because] that they were nicknamed “the Octopus.”The railroads owned by the Big Four stretched For almost 20 years, the Big Four’sin so many directions railroads had little competition in California.[Because] they could charge high prices forBecause the railroads owned by the Big Fourhad little competition, train tickets. Lesson Question: How did railroads affect California’s economy in the late 1800s? NAME____________________________ 13
  • 14. Railroad Cause and Effect Paragraph Lesson Question: How did railroads affect California’s economy in the late 1800s? California’s economy changed in many ways as result of Thesis statement:the completion of the railroad. It brought _____________________________________________ Cause:__________________________________________________________________________________________________. Therefore, many businesses in the state _____________________ Effect:_________________________________________________. The Southern Pacific Railroad ran __________________________ Cause:_________________________________________________ and this led to the growth of towns _______________________ Effect:_______________________________________________________. The Railroad Act of 1862 ________________________________ Cause:_________________________________________________. As a result, _______________________________________ Cause/Effect:_______________________________________________________. The Big Four, who owned ___________________________ Cause/Effect:__________________________, became _________________. With this money, the Big Four were able to ___________________ Effect:_______________________________________________________. Because their railroads ___________________________________, Cause: 14
  • 15. they were nicknamed “____________________________.” Effect: The railroads owned by the Big Four _______________________ Cause:_________________________________________________, so ___________________________________________________. Effect:TEACHER KEY: Words in red denote Cause/Effect relationship words Railroad paragraphThesis statement: California’s economy changed in many ways as result of the completion of therailroad.Cause: It brought new products into the state that often cost less than goods made andsold in California.Effect: Therefore, many businesses in the state suffered and closed because they lost money.Cause: The Southern Pacific Railroad ran through the Central Valley from Stockton to LosAngeles.Effect: This led to the growth of towns along the railroad’s route.Cause: The Railroad Act of 1862 granted land to the railroad companies that built therailroads.Cause/Effect: As a result, the Southern Pacific Railroad gained more than 11 millionacres of land.Cause/Effect: The Big Four, who owned the Southern Pacific Railroad, became richer.Effect: With this money, the Big Four were able to buy or start other railroads.Cause: Because their railroads stretched in so many directions,Effect: they were nicknamed “the Octopus.”Cause: The railroads owned by the Big Four had very little competition,Effect: so they could charge high prices for train tickets. 15
  • 16. California’s economy changed in many ways as result of the completion of the railroad. Itbrought new products into the state that often cost less than goods made and sold in California.Therefore, many businesses in the state suffered and closed because they lost money. The SouthernPacific Railroad ran through the Central Valley from Stockton to Los Angeles. This led to the growthof towns along the railroad’s route. The Railroad Act of 1862 gave land to the railroad companies thatbuilt the railroads. As a result, the Southern Pacific Railroad gained more than 11 million acres of land.The Big Four who owned the Southern Pacific Railroad became richer. With this money, the Big Fourwere able to buy or start other railroads. Because their railroads stretched in so many directions, theywere nicknamed “the Octopus.” The railroads owned by the Big Four had very little competition, so theycould charge high prices for train tickets. Student Sample, page 1 of 2: 16
  • 17. Student Sample, page 2 of 2: 17
  • 18. 18