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Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final
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Jackson indian removal_lesson_ccss_2011_final

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CCSS Presentation, Saturday March 5, 2011 …

CCSS Presentation, Saturday March 5, 2011

Investigating the Indian Removal Act through Multiple Sources:
An historical inquiry-based lesson that analyzes art and speeches by President Andrew Jackson & Chief Black Hawk
8th Grade Multi-day Lesson

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  • 1. Teaching American History Grant: Changing Definitions of Citizenship in United States History, 2006-2010 American Democracy in Word and Deed, 2009-2014 A collaborative partnership between Mt. Diablo Unified School District teachers of grades 4, 5, 8, and 11, in conjunction with the University of California, Berkeley History-Social Science Project Investigating the Indian Removal Act through Multiple Sources: An historical inquiry- based lesson that analyzes art and speeches by President Andrew Jackson & Chief Black Hawk 8th Grade Multi-day Lesson California Council for History Education Sacramento, California March 5, 2011 Will Gregory, 8th Grade Teacher, Sequoia Middle School, Mt. Diablo Unified Emily Richards, 8th Grade Teacher, Glenbrook Middle School, Mt. Diablo Unified Lauren Weaver, Mt. Diablo Unified Teaching American History Grant CoordinatorTo access an electronic version of this lesson and others, please visit the grant website: http://tah4all.org/
  • 2. MDUSD/UCB H-SSP 8th Grade Lesson: “Jackson’s Indian Removal”Developed by: Sue Kunich, Will Gregory, Emily Richards, Lauren Weaver, Phyllis GoldsmithTeaching American History Grant Focus Question: How did definitions of citizenship change from the 17th century to the 20th century?8th Grade Year-long Focus Questions: How did federalism shape the roles of the national and state governments? How did the rights of citizens expand and contract during the 18th and 19th centuries?Unit Focus: Unit 3: The New Republic; Chapter 9: The Age of Jackson; Section 3: Indian RemovalUnit Focus Question: In its early years as a republic, how did the United States tackle the social, economic, and political effects of its growth?Lesson Focus Question: How were Native Americans affected by Jacksonian Democracy?Lesson Working Thesis: During the Age of Jackson, individual rights for white males expanded, yet at the same time, Jackson’s policies limited the rights of non-whites, including Native Americans.Reading Strategies: • President Jackson Speech on Indian Removal, Annual Message to Congress, Dec. 8, 1829 o Class discussion • Chief Black Hawk’s Surrender Speech ~ 1832 o Cause & Effect Chart o Pronouns o Figurative Speech • The Trail of Tears painting 1942 painted by Robert Lindneux o Analyzing a Primary SourceWriting Strategies: • Analytical Paragraph interpreting The Trail of Tears art piece • Summative Paragraph synthesizing information from all sourcesSuggested Amount of Time: 4-5 daysTextbook: Deverell, William and White, Deborah Gray. United States History: Independence to 1914. Orlando, Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 2006, Chapter 9:(The Age of Jackson; Section 3), pp 294–297.
  • 3. Other Resources: Primary sources o President Andrew Jackson, Excerpt of December 8, 1829 “Annual Message to Congress.” Francis Paul Prucha, Documents in United States Indian Policy, Second Edition, Expanded (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990), 47-48. o Surrender Speech by Chief Black Hawk ~ 1832 o Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Chapter Resource File, The Age of Jackson, 12-13. o The Trail of Tears, painted by Robert Lindneux, 1942. o Optional Comparison Image: Display engraving from a textbook “Indian emigration” circa 1850.Context of the lesson in the unit: This lesson will come ¾ of the way through Unit 3: The New Republic and is the final lesson in Chapter 9: The Age of Jackson.Concept of citizenship embedded in the lesson: Students will understand that expanded rights for some white males do not apply to Native Americans since they did not have the same rights of citizenship.Lesson Teacher Procedures:A. Introduction 1. Review “Jacksonian Democracy” and Chapter 9, Section 3 “Indian Removal,” from text, below. Indian Removal Act ~ Passage Selection from textbook, pages 294-295 “Native Americans had long lived in settlements stretching from Georgia to Mississippi. However, President Jackson and other political leaders wanted to open this land to settlement by American farmers. Under pressure from Jackson, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, authorizing the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River to lands in the West. Congress then established the Indian Territory- U.S. land in what is now Oklahoma where Native Americans were moved to… The Choctaw were the first Indians sent to Indian Territory. The Mississippi legislature forced the Choctaw leaders to sign a treaty giving up more than 7.5 million acres of their land in Mississippi. The Choctaw moved to the Indian Territory during a disastrous winter trip. Federal officials in charge of the move did not provide enough food or supplies to the Choctaw, most of whom were on foot. About one-fourth of the Choctaw died of cold, disease, or starvation during the trip.”B. Reading Strategy #1-President Jackson’s Address to Congress [in-class activity] 1. Distribute copies of Jackson’s December 1829 Message to Congress (p.8) 2. Teacher introduces speech by explaining the context of the source and reminding students of the main components of the source (or) teacher asks guiding questions of students to solicit answers. Main components of the source to discuss with students: a) who is speaking, b) who is the audience, c) when was the speech, d) what’s the title of the speech, e) what do we know about President Jackson’s interactions with Native Americans, etc. 3. Have students read the Jackson’s December 1829 Message to Congress (p.8) aloud in small groups. 4. Teacher uses questions in the gray boxes to guide students to discuss with a partner or with the whole class different aspects of the speech.
  • 4. 5. Teacher guides whole class discussion to deconstruct the main ideas of the speech.C. Reading Strategy #2- Chief Black Hawk’s Surrender SpeechTEACHER NOTE: There are 3 different activities below that use the same primary source. Teachers candecide which of the three academic literacy strategy worksheets would best suit the students’ needs in theirclassroom. WORKSHEET #1 -CAUSE & EFFECT-Black Hawk Speech- [in-class activity or homework] 1. Distribute Chief Black Hawk’s Surrender Speech (1832) (p9) 2. Teacher reads speech aloud to the class as students follow along 3. Distribute Cause & Effect. Handout (p.10; teacher key, p11) 4. Explain how the chart works, and model response for the first row of boxes. 5. Students complete handout in same partner groups while teacher roves around the classroom monitoring progress and assisting where necessary. 6. Review students responses as a class on the overhead projector to reinforce visually 7. Discuss content questions to highlight Native American perspective to Indian Removal. WORKSHEET #2 –PRONOUNS-Black Hawk Speech- [in-class activity] 1. Pass out the Black Hawk Surrender Speech/ pronoun worksheet (p12, teacher key, p13) 2. Review Black Hawk’s life as discussed in prior lessons. 3. Next the teacher leads a close reading of the speech leaving out essential words and having the students say those words out loud as a class. a. Once reading is completed again ask clarifying questions. b. Be sure to point out to the students the frequency of pronouns as well as the shift from 1st person to 3rd person. Don’t give them answer yet just get them to start thinking about it. EX: Do you talk about yourself using your first name? If I am talking about myself, would I say: I went to the store yesterday? Or, would I say: Ms. Richards went to the store yesterday? 4. Move onto the pronoun box on the worksheet. First have the students define what a pronoun is. Then move onto listing all the different types of pronouns, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd. Put the list up on the board and have the students copy the list onto their worksheets. 5. Next have them go through and circle, box and underline all the pronouns they find in the speech (This will only take 2-3 minutes). 6. Then, go over the blank pronoun boxes at the bottom of the worksheet. Talk with the students about what they are supposed to do. Tell them the hint: If they are unsure who the pronoun refers to, they can replace the pronoun with the proper name/ proper noun to see if it makes sense and if they were right. [EX: Samantha and Joseph left school to go home and as they (who? Samantha and Joseph) walked home, he (Who? Joseph) remembered he (Who? Joseph) forgot his (Who? Joseph) gym clothes in Ms. Richards class so he (Who? Joseph) returned to get them.] 7. As a class, complete the “You” and “Your” boxes since the proper noun that refers to “You” and “Your” changes in paragraph one and two. This will help the students when they fill out the rest of the pronoun worksheet on their own. 8. Have the students fill out the remaining pronoun boxes on their own while the teacher monitors the room helping students and checking for understanding. 9. At the end of the day’s lesson, go over all the pronoun boxes so that the student can check their answers against the key.
  • 5. 10.When done, ask students to draw a line where the speech changes from 1st person to 3rd person. Ask the students why they think Black Hawk starts to talk about himself in the 3rd person. This discussion is a great way to lead into the Metaphor Speech Activity. WORKSHEET #3 –FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE-Black Hawk Speech- [in-class activity or homework] 1. Pass out the Black Hawk Speech (p14) & student metaphor worksheet. (pp15-16, teacher key pp17-18) 2. Tell students that today they will be looking at the language of the speech, focusing on figurative language. 3. Have the students define figurative language and the terms metaphor and simile. 4. Talk about Black Hawk’s manner of speaking. Discuss with students how a person’s upbringing and culture affects the way they speak. i.e. Do people from Texas sound the same as people from Ca? 5. Have the students read the speech using a variety of reading methods (pairs, cloze reading, etc). a. Then go back and define the bolded academic vocabulary words. 6. As a class, re-read the speech paragraph by paragraph and highlight on the copy of the speech all the figurative language phrases from the Metaphor worksheet. 7. Complete the Metaphor worksheet. Re-read aloud as a class the first paragraph and stop at the end to discuss the meaning of the paragraph. Go through each metaphor in paragraph #1, having the students determine the actual meaning of the metaphor as well as what increased meaning the metaphor gives to the speech. Also share with the students that there might be more than one interpretation and that is okay. Part of literature is the variety of meaning we get from it. a. [Teacher Note: I did this in a variety of ways: I had the students think pair-share their answers, move around to share each metaphor with a new partner, whole class, small group. I would vary it every few metaphors so that the momentum of the lesson does not fall.] 8. When moving onto column three about why the metaphor was added read aloud the metaphor and actual meaning of one of the parts of the speech. Then ask the students: What sounds better and would catch their interest more, the metaphor or the actual meaning? 9. Move onto having the student come up, in pairs, groups etc, rationale for each metaphor explaining why Black Hawk would have picked that writing instead of the actual meaning. 10. Again share out as a class helping to focus the conversation and add in clarity for the students.D. Trail of Tears Map [in-class activity or homework] 1. Pass out the blank map to each student (p19, teacher key/student sample, p20) 2. Have the students take out their text books (Deverell, William and White, Deborah Gray. United States History: Independence to 1914. Orlando, Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston., 2006, and turn to pages 298-299.) [Teacher note: You could also use another map from another source but the book is the best I have found] 3. Have students recreate the Trail of Tears map onto their maps. They need to show: a) each of the five tribes’ original homeland, b) the trail taken to the new land, and c) eventual relocation site in the Oklahoma/Indian Territory. 4. The students will need colored pencils to complete this assignment.E. Reading a Primary Source- Trail of Tears Art Analysis [in-class activity]TEACHER NOTE: There are 2 different worksheets for art analysis; one is highly detailed and the other issimplified. Also, while the activity focuses on the “Trail of Tears” painting by Robert Lindneux, there is anoptional comparison engraving from a textbook called “Indian emigration,” circa 1850. (p21)
  • 6. 1. Display Trail of Tears image and/or handout copies of image. (p.21, top image, p22 full size) a. Show picture, and one line caption: Trail of Tears by Robert Lindneux in 1942 2. Distribute Analyzing an Source worksheet (pp23-24,or shortened version, p29 teacher key, pp 26-27) 3. Teacher reviews Who, When, Where sections with class and models completion of the top sections. 4. Take to the students about art. Explain that they should first focus on what they see looking at the art piece. Then, they can start to interpret or make meaning of what they see. Also point out that art pieces have multiple interpretations because people see, feel, and think different things about art. Encourage them to take chances interpreting the art and support them so they get into it. 5. Teacher clarifies instructions of the “Object” section. Guide students to take 2 minutes to write down all that they see in the “Description of Source, What I see” column. Remind them that seeing is just writing down literally what your eyes see and is different than what you brain thinks about. They should not be writing down emotion, etc here. a. Share out: some T-P-S (Think Pair Share), then whole class 6. Next move on the “Definitions~ What do the objects and images mean?”/ “It tells me…” column. In this column, students need to take what they wrote down in the “Description/ I see” column and explain what each thing tells them a. EX: The frown might tell you they are sad or upset about something b. EX: The wagon full of belongings might tell you they are moving for good, taking everything they own c. Again have them share with a partner or with the class 7. Students complete remainder of sheet in groups while teacher monitors progress. 8. Clarify What & How & Why Section to ensure student understanding 9. Have students complete Basic Writing –One Source scaffolded writing template.(p.25, teacher key, p. 28) 10. Teacher provides assistance and clarification to groups or whole class as necessary.F. Writing Strategy: Summative Paragraph [in-class or homework] 1. Pass out the structured: Summative Paragraph on Jackson’s Indian Removal Policy.(p 30, teacher sample, p 31) 2. Go over the requirements of the paragraph. Explain to the students that they will be using all of the material learned this lesson to help complete their paragraph. [Teacher Note: This paragraph synthesizes the whole unit and shows how all the singular day components come together to form a larger and more complete understanding of Indian Removal.] 3. Once you have explained the paragraph assignment and answered all students’ questions, have the students write their paragraphs while the teacher monitors the class and ask for questions. a. I have my students write this on their own (with the paragraph outline frame provided) so that I can see if they understood and synthesized the unit as a whole with the all the parts properly intertwined to completely tell the story of Indian removal. b. [Teacher Note: Possible Modifications] i. You could modify this by writing it as a whole class ii. You could provide the paragraph question and have them write the paragraph without the sentence stems or outline frame. 4. Teacher can discuss how interpretations of historical events may change over time.History-Social Science Content Standards:
  • 7. 8.8 Students analyze the divergent paths of the American people in the West from 1800 to the mid-1800s andthe challenges they faced. 1. Discuss the election of Andrew Jackson as president in 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and his actions as president (e.g., the spoils system, veto of the National Bank, policy of Indian removal, opposition to the Supreme Court).Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:Chronological and Spatial Thinking 1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time. 3. Students use a variety of maps and documents to identify physical and cultural features of neighborhoods, cities, states, and countries and to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and the growth of economic systems.Research, Evidence, and Point of View 4. Students assess the credibility of primary and secondary sources and draw sound conclusions from them. 5. Students detect the different historical points of view on historical events and determine the context in which the historical statements were made (the questions asked, sources used, authors perspectives).Historical Interpretation 1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place. 2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations. . 3. Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.Reading/Language Arts Content Standards:2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas,arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose.1.0 Writing Strategies1.3 Support theses or conclusions with analogies, paraphrases, quotations, opinions from authorities,comparisons, and similar devices.2.0 Writing Applications2.4b. Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between factsand opinion.2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)2.1b. Reveal the significance of, and the subjects attitude about, the incident, event, or situation.
  • 8. President Jackson on Indian Removal, December 8, 1829The executive branch of the federal government was firmly committed to the removal of the eastern tribes to the region west of theMississippi by President Andrew Jackson. In his First Annual Message to Congress in December 1829, President Jackson set forth hisviews. …A portion, however, of the Southern tribes, having mingled much with the whites and made some progress in the arts of civilized life, have lately attempted to erect an independent government within the limits of Georgia and Alabama. These States, claiming to be the only sovereigns within their territories, extended their laws over the Indians, which induced the latter to call upon the United States for protection.Question: What have the tribes attempted to Under these circumstances the question presented was whether the General Government had a right to sustain those people in their pretensions. The Constitution declares that “no new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other State” without the consent of its legislature.Question: Whose consent is needed to allow the tribes set up an independent government? … I informed the Indians inhabiting parts of Georgia and Alabama that their attempt to establish an independent government would not be countenanced by the Executive of the United States, and advised them to emigrate beyond the Mississippi or submit to the laws of those States. …Surrounded by the whites with their arts of civilization, which by destroying the resources of the savage doom him to weakness and decay, the fate of the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware is fast overtaking the Choctaw, the Cherokee, and the Creek. …this fate surely awaits them if they remain within the limits of the States… Humanity and national honor demand that every effort should be made to avert so great a calamity.Questions: What is the calamity? Is Jackson’s statement sincere? …As a means of effecting this end, I suggest for your consideration the propriety of setting apart an ample district west of the Mississippi…to be guaranteed to the Indian tribes as long as they shall occupy it, each tribe having a distinct control over the portion designated for its use.Vocabulary Lesson Questions: sovereigns supreme authority 1. What do the Indians’ want? pretensions claims jurisdiction the power, right, or authority to 2. Does Jackson agree with what the Indians want? interpret and apply the law 3. What does Jackson think is in the Indians’ countenanced approved best interest? calamity a state of deep distress or misery 4. Do you think Jackson has a strong argument? caused by major misfortune or loss Source: President Andrew Jackson, Excerpt of December 8, 1829 “Annual Message to propriety conformity to what is socially Congress.” Francis Paul Prucha, Documents in United States Indian Policy, Second acceptable Edition, Expanded (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990), 47-48.
  • 9. Black Hawks Surrender Speech, 1832In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and Native Americans were resettled in the West. In 1832 aband of Sauk and Fox Indians tried to reoccupy the lands they had once held in the Illinois and Wisconsinterritories. The attempt failed and Chief Black Hawk was forced to surrender. The following is an excerpt of hissurrender speech. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Chapter Resource File, The Age of Jackson, 12-13You have taken me prisoner with all my warriors. I am much grieved, for I expected, if I did not defeat you, tohold out much longer, and give you more trouble before I surrendered. I tried hard to bring you into ambush,but your last general understands Indian fighting. The first one was not so wise. When I saw that I could notbeat you by Indian fighting, I determined to rush on you, and fight you face to face. I fought hard. But yourguns were well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our ears like the wind through thetrees in the winter. My warriors fell around me; it began to look dismal. I saw my evil day at hand. The sun rosedim on us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. That was the lastsun that shone on Black Hawk. His heart is dead, and no longer beats quick in his bosom. He is now a prisonerto the white men; they will do with him as they wish. But he can stand torture, and is not afraid of death. He isno coward. Black Hawk is an Indian.He has done nothing for which an Indian ought to be ashamed. He has fought for his countrymen, the squawsand papooses, against white men, who came, year after year, to cheat them and take away their lands. You knowthe cause of our making war. It is known to all white men. They ought to be ashamed of it. The white mendespise the Indians, and drive them from their homes. But the Indians are not deceitful. The white men speakbad of the Indian, and look at him spitefully. But the Indian does not tell lies; Indians do not steal……We looked up to the Great Spirit. We went to our great father. We were encouraged. His great council gaveus fair words and big promises, but we got no satisfaction. Things were growing worse. There were no deer inthe forest. The oppossum and beaver were fled; the springs were drying up, and our squaws and papooseswithout victuals [food or other provisions] to keep them from starving; we called a great council and built alarge fire. The spirit of our fathers arose and spoke to us to avenge our wrongs or die....Farewell, my nation. Black Hawk tried to save you, and avenge your wrongs. He drank the blood of some of thewhites. He has been taken prisoner, and his plans are stopped. He can do no more. He is near his end. His sun issetting, and he will rise no more. Farewell to Black Hawk.
  • 10. NAME __________________________________ Black Hawk Surrender Speech Cause and Effect WorksheetCause Effect[Because] I could not beat you by I determined to rush on you and fight you faceIndian fighting to face.[Because] your guns were wellaimedThe white men __________________ Our making war_________________________ homes.The white men _________________________________________spitefully.[Bonus: Not necessarily in the No deer in the forest. Oppossum and beaverspeech – what caused these effects?] were fled; the springs were drying up; our squaws and papooses … starving[Because] Black Hawk tried to saveyou , and he has been takenprisoner and his plans are stoppedContent Questions: Why does Black Hawk’s tribe fight? What has his tribe lost when he surrenders?
  • 11. Cause and Effect Teacher Key Black Hawk Surrender SpeechCause Effect[Because] I could not beat you I determined to rush on you andby Indian fighting fight you face to face.[Because] your guns were well My warriors fell around me; itaimed began to look dismal. His heart is dead He is now a prisoner to the white men.The white men despise the Indians Our making warand drive them from their homes.The white men speak bad of theIndian and look at him spitefully.[Bonus: Not necessarily in the No deer in the forest. Oppossumspeech – what caused these effects?] and beaver were fled; the springs were drying up; our squaws andThe white man’s civilization is papooses … starvingpushing them out[Because] Black Hawk tried to save His sun is setting, and he will riseyou … and he has been taken no more.prisoner and his plans are stoppedHe can do no more Farewell to Black HawkContent Questions: Why does Black Hawk’s tribe fight? They’re being driven from their homes, and their way of life is being threatened What has his tribe lost when he surrenders? They have lost their land, the right to live on it, their culture.
  • 12. Black Hawks Surrender Speech, 1832 NAME________________________________In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and Native Americans were resettled in the West. In 1832 aband of Sauk and Fox Indians tried to reoccupy the lands they had once held in the Illinois and Wisconsinterritories. The attempt failed and Chief Black Hawk was forced to surrender. The following is an excerpt of hissurrender speech. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Chapter Resource File, The Age of Jackson, 12-13 You have taken me prisoner with all my warriors. I am much grieved. I expected, if I did not defeat you,to hold out much longer, and give you more trouble before I surrendered. I tried hard to bring you into ambush,but your last general understands Indian fighting. The first one was not so wise. When I saw that I could notbeat you by Indian fighting, I determined to rush on you, and fight you face to face. I fought hard, but your gunswere well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our ears like the wind through the treesin the winter. My warriors fell around me; it began to look dismal. I saw my evil day at hand. The sun rose dimon us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and was a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shoneon Black Hawk. His heart is dead, and no longer beats quick in his bosom. He is now a prisoner to the whitemen; they will do with him as they wish. But he can stand torture, and is not afraid of death. He is no coward.Black Hawk is an Indian. Farewell, my nation. Black Hawk tried to save you, and avenge your wrongs. He drank the blood ofsome of the whites. He has been taken prisoner, and his plans are stopped. He can do no more. He is near hisend. His sun is setting, and he will rise no more. Farewell to Black Hawk.Pronoun Deconstruction ActivityWhat is a Pronoun? _______________________________________________________________________1st person: _______________________________________________________________________________2nd person: ______________________________________________________________________________3rd person: _______________________________________________________________________________Directions: Circle all the first person pronouns, Underline all the second person pronouns, Box all thethird person pronouns. Then, fill in the chart below by listing the proper noun that refers to each pronoun. I My MeParagraph 1: You Paragraph 2: Your They He His/Him
  • 13. Paragraph 1: Paragraph 2:TEACHER KEY Black Hawks Surrender Speech, 1832In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and Native Americans were resettled in the West. In 1832 aband of Sauk and Fox Indians tried to reoccupy the lands they had once held in the Illinois and Wisconsinterritories. The attempt failed and Chief Black Hawk was forced to surrender. The following is an excerpt of hissurrender speech. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Chapter Resource File, The Age of Jackson, 12-13You have taken me prisoner with all my warriors. I am much grieved. I expected, if I did not defeat you, to holdout much longer, and give you more trouble before I surrendered. I tried hard to bring you into ambush, butyour last general understands Indian fighting. The first one was not so wise. When I saw that I could not beatyou by Indian fighting, I determined to rush on you, and fight you face to face. I fought hard, but your gunswere well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our ears like the wind through the treesin the winter. My warriors fell around me; it began to look dismal. I saw my evil day at hand. The sun rose dimon us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and was a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shoneon Black Hawk. His heart is dead, and no longer beats quick in his bosom. He is now a prisoner to the whitemen; they will do with him as they wish. But he can stand torture, and is not afraid of death. He is no coward.Black Hawk is an Indian.Farewell, my nation. Black Hawk tried to save you, and avenge your wrongs. He drank the blood of some of thewhites. He has been taken prisoner, and his plans are stopped. He can do no more. He is near his end. His sun issetting, and he will rise no more. Farewell to Black Hawk. What is a Pronoun? A word (or words)Pronoun Deconstruction Chart that are in place of a proper noun [people, places or things]1. Circle all the first person pronouns2. Underline all the second person pronouns 1st me my I, mine, (Plural Us, We, Our)3. Box all the third person pronouns. Once you have read thepassage over AND circles, underlines, or boxed all the 2nd you, your/spronouns the complete the chart below. 3rd he, she, his, her, him, they, their, themIn the chart you will find all the pronouns that you should have underlined. Under each pronoun, list the propernoun that refers to the corresponding pronoun.You I My Me
  • 14. Paragraph 1: Army, White Black Hawk Other Indians from the Black HawkMan, U.S. Government Saux and Fox IndiansParagraph 2: fellow IndiansYour They He HisParagraph 1: Army, White Army, White Man, U.S. Black Hawk Black HawkMan, U.S. Government GovernmentParagraph 2: fellow IndiansBlack Hawks Surrender Speech, 1832In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act and Native Americans were resettled in the West. In 1832 aband of Sauk and Fox Indians tried to reoccupy the lands they had once held in the Illinois and Wisconsinterritories. The attempt failed and Chief Black Hawk was forced to surrender. The following is an excerpt of hissurrender speech. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Chapter Resource File, The Age of Jackson, 12-13You have taken me prisoner with all my warriors. I am much grieved, for I expected, if I did not defeat you, tohold out much longer, and give you more trouble before I surrendered. I tried hard to bring you into ambush,but your last general understands Indian fighting. The first one was not so wise. When I saw that I could notbeat you by Indian fighting, I determined to rush on you, and fight you face to face. I fought hard. But yourguns were well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our ears like the wind through thetrees in the winter. My warriors fell around me; it began to look dismal. I saw my evil day at hand. The sunrose dim on us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and was a ball of fire. That was the last sunthat shone on Black Hawk. His heart is dead, and no longer beats quick in his bosom. He is now a prisoner tothe white men; they will do with him as they wish. But he can stand torture, and is not afraid of death. He is nocoward. Black Hawk is an Indian.He has done nothing for which an Indian ought to be ashamed. He has fought for his countrymen, the squawsand papooses, against white men, who came, year after year, to cheat them and take away their lands. You knowthe cause of our making war. It is known to all white men. They ought to be ashamed of it. The white mendespise the Indians, and drive them from their homes. But the Indians are not deceitful. The white men speakbad of the Indian, and look at him spitefully. But the Indian does not tell lies; Indians do not steal……We looked up to the Great Spirit. We went to our great father. We were encouraged. His great council gaveus fair words and big promises, but we got no satisfaction. Things were growing worse. There were no deer inthe forest. The oppossum and beaver were fled; the springs were drying up, and our squaws and papooseswithout victuals [food or other provisions] to keep them from starving; we called a great council and built alarge fire. The spirit of our fathers arose and spoke to us to avenge our wrongs or die....
  • 15. Farewell, my nation. Black Hawk tried to save you, and avenge your wrongs. He drank the blood of some of the whites. He has been taken prisoner, and his plans are stopped. He can do no more. He is near his end. His sun is setting, and he will rise no more. Farewell to Black Hawk. * Bolded words are Academic Literacy words to go over & Highlighted phrases are the identified figurative language phrases on the student worksheet. NAME____________________________________ Figurative Language in Black Hawk’s Speech Listed below are all the metaphors listed in Black Hawks’ speech. Re-read the speech, focusing on each highlighted phrase. We will then, as a class, write down the actual meaning of the first few figurative language phrases. Then, you will finish the rest of the “actual meaning” column on your own. We will come back as a class and do the same with the additional impact column.1. What additional impact does Figurative Language Actual meaning (Simile, Metaphor, Manner of Speaking) the metaphor give to the reader? Bullets flew like birds in the air2. [Bullets]whizzed by our ears like the wind through trees in the winter3. [The sunset] was a ball of fire … the last that shone on Black Hawk4.5.
  • 16. His heart is dead [His heart]No longer beats in his bosom Figurative Language Actual meaning (Simile, Metaphor, Manner of Speaking)6. We looked up to the Great Spirit7. The spirit of our fathers spoke to us8. [Black Hawk] drank the blood of some of the whites9. [Black Hawk’s] sun is setting and will rise no more Lesson Question: How does Black Hawk feel about his defeat by the U.S. troops? Lesson Question Answer: When the Sauk Nation was defeated by the U.S. troops, Black Hawk feels ______________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________.
  • 17. This feeling is exhibited in his surrender speech when he says_______________________________________ (insert a direct quote from the speech here)This quote tells the reader that_________________________________________________________________ (explain the significance or meaning of the quote)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________In conclusion, Black Hawk was_____________________________________________ when ______________ (use word/s to describe Black Hawk’s feelings about capture)________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________TEACHER KEY Figurative Language in Black Hawk’s Speech[Teacher note: Some of the phrases used by Black Hawk are not similes or metaphors but they were chosen becausethey demonstrates the manner of speaking from a Native American perspective. This provides a chance to discussNative American culture & beliefs ]Figurative Language Actual meaning What additional impact does(Simile, Metaphor, Manner of Speaking) the metaphor give to the reader?
  • 18. Flew fast and highBullets flew like birds in the air Everywhere like a flock of birds Going very fast Close enough to see them Better more visual description Lots of them small, hard to see -Reader can picture setting easier -visualize events more precisely -imagine how the bullets going by your ears will sound[Bullets]Whizzed by our ears like Were fast, not many of us hit. Loud -able to more accurately put selfthe wind through trees in the winter since no leaves to muffle the sounds Whistling sound in Black Hawk’s position Hear the wind rich by as the bullets went by Right by Black Hawk; so come he could hear them So many so close In winter a tree’s leave fall down so the bullets were falling down like leaves[The sunset] was a ball of fire.. the Last time to have freedom and enjoy -Sounds more interestinglast that shone on Black Hawk life -Shows emotion not just facts Lost friend and lands -adds drama to the story Lost power and chief -gives a sense of loss His time of power is overHis heart is dead -Freedom and Indian life over -sad and disappointed in capture -can no longer do what he wants -Clearly shows his overwhelming -no more fight in him sadness -shows his lack of purpose[His heart]No longer beats in his -no longer himself now thatbosom captured -sees himself as dead since a captive of the white man -lost all hope -does not feel any emotion any moreFigurative Language Actual meaning What additional impact does(Simile, Metaphor, Manner of Speaking) the metaphor give to the reader?
  • 19. We looked up to the Great Spirit -Talking to ancestors Tells about the Native American -Praying to ancestors culture - Asking ancestors for a miracle Practiced their religion differently than white men.The spirit of our fathers spoke to us -message from ancestors -asked for help from ancestors[Black Hawk] drank the blood of -Killed soldiers in the militia -Powerful shows intensitysome of the whites and was proud -Shows savagery -members of the state militia -Add dramatic effect meant nothing to him -Dramatic way to explain actual events -Shows how much he hates the white man[Black Hawk’s] sun is setting and -Spirit is dying -adds interest to outcomewill rise no more -will never be an Indian chief -adds to the feelings Black Hawk again had -emotions are dead -nothing to live for -last days of freedomHow does Black Hawk feel about his defeat by the U.S. troops? When the Sauk Nation was defeated by the U.S. troops, Black Hawk feels that although he foughthard it was of no use and he was ultimately defeated by the white man. This feeling isexhibited in his surrender speech when he says, “He has been taken prisoner, and his plans arestopped. He can do no more.” This quote tells the reader that there will be no more attempts bythe Native Americans to regain their land. The whites have won the war and Black Hawkhas lost badly. In conclusion Black Hawk was angry and despondent when his tribe’s land wastaken and he was captured by the “white man.”
  • 20. Student Sample
  • 21. The Trail of Tears, painted by Robert Lindneux in 1942[In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jacksons Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced togive up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. TheCherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrantsfaced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokeesdied.This picture, The Trail of Tears, was painted by Robert Lindneux in 1942. It commemorates the sufferingof the Cherokee people under forced removal. If any depictions of the "Trail of Tears" were created at thetime of the march, they have not survived] http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h1567b.htm
  • 22. The Trail of Tears, painted by Robert Lindneux in 1942http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/298760/12008/The-Trail-of-Tears-oil-on-canvas-by-Robert-Lindneux[By opening the link above, you can zoom in on a specific area of the painting to better showcase its details][In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jacksons Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrateto an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger,disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died.
  • 23. ANALYZING A SOURCE – STUDENT VERSION NAME________________Title of Source: _________________The Trail of TearsWHAT & HOWWHAT: Message HOW: Evidence QuestionsInferences/Conclusions about what the source says Specific Evidence from Source that supports the About the Specific Evidence from Sourceor insight it gives. inferred message AND/OR about the inferred message What don’t you understand about thisWhat is the purpose of the artist? What do you see in the painting to convince you artwork? What would you ask the artist?What might the historical viewpoint be? of the message?OBJECTTitle/Genre: What type of source?Description of Source Definitions Questions on the event: ReflectionWhat I see, hear, touch What do the objects and images in the painting aboutwould this event affect their culture? How the objects, words, etcImages, People, Objects, Activities/Actions, Words, mean?Phrases, Facts, Numbers
  • 24. WHY: Analysis of Lesson Question: How were Native Americans affected by Indian Removal?How does this source relate to the question?
  • 25. BASIC WRITING – ONE SOURCE -- Student Version NAME____________________Introducing the source: OBJECT: Name, title of source WHO: Author, other people, the world _________________________________ shows that ______________________________________ (name, title of source) (WHO? Author, other people)WHAT: MESSAGE regarding a person, place, event, idea thought/did/had ___________________________________________________________________ (WHAT? message regarding a person, place, event, idea)HOW: SPECIFIC EVIDENCE in primary source – quotes, statistics, images, that proves message because ___________________________________________________________________________ (SPECIFIC EVIDENCE in primary source – quotes, statistics, images, etc)WHY: ANALYSIS How does this source explain how Native Americans were affected by Indian Removal? This source ________________________________________________________________________ (relates to/answers the writing question) because ___________________________________________________________________________ (explanation of how primary source evidence connects/answers the question)
  • 26. ANALYZING A SOURCE – TEACHER KEYTitle of Source: “The Trail of Tears”WHAT & HOWWHAT: Message HOW: Evidence QuestionsInferences/Conclusions about what the source Specific Evidence from Source that supports About the Specific Evidence fromsays or insight it gives. the inferred message Source AND/OR about the inferred messageWhat is the purpose of the artist? What do you see in the painting to convince What don’t you understand about thisWhat might the historical viewpoint be? you of the message? artwork? What would you ask the artist?OBJECT youMakes feel bad for the Facial expressionsTitle/Genre: PaintingCherokee Foreboding scenery and images Even the animals look sadDescription of Source Definitions Questions on the event: ReflectionWhat I see, hear, touch What do the objects and images in the painting aboutwould this event affect their How the objects, words, etcImages, People, Objects, Activities/Actions, Words, mean? culture?Phrases, Facts, NumbersSoldiers on horseback Government force Why is the Cherokee manSomber looking Cherokee Unhappiness carrying a gun?Covered wagons Permanent moveOld people, young children, animals Vulnerable (to weather, disease,Winter clothing hunger)Dark skyGuns, some carried by CherokeeWHY: Analysis of Lesson Question: How were Native Americans affected by Indian Removal?
  • 27. How does this source relate to the question?The painting shows the suffering that many Native Americans felt as a result of Indian Removal Polices carried out in the Age of Jackson.
  • 28. BASIC WRITING – ONE SOURCE Teacher KeyIntroducing the source: OBJECT: Name, title of source WHO: Author, other people, the world The Trail of Tears painting shows that Robert Lindneux (name, title of source) (WHO? Author, other people)Visual Analysis Worksheet thoughtI see …. that the Cherokee nation suffered greatly under forced removal It tells me ….. I wonder ….. (WHAT? message regarding a person, place, event, idea)WHAT: MESSAGE regarding a person, place, event, ideaHOW: SPECIFIC EVIDENCE in primary source – quotes, statistics, images, that proves message because of the unhappy facial expressions and foreboding scenery and images he paints. (SPECIFIC EVIDENCE in primary source – quotes, statistics, images, etc) This source relates to Native Americans losing rights during the Age of Jackson (relates to/answers the writing question) because it shows how the Cherokee were moved against their will and lost their property rights. (explanation of how primary source evidence connects/answers the question)WHY: ANALYSIS How does this source explain how Native Americans were affected by Indian Removal?ANALYZING ART Name: ___________________________Title of Image: _____________________________ Artist: ___________________________________Media: ____________________________________ Date of work: ______________________________WHY: Analysis
  • 29. This painting tells me that …Writing about art_________________________________ shows that _____________________________________ (Name, title of image) (WHO? Artist)thought _________________________________________________________________________ (WHAT? message regarding event)________________________________________________________________________________because ________________________________________________________________________ (details of the image)________________________________________________________________________________NAME______________________________ Summative paragraph for Jackson’s Indian Removal LessonQuestion: How were Native Americans affected by Jacksonian Democracy? Although Jacksonian Democracy __________________________ (Name a positive effect)_________________________________________________, it did not /it took away____________________________________________________________________ . (Name a negative effect)During his 1829 Address to Congress, Jackson’s justification for IndianRemoval was ________________________________________________ .
  • 30. In Chief Black Hawk’s Surrender Speech, he ________________________ (Explain his feelings about relocation.)_____________________________________________________________.The Trails of Tears image ________________________________________ (Explain what it conveys and why it’s important)_____________________________________________________.Therefore, Jacksonian Democracy _______________________________ (Summarize how Native Americans were affected.)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________.KEY: Teacher Sample ParagraphHave students re-write in proper paragraph format. Summative paragraph for Jackson’s Indian Removal LessonQuestion: How were Native Americans affected by Jacksonian Democracy? Although Jacksonian Democracy _increased the opportunities for the (Name a positive effect)common man to participate in government, it did not /it took awayland, power, and autonomy from the Native Americans, especially the (Name a negative effect)Sauk and Choctow tribes.During his 1829 Address to Congress, Jackson’s justification for IndianRemoval was to set aside a separate place for the Indians to live where
  • 31. they can keep their culture and identity.In Chief Black Hawk’s Surrender Speech, he was angered the Sauk nation lost (Explain his feelings about relocation.)their land and felt he let down his people for being unable to regain it.The Trails of Tears image from 1942 is a visual interpretation of the (Explain what it conveys and why it’s important)disastrous displacement of the Native Americans of the southeast. Itshows sad Native Americans who were forced to move with all theirbelongings against their will to a new and smaller homeland.Therefore, Jacksonian Democracy was a negative experience for the Native (Summarize how Native Americans were affected.)Americans.

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