Carbohydrates Learn about the three different carbohydrates Understand the term ‘dextrinisation’ and ‘gelatinisation’ Know how to answer the design question
Three types Complex/Starchy . They provide us with Starch & Fibre/NSP Simple/Sugary . They provide us with glucose Fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose. Slow release of Energy Fast release of Energy
Carbohydrates Why do we need carbohydrates? Macronutrient Provide energy They provide fibre For digestion They can sweeten foods
Two Types SIMPLE/SUGARY . They provide us with glucose Fructose, galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose. Fast release of Energy Extrinsic sugar (visible like sugar for your tea) Intrinsic sugar (hidden in fruits)
Two Types COMPLEX . They provide us with Starch & Fibre Slow release of Energy Starch Leaves us feeling full Adds bulk to our diet Comes from plants Mainly from pasta, oats and bread Fibre/NSP (non starch polysaccharide) Cannot be digested, so it passes straight through the digestive system helping to push other foods through the system cleaning the walls of the intestine as it goes. Prevents constipation, bowel cancer, diverticular disease. Mainly from fruits and vegetables
The effect of heat on starch <ul><li>Dry heat = Dextrinisation </li></ul><ul><li>Moist heat = Gelatinisation </li></ul>When dry heat is applied to products starchy foods like bread the crust becomes brown, this is called dextrinisation When flour is mixed with a liquid and heated the mixture will thicken, this is called gelatinisation. The starch grains swell and split open. It forms a gel when cooled.
Modified starches <ul><li>Starch that has already gelatinised is then dried, this means that it thickens when hot water is applied, no heating for long periods is required. Simply add hot water for a thickened product. </li></ul><ul><li>It speeds up manufacturing. </li></ul>
Design and Make….. <ul><li>A Macaroni Cheese which </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the process of gelatinisation to thicken the sauce. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the roux technique and also involves the use of a garnish. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the nutritional advice of consuming 18g of fibre per day (increase the vegetable content) </li></ul>