Laura van Santenborn 22.4.1985 in Leiden, the NetherlandsMolslaan 1552611 RL Delft+31 (0) email@example.com
EDUCATION2009 - 2010 Master of Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences : Archiprix Nominee Delft University of Technology - Nomads in No man’s land : an extraterritorial settlement for Burmese refugees in Thailandspring 2009 Urban Emergencies Pilot Studio : Case Bangladesh Cordaid (International) - Workshop, Exhibition, Symposium, Publication : post disaster spatial redevelopmentfall 2008 Architectural Engineering Pilot Studio : Material Pavilion Delft University of Technologyspring 2008 Erasmus Exchange Program : Wood Program Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)2005 - 2007 Bachelor of Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences : Hybrid Building Delft University of Technology - The Bridge as Urban Agora : a design for infrastructural intersections as places for street art2004 - 2005 Propedeuse Architecture, Landscape and Design : Dwelling Settlement Leeds Metropolitan University (United Kingdom)1998 -2003 International Baccalaureate Program Het Rijnlands Lyceum Oegstgeest International School1994 - 1998 Middle School American Embassy School New Delhi (India)QUALIFICATIONSAdobe Suite Illustrator / InDesign / PhotoshopMicrosoft Office Word / Excel / PowerPoint3D modelling Autodesk / Maya / VectorworksEXPERIENCEfall 2009 Urbanism Internship : Industrial Ecology 2012 Architecten Rotterdamspring 2007 Architectural Internship : Wood Architecture Onix Architecten Groningen
selection of 3 projects1 architecture // nomads in noman’sland urbanism // urban emergencies bangladesh building sciences // material pavilion1119
2 Ethnic minorities (nearly half the population) have been fleeing Bur- mese militairy junta attacks into rela- tive safety in Thailand for fifty years. This has resulted in humanitar- ian border management since 1985 (hosting 200 000 refugees in camps, 2 000 000 illegal migrant workers) and formal and informal interweave.
A field study revealed the refugee can either choose to legally stay in a pro- tected refugee camp without right to work or move, or he can choose to il- legally work as an economic migrant risking deportation. Thailand does not honor the UN Rights of Refu- gees and a return to Burma is unsafe. Is there a potential between borders?4
5 An extraterritorial floating settlement was pro- jected in the Moei River that divides the two countries. In order to create an environment of working and living, a garment factory was designed as a catalyst for settlement ; a parasite hanging underneath the Friendship Bridge...
6 The refugees from Burma are generally tradi- tioanlly nomads, and highly skilled in weaving textiles and as well as bamboo construction...
7 Colorful textiles protect the workers and the products from the wet season wind and rain. They also help orientation inside the factory. The products are cut on the second floor and sown on the ground floor. The textiles come from Burma and will be exported via Thailand.
8 Experienced bamboo builders hang the struc- ture between the existing concrete beams. The bamboo is reinforced with wood and bolts.
9 Important actors in the refugee world are the nongovernmental organisations, responsible for education, healthcare, often venturing into spatial planning. In this case the NGOs could implement sanitation blocks, which would dictate the form of the floating settement.
50 000 200 000 Rajshahi $ 150 000 Dhaka ta 1 bilion dollars of c api donor aid annually: er Pp this equals 2,5% of GD on the total incoming in- lati vestments. 100 000 l popu 90 000 Sylhet independence epende n tota on 80 000 ati partition o india a tion of ndia and n d pul l po east and w pakistan nd west d rura 70 000 Chittagong 60 000 abolishment of a l m abol hme f feudal sys feud l system f d s 50 000 12 November 1970 22 April 1991 11 June 2007 Cyclone Bhola Cyclone Gorky Chittagong mudslides split o east and we pakistan split sp t of east a d w st pakistan p as an west a t tion 300 000 casualties 140 000 casualties 330 casualties la GD P p opu The Pakistani recieved severe critisism for its relief operation 10 million people left homeless 8 000 people evacuated from the slums in the hillsides im p musl er capita a gainst average 40 000 awami league $ awami a e awami league w ague Barisal first elected f re- c d - re-elected 30 000 government go e nme g vernm t nment go n ent o overnme e government $ perce ntage 20 000 1 2 1982 1991 1991 BNP party elected a y d of world military cou military coup milita y cou tary u devel opm ent aid 10 000 tion pula n po 11 Nov 2007 urba Cyclone Sidr 7 500 Khulna 3 500 casualties language war lan langua e lang n 2 million people evacuated to storm shelters, damage estimated to $450 million 1975 c u of 1975 coup of 5 urdu to bengali rdu t d g 5 000 B BNP party t 2 500 500 hin population hindu popu u 1001950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 The delta of Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to A three month field study was undertaken in a the flooding which is responsible for succesful team of three students, investigating the post agriculture, as well as to super cyclones that disaster spatial redevelopment along Bangla- form on the Indian Ocean. With a population desh’s coast. Academic interviews, bottom up of 160 000 and a population density of 1100 investigations and humanitarian collabora- Bengalis / km2, land and resources are scarce. tions led to the resulting insights...
LIVING OF THE LAND THE EMBANKMENTLife in the countryside Land usage Requirements Coping mechanism Decisive in settlement Storm surge Aforestation Road infrastructureof Bangladesh is The fishing industry isn’t using any Based on extracting fish from the The materials used for fishing patterns of Bangladesh The storm surge is a tidal wave created by the cyclone as the winds put To protect the embankment from erosion (mangrove) The embankment is, linear and raised above the rest of pressure on the surface of the sea. As the cyclone moves inland the wave trees can be planted on the sea side of the embankment. the land, the basis for the road network in Bangladesh.directly linked to the land to speak of but is based on the rivers and the sea the fishing (boats and nets) are the biggest is the embankment. Fishing rivers of Bangladesh and the Bay of sector doesn’t have any specific concerns in relation to cyclones. builds up. The impact of the storm surge is the most destructive aspect of a Aforestation has the additional advantage that it lowers In the aftermath of a cyclone the embankment is usedland itself. 90% of the Bengal. land requirements. To cope with the cyclones the This raised dike is cyclone. The storm surge of a supercyclone can reach up to ten meters. The the impact of the wind from cyclones. alongside waterways to bring in relief aid. storm surge by cyclone Gorki had a height of six meters.area is used for fishing boats are anchored in Bangladesh’s first line coves in mangrove forests alongagricultural the coast. of defense againstproduction. Fishing, cyclones, in particular Salt and shrimp farming requires a Salt & shrimp farming is done at The salt from the salt fields can besalt & shrimp farming, Salt & shrimp large investment to be profitable and large fields close to the coast. stored in large sacks underground the storm surge. Therice cultivation and are as a result run by large land Salty water is pumped into to protect it from the surge wave embankment divides lords. The sector requires salty water shallow pools, and as the water of the cyclones. No suchstockbreeding are the and is located close to the coast, evaporates the salt is harvested. In possibility exists to protect the the land in two, insidemost common often outside the embankment. the rainy period the same pools shrimps. and outside. The are used for shrimp cultivation.livelihoods in the area. embankment is largelyAll livelihoods have Rice cultivation has a reasonably Rice in Bangladesh is cultivated in Due to the seasonal nature of constructed by the low investment cost and is often wet paddies. The paddies require harvesting rice there’s no effectivedifferent requirements, done by small-scale farmers in a high amount of fresh water for way to protect the rice paddies government and the Ricecharacteristics and combination with other work. The irrigation. from cyclones. The harvested rice land outside the sector requires fresh water irrigation can, however, be stored oncoping mechanisms to and is located inside the suspended platform inside the embankment is usuallydeal with cyclones. embankment. home. governmental land, Inclination Sluice gate kash land. Stockbreeding Stockbreedng can be done at a small Smallscale stockbreeding can be To protect the livestock from To break the wave of the storm surge and protect the Essential for the embankment is a sufficient amount of household scale. Chicken, goats and done with just a small patch of cyclones they can be brought to 1 embankment against erosion the embankment is functioning sluice gates. Insufficient sluice gates can cattle are the most common land. This can be directly adjacent specific, raised platforms, killas. constructed with an inclination of 1:5 on the sea side lead to waterlogging during the rainy season while animals. to the home. Stockbreeding These protect the livestock from a 5 3 and 1:3 on the inland side. broken sluice gates form a risk during cyclones. On this scale stockbreeding is rarely requires fresh or dry food for the storm surge up to a certain height. the main form of income but rather livestock. a complement. Ibrahim, fisherman The research in Bangladesh was con-13 I moved here 35 years ago when I lost my land through ducted in four areas; the salt fields river erosion. I do river fishing now. I don’t own a boat. I also work on my landlord’s field. I sell my fish at the Ahmedul and harbor city of Chittagong, as Joshi, fisherman bazaar. My landlord sells his salt to a broker, who hires a Nuran, rice farmer farmer I go deep sea fishing for a boat to transport to the city. week at a time with my crew It took us 3 years to restore I survived the During 1991 cyclone I didn’t There was a well as the delta and resort of Barisal. of 8 men; we share profit. I the rice paddy after the own the boat, and it cost me believe the warning, and took surge but we cyclone in 1991. I employ 12 500,000TK (5000E). I am not shelter in a haystack. The know it was co day-laborers, and share insured against disaster. shelter is 4 km from here. my own house irrigation with other farmers. During the last cyclone I There was a 6-meter storm hands. It is ve We moved here to be closer to The four sections are composed of a stored my boat inside a canal. surge and three of my sons has central colu the cyclone shelter where I Last year pirates robbed us. died in the storm. It took 6 a killa (plinth am also teaching to pay for months to repair my house cattle in the ne my children to attend college. and cost 20,000TK (200E). cloud of topics, personal interviews, building types and material flows. rope sh salt shrimps bamboo salt water sh sea waterTHE SALT FIELDS jute 30 50
WATER AND THE LAND MULTIPURPOSE CYCLONE SHELTER The availability of The most visible sign of The essence of mixed-use cyclone shelters Since the great cyclones of 1970 and 1991 a Five points of cyclonic architecture fresh drinking water is Latrine pit Ponds Bangladesh’ struggle 1 lot of single purpose cyclone shelters have pilotis against flooding been constructed. The cyclone shelters were central to life in Sanitation in the countryside of Bangladesh is The pond is the source of water for washing and irrigation. Ponds can be used by a single against the elements is only used during cyclones, and were In order to protect the cyclone shelter solved by latrine pits adjacent to the homes. Latrine household or by the community. Pond filtration systems can be installed to provide fresh Bangladesh. With pits are usually constructed of concrete ring slabs, a drinking water from ponds. This system is used in areas where drilling tube wells isn’t possible. the cyclone shelters. therefore exclusively designed for that use. from storm surges, the building has been Due to the resulting lack of daily use raised 6 meters into the air by using arsenic poisoning and floorplate and a small structure for privacy. If tube wells nor filtration systems are available the ponds might be used for drinking water. This These concrete outside the cyclone seasons, there was a pilotis made of concrete. is a big health risk, especially in combinations with flooding and low lying pit latrines. Diarrheal epidemics caused by buildings are raised lack of money to maintain the building. 2 outbreaks occur annually due to this reason. roof terrace for extra capacaty Cyclone shelters therefore deteriorated in flash floods it’s the above the land, acting due time, some of which had to be Since the cyclone shelters are often most critical health as a safe haven during single purpose cyclone shelter single purpose school single purpose concrete building demolished later on. crowded during the disaster, the roof issue the country has to a cyclone and its storm terrace can allow for extra capacity as well as rain water storage for drinking. deal with. surge. NGOs and the Combining the need for specific functions = 3 with the cyclone shelters could optimize the concrete walls for protection government are now use of cyclone shelters. These structures then become multi purpose cyclone To make sure that all people using the trying to create hybrid shelters, opening the space for various cyclone shelter are safe and sound, the functions for these functions for the community. These walls have to be strong enough to include: primary schools, madrasas, office withstand the strong gusts of wind. arsenic, As 33 cyclone shelters. For spaces for NGOs, mosques, etc. 4 instance: cyclone multi purpose cyclone shelter ... used also as... primary school free floor plan shelter cum school, The floorplan should be free enough, so that the shelter’s program can change all 150m cyclone shelter cum = Concrete structures in Bangladesh are not around the year. It can then be used as Shallow tube well Deep tube well mosque, and cyclone very common, especially the rural areas of school or office for instance. the country. These ”pucca” buildings could shelter cum office. The 5 Shallow tube wells are used to extract ground water for Deep tube wells are the most common source of fresh potentially provide shelter for people windows with metal shutters during cyclones, but most do not provide drinking. In most areas of Bangladesh shallow tube wells are a drinking water. In order to avoid arsenic poisoning deep tube modernistic concept this option, so that both the cyclone During a cyclone, the open windows health risk due to high levels of arsenic in the ground. wells are dug to a depth of 150 meters. shows through the five shelters and the concrete structures are should be protected from outside winds. single purpose buildings. Metal shutters make sure that everyone points shown here. concrete structure ... used also as... concrete struture used as cyclone shelter inside is safe and sound. Rasheda, Razia, shrimp housewife farmer My husband is a day laborer I used to live in a bamboo Mumtaz, teacher house but now we have built a 14 on other farms. He earns brick and concrete house. Our I work as a primary teacher in 150TK (1,50E) per day. The relatives helped us with the the cyclone shelter and NGOs call us hardcore poor. I costs. We do not own this receive training from an work in the household. Other land, and we work on our NGO. We have a lot of space. women in the village think landlord’s land. In the wet Children start school at age 4. I’m crazy. We don’t have any season we cultivate shrimp School is free for girls and money to repair our house, or and in dry season collect salt. 50TK a month for boys.llah, salt make it stronger. During a cyclone warning we In the 1991 disaster I lost my evacuate furniture and books. parents and 6 siblings. It took storm in 1991. us two years to repair the We would like a megaphone 6-meter storm fields. We also migrated here here to sound the alarm bute heard didn’t 30 years ago due to river we don’t have it. Our mainoming. I rebuilt erosion. We never received problems in the shelter after ae with my own any help from NGOs to build disaster are with water and ery strong and back as this is considered a sanitation. There are no umns. We need high-risk disaster area. separate toilets for men andh) to save our women. We would like toext disaster. store rainwater on the roof. bricks clay palm tree ken brick bam boo ma t fresh water bro s boo po bam les metal led metal tal rods clay bricks sand cement iimestone roll me
Next to organizing an interdiscipli- nary workshop in Bangladesh, as well15 as an exhibition, symposium, publi- cation back in the Netherlands, we designed a game to express complex- ities in designing suitable dwellings. Bangla Roulettes’ players experience the architectural dilemmas related to local customs, materials and disaster. Cyclones hit Bangladesh in the transitional pe- riods before and after the wet season. The wet season brings floods, and cholera outbreaks are common during this time. In order to survive the extreme storm surge of a cyclone, houses and livelihoods have to be adequate
Bangladesh relies heavily on humani- tarian aid and has the largest amount17 of registerd nongovernmental organ- izations in the world. Unfortunately many of these organizations operate parallel to eachother and there is no central planning in place for disaster relief, rehabilitation or preparedness. NGOs are accountable to the donor. The game is played in around the seasons, and each player must build up his house. He makes money according to his livelihood, and can purchase his materials at the bazar. Fate is an important aspect of the cycle, and Insha’Allah cards are a must be drawn as part of the game.
16 The four players represent the four case stud- ies, an urban and a rural person from both the east and the west. The direction of the cyclone is unpredictable and may strike either side. Saving lives has improved over the last years as Gorki caused 150 000 deaths vs Sidr’s 3500.
18 Pucca (permanent) and katcha (non perma- nent) materials can be bought at the bazar. The game looks at specifically at the rehabilitation period: how to build back better, as the relief phase is covered by cyclone shelters, and long term preparedness involves coastal protection.
20 The material pavilion is designed for architec- The pavilion is expressed as wall of drawers, ture students to research material properties as and can be entered when the drawers contain- well as a storage for the sample library. A pro- ing the samples are pulled out. The focus of gram for the sensual experience of the material the project was on the succesful transforma- properties was added. tion from conceptual design to prototype.
21 The metal drawer system was tested using the The acoustic space where material samples can Finite Element Method in iDIANA software. be tested was designed using BOA software. This program guided structural design aspects. This program guided us in the choice of wood.
22 The foam insulated heating elements were A prototype was built in the workshop of a tested using TRISCO software, in order to de- composite sandwich beam in an unusual sign the optimal directional heat. shape. The prototype was built full scale.
23 The beam was designed as a composite of foam and metal. The two were connected with a lot of glue, many C-profiles and bolts!
24 The design and manufacture of the prototype was carried out in a team of two. Skills such as welding, bending and spinning were applied.
26 In the flat landscape of the Netherlands, large dol- mans have always repre- sented marking points in the landscape. The stones, deposited here during the ice age are places of orienta- tion, ‘eyecathers’. The large stones are still sold in the area where the brief was developed and are a symbol engrained in local culture.
The design was inspired both by these marking stones, as well as the way they have been piled up to rep- resent a new landscape. The large openings provide lighting shafts for the office interiors. The contrast in materialisation of rough rubble con- crete with glass creates contrast like a precious gem with rough exterior.28
30 A lamp is sometimes a lan- tern, a flashlight, a focused light, or a reading light. This design lets the lamp fold out according to need, and the electrical wiring makes a connection at the hinges which are cast into four U-profile composites. This enables a design with natural fibre, giving a beau- tifully soft glow of light.