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Europe and US, 1945-70

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  • 1. Europe and America 1945-70 Still from Mad Men opening credits, AMC television series
  • 2. Europe and America 1945-60
    • People & Events :
    • Response to upheaval and devastation of WW II
    • Rise of consumerism in 50s
    • Influence of European avant-garde in exile in U.S.
    • New York & the “New York School”
    • Clement Greenberg & Greenbergian formalism
    ALBERTO GIACOMETTI, Man Pointing , 1947. Fig. 15-2.
  • 3.
    • Themes :
    • Formal exploration (“purity”)
    • Self-expression
    • Isolation and despair
    • The sublime
    • Consumer and popular culture
    • Forms :
    • Abstraction, realism, found objects, new media
    Europe and America 1945-60 Francis Bacon, Painting , 1946, fig.15-3
  • 4. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950. Fig. 15-4.
  • 5. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960
    • Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction
    • Rise of American modernist painting
    • Act of creation most important
    • All-over composition (no central focus)
    • Greenbergian formalism?
    • Jungian psychoanalysis?
    JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950, oil, enamel, aluminum paint, fig. 15-4. At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act—rather than as a space in which to reproduce, redesign, analyze or “express” an object real or imagined. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event. -Harold Rosenberg, 1952
  • 6. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 WILLEM DE KOONING, Woman I, 1950–1952. Fig. 15-5.
  • 7. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960
    • Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction
    • Expressive, energetic application of paint
    • Retains figure
    • Inspired by Cubist formal
    • analysis
    • Critique of women in advertisements
    • Act of painting (2 yrs to complete painting, 200 attempts)
    WILLEM DE KOONING, Woman I, 1950–1952. Fig. 15-5.
  • 8. “Woman” II, III, & IV “ Venus” of Willendorf Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907 1950s Camel Cig. ad
  • 9. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon , 1959, mixed media, fig. 15-15 Rembrandt, Rape of Ganymede 1635, oil
  • 10. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon , 1959, mixed media, fig. 15-15
    • Proto-Pop
    • “ Combine” (found object
    • assemblage)
    • Includes stuffed bald eagle, pillow hanging from string, photo of young son
    • “ Open and indeterminate”
    • meaning
    • Resists over-manipulation of
    • objects
    • Resembles Dada collage and anti-aesthetic (Duchamp)
    Painting relates to both art and life. Neither can be made (I try to act in the gap between the two). -Rauschenberg
  • 11. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970
    • People & Events :
    • Youth culture rejects
    • traditional values
    • Protest against war –
    • pacifist movements in 1960s
    • Civil and women’s rights
    • (African American, Gay &
    • lesbian)
    • Assassinations of JFK (1963), MLK (1968)
    • Vietnam War (until 1975)
    President Elect by James Rosenquist 1960-61/1964, oil on masonite General Nguyen Ngoc Loan Executing a Viet Cong Prisoner in Saigon by Eddie Adams, 1968, Associated Press
  • 12. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970
    • Themes:
    • Formal exploration
    • Consumer and popular
    • culture
    • Accessibility & inclusion
    • Objectivity (vs. subjectivity)
    • Forms:
    • Pop Art
    • Minimalism
    • Mass production (the serial
    • image/object)
    • Found images/objects
    • Performance & body art
    Louise Nevelson, Tropical Garden II , 1957-59, painted wood, fig.15-11
  • 13. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Fig. 15-17.
  • 14. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970
    • Pop Art
    • Established commercial
    • illustrator
    • Commentary on
    • celebrity (public persona)
    • Mass production (serial)
    • Combines printing
    • & painting
    • References film
    • Produces painting
    • at “factory”, breaks
    • rules of high art
    ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Fig. 15-17. Andy Warhol, Self-Portrait in Drag , 1981 Celebration or critique?
  • 15. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970
    • Pop Art
    • Popular comic books, romantic melodrama
    • Resulted out of a challenge from his young son (“I bet you can’t paint as good as that”)
    • Benday dots, look of comic book
    • Slight alteration of image, retained most of original
    • Blurs lines between high art medium and low -brow entertainment
    • Plagiarism?
    ROY LICHTENSTEIN, Hopeless, 1963. Fig. 15-16.
  • 16. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 La Fillette, Robert Mapplethorpe, 1982 Louise Bourgeois, Cumul I , 1969, marble Fig. 15-12
    • Like biomorphic surrealism
    • Body as landscape
    • Sexual suggestiveness
    • (castration fantasies?)
  • 17. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970
    • Minimalism
    • Tangible qualities of the object
    • Purity of form without embellishment
    • Embraces qualities of the materials
    • Removes deception & illusion
    • Pure abstraction (“objecthood”)
    DONALD JUDD, Untitled, 1969. Fig. 15-10.
  • 18.
    • Superrealism
    • Translation of photograph to painting by grid
    • Systematic, objective
    • process
    • One of many portraits of self and friends
    • All using standard size
    • (9’ x 7’)
    Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 Chuck Close, Big Self-Portrait, 1967-68 Acrylic, fig. 15-18
  • 19.
    • Superrealism
    • Painted with an airbrush
    • Average Americans
    • “ Emptiness and
    • loneliness” of
    • daily American life
    • Gritty realism
    • vs. idealism
    Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 Duane Hanson, Supermarket Shopper , 1970 Polyester resin and fiberglass, fig. 15-19
  • 20. Contemporary Superrealism Ron Mueck, A Girl (2006, 15’ long) and Spooning Couple (2005, 1/2 scale)

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