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Europe and  America 1945-70 Still from  Mad Men  opening credits, AMC television series
Europe and America 1945-60 <ul><li>People & Events :  </li></ul><ul><li>Response to upheaval and devastation of WW II  </l...
<ul><li>Themes :  </li></ul><ul><li>Formal exploration (“purity”) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-expression </li></ul><ul><li>Isol...
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 JACKSON POLLOCK,  Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist),  1950. Fig. 15-4.
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 <ul><li>Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction  </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of Ameri...
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 WILLEM DE KOONING,  Woman I,  1950–1952.  Fig. 15-5.
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 <ul><li>Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction  </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive, e...
“Woman” II, III, & IV “ Venus” of Willendorf Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907 1950s Camel Cig. ad
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 Robert Rauschenberg,  Canyon , 1959, mixed media, fig. 15-15 Rembrandt,  Rape of Gany...
Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 Robert Rauschenberg,  Canyon , 1959, mixed media, fig. 15-15 <ul><li>Proto-Pop </li><...
Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>People & Events :   </li></ul><ul><li>Youth culture rejects  </li></ul><ul><l...
Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Themes: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer and p...
Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 ANDY WARHOL,  Marilyn Diptych,  1962. Fig. 15-17.
Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Pop Art  </li></ul><ul><li>Established commercial </li></ul><ul><li>illustrat...
Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Pop Art  </li></ul><ul><li>Popular comic books, romantic melodrama </li></ul>...
Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 La Fillette,  Robert Mapplethorpe, 1982 Louise Bourgeois,  Cumul I , 1969, marble Fig...
Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Minimalism  </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible qualities of the object </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Superrealism  </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of photograph to painting by grid </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic, object...
<ul><li>Superrealism </li></ul><ul><li>Painted with an airbrush </li></ul><ul><li>Average Americans </li></ul><ul><li>“ Em...
Contemporary Superrealism   Ron Mueck,  A Girl  (2006, 15’ long) and  Spooning Couple  (2005, 1/2 scale)
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Europe and US, 1945-70

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Transcript of "Europe and US, 1945-70"

  1. 1. Europe and America 1945-70 Still from Mad Men opening credits, AMC television series
  2. 2. Europe and America 1945-60 <ul><li>People & Events : </li></ul><ul><li>Response to upheaval and devastation of WW II </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of consumerism in 50s </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of European avant-garde in exile in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>New York & the “New York School” </li></ul><ul><li>Clement Greenberg & Greenbergian formalism </li></ul>ALBERTO GIACOMETTI, Man Pointing , 1947. Fig. 15-2.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Themes : </li></ul><ul><li>Formal exploration (“purity”) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-expression </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation and despair </li></ul><ul><li>The sublime </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer and popular culture </li></ul><ul><li>Forms : </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction, realism, found objects, new media </li></ul>Europe and America 1945-60 Francis Bacon, Painting , 1946, fig.15-3
  4. 4. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950. Fig. 15-4.
  5. 5. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 <ul><li>Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of American modernist painting </li></ul><ul><li>Act of creation most important </li></ul><ul><li>All-over composition (no central focus) </li></ul><ul><li>Greenbergian formalism? </li></ul><ul><li>Jungian psychoanalysis? </li></ul>JACKSON POLLOCK, Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist), 1950, oil, enamel, aluminum paint, fig. 15-4. At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act—rather than as a space in which to reproduce, redesign, analyze or “express” an object real or imagined. What was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event. -Harold Rosenberg, 1952
  6. 6. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 WILLEM DE KOONING, Woman I, 1950–1952. Fig. 15-5.
  7. 7. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 <ul><li>Abstract Expressionism, gestural abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive, energetic application of paint </li></ul><ul><li>Retains figure </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Cubist formal </li></ul><ul><li>analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of women in advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Act of painting (2 yrs to complete painting, 200 attempts) </li></ul>WILLEM DE KOONING, Woman I, 1950–1952. Fig. 15-5.
  8. 8. “Woman” II, III, & IV “ Venus” of Willendorf Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907 1950s Camel Cig. ad
  9. 9. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon , 1959, mixed media, fig. 15-15 Rembrandt, Rape of Ganymede 1635, oil
  10. 10. Painting and Sculpture, 1945 to 1960 Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon , 1959, mixed media, fig. 15-15 <ul><li>Proto-Pop </li></ul><ul><li>“ Combine” (found object </li></ul><ul><li>assemblage) </li></ul><ul><li>Includes stuffed bald eagle, pillow hanging from string, photo of young son </li></ul><ul><li>“ Open and indeterminate” </li></ul><ul><li>meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Resists over-manipulation of </li></ul><ul><li>objects </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles Dada collage and anti-aesthetic (Duchamp) </li></ul>Painting relates to both art and life. Neither can be made (I try to act in the gap between the two). -Rauschenberg
  11. 11. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>People & Events : </li></ul><ul><li>Youth culture rejects </li></ul><ul><li>traditional values </li></ul><ul><li>Protest against war – </li></ul><ul><li>pacifist movements in 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Civil and women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>(African American, Gay & </li></ul><ul><li>lesbian) </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinations of JFK (1963), MLK (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam War (until 1975) </li></ul>President Elect by James Rosenquist 1960-61/1964, oil on masonite General Nguyen Ngoc Loan Executing a Viet Cong Prisoner in Saigon by Eddie Adams, 1968, Associated Press
  12. 12. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Themes: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer and popular </li></ul><ul><li>culture </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility & inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity (vs. subjectivity) </li></ul><ul><li>Forms: </li></ul><ul><li>Pop Art </li></ul><ul><li>Minimalism </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production (the serial </li></ul><ul><li>image/object) </li></ul><ul><li>Found images/objects </li></ul><ul><li>Performance & body art </li></ul>Louise Nevelson, Tropical Garden II , 1957-59, painted wood, fig.15-11
  13. 13. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Fig. 15-17.
  14. 14. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Pop Art </li></ul><ul><li>Established commercial </li></ul><ul><li>illustrator </li></ul><ul><li>Commentary on </li></ul><ul><li>celebrity (public persona) </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production (serial) </li></ul><ul><li>Combines printing </li></ul><ul><li>& painting </li></ul><ul><li>References film </li></ul><ul><li>Produces painting </li></ul><ul><li>at “factory”, breaks </li></ul><ul><li>rules of high art </li></ul>ANDY WARHOL, Marilyn Diptych, 1962. Fig. 15-17. Andy Warhol, Self-Portrait in Drag , 1981 Celebration or critique?
  15. 15. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Pop Art </li></ul><ul><li>Popular comic books, romantic melodrama </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted out of a challenge from his young son (“I bet you can’t paint as good as that”) </li></ul><ul><li>Benday dots, look of comic book </li></ul><ul><li>Slight alteration of image, retained most of original </li></ul><ul><li>Blurs lines between high art medium and low -brow entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism? </li></ul>ROY LICHTENSTEIN, Hopeless, 1963. Fig. 15-16.
  16. 16. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 La Fillette, Robert Mapplethorpe, 1982 Louise Bourgeois, Cumul I , 1969, marble Fig. 15-12 <ul><li>Like biomorphic surrealism </li></ul><ul><li>Body as landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual suggestiveness </li></ul><ul><li>(castration fantasies?) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 <ul><li>Minimalism </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible qualities of the object </li></ul><ul><li>Purity of form without embellishment </li></ul><ul><li>Embraces qualities of the materials </li></ul><ul><li>Removes deception & illusion </li></ul><ul><li>Pure abstraction (“objecthood”) </li></ul>DONALD JUDD, Untitled, 1969. Fig. 15-10.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Superrealism </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of photograph to painting by grid </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic, objective </li></ul><ul><li>process </li></ul><ul><li>One of many portraits of self and friends </li></ul><ul><li>All using standard size </li></ul><ul><li>(9’ x 7’) </li></ul>Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 Chuck Close, Big Self-Portrait, 1967-68 Acrylic, fig. 15-18
  19. 19. <ul><li>Superrealism </li></ul><ul><li>Painted with an airbrush </li></ul><ul><li>Average Americans </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emptiness and </li></ul><ul><li>loneliness” of </li></ul><ul><li>daily American life </li></ul><ul><li>Gritty realism </li></ul><ul><li>vs. idealism </li></ul>Painting and Sculpture, 1960 to 1970 Duane Hanson, Supermarket Shopper , 1970 Polyester resin and fiberglass, fig. 15-19
  20. 20. Contemporary Superrealism Ron Mueck, A Girl (2006, 15’ long) and Spooning Couple (2005, 1/2 scale)
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