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Europe, 1600 1700

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  • St. Peter’s completed Nave for processions Sculptural treatment of façade Effects of light and shadow Piazza in dynamic forms Visual trick to compensate for façade height
  • Bernini wrote plays and produced stage designs; ignatius Loyola’s book Spiritual Exercises argued for rep. of spiritual experiences in art to increase devotion and pietry; bernini a devout catholic Jesuits (Society of Jesus) – catholic order known for missionary (to convert non-believers to catholics), education (classicism, renaissance humanism and theology) and charity work; founded in 16 th cent.; one of original goals was to counter spread of Protestantism; strict obedience to scripture and Pope; encouraged art and decoration in catholic ceremony as way of worshipping God, therefore many early jesuits were also artists (visual art, music, etc) ; advocated “finding god in all things”
  • Pozzo a lay member of the jesuit order; jesuits active missionaries in 17 th cent Counter Ref. In asia, new world and elsewhere
  • Velaz. Trained in seville, made two extended trips to italy but returned to madrid where he remained Chamberlain: a high-ranking official in a noble court Ptg hung in Philip IV’s office in palance
  • Rembrandt most successful dutch artist of 17 th century—from leiden, moved to amsterdam in 1631 where he est his reputation primarily as an individual and group portraitist; his manner of rep. sitters with introspective demeanor and psychological complexity
  • Vermeer—little known about him, was an inkeeper and art dealer; only 35 some works exist by him, painted interior scenes of quiet, affluent Dutch life
  • Transcript

    • 1. Europe, 1600-1700 The baroque uses the same system of forms, but in place of the perfect, the completed, gives the restless, the becoming, in place of the limited the conceivable, gives the limitless, the colossal. The ideal of beautiful proportion vanishes, interest concentrates not on being, but on happening. The masses, heavy and thickset, come into movement…The relationship of the individual to the world has changed, a new domain of feeling has opened, the soul aspires to dissolution in the sublimity of the huge, the infinite. "Emotion and movement at all costs." -from The Principles of Art History by Heinrich Wolfflin, 1915
    • 2. Europe in the 17th Century • Period of unrest & uncertainty - prosperity and decline • Widespread warfare (Thirty Years War) • Continued conflict between Catholics and Protestants • Expanded worldwide markets for goods (coffee, tea, sugar) • Colonialism & the slave trade • Oil on canvas • Art as propaganda for patrons, church & state Europe in 1648 after the Treaty Of Westphalia, fig.10-1
    • 3. Dates and Places: • 1600 to 1700 • Italy (Rome), Spain, Dutch Republic (Holland), France People & Events: • Catholic church & Counter Reformation • Protestantism (Dutch Republic) • Powerful leaders: Pope Urban VIII (Rome), Philip III & IV (Spain), Louis XIV (France) • Imperialism & colonialism (Spanish rule of Netherlands & New World; Dutch in Africa, China, Japan) • Merchant & upper middle class (Holland) • More successful female artists (Gentileschi, Leyster, Ruysch) • French Royal Academy Saint Peter’s, 1506–1666. Fig. 10-3. “the motherly arms of the church” by Bernini Europe in the 17th Century
    • 4. Themes: • Life of Christ, Virgin Mary, Saints • Mythology (Classical forms) • Allegory • Portraiture • Genre scenes (landscape, still life) Forms: • Baroque • Unity of arts for dramatic/theatrical effect (mixed media) • Large scale (Italy, Spain, France) vs. small scale (Dutch Republic) • Dynamic illusionism • Dramatic chiaroscuro, tenebrism • Painterly (loose brushwork) • Elaborate ornamentation • Realism (everyday life) Hiroshi Sugimoto, from his Theaters series, 1970-present Europe in the 17th Century
    • 5. David Matures… Donatello, 15th century Michelangelo, 16th Century Bernini, 17th Century
    • 6. Italy Bernini, Cornaro Chapel Sta Maria della Vittoria, Rome 1645-52
    • 7. Italy • 16th cent. Spanish mystic • Unity of arts to achieve dramatic effect (theatrical) • Virtuoso treatment of marble (wool, gauze, feathers) • Hidden window • Animated & ecstatic poses • Jesuit ideas (Ignatius Loyola – 16th cent. founder of order) BERNINI, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, 1645–1652. Fig. 10-6. I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it... -St. Teresa of Avila
    • 8. Italy CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, ca. 1601. Fig. 10-10. “the anti-Christ of painting” (detail from David) Caravaggio:
    • 9. Italy • Brutal realism (publicly denounced classical masters) • Despised by critics, beloved by artists • Dramatic chiaroscuro & tenebrism (shadowy background cut by harsh light) - symbolic • Strong diagonals & foreshortening • Humanity of characters • Sacred scenes set on the rough streets of contemporary Rome • Counter-Reformation strategy CARAVAGGIO, Conversion of Saint Paul, ca. 1601. Fig. 10-10.
    • 10. Judith Slaying Holofernes by Artemisia Gentileschi, ca.1614-20, oil on canvas The Caravaggisti (followers of Caravaggio) • Gentileschi • Velazquez • Rubens • Rembrandt
    • 11. Class Activity Principles of Art History* Heinrich Wolfflin, 1915 1) Linear vs. painterly 2) Planar vs. recession 3) Closed form vs. open form 4) Multiplicity vs. unity 5) Absolute vs. relative clarity * Applied to Renaissance vs. Baroque art (also classical vs. non-classical art)
    • 12. Example – Renaissance vs. Baroque MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, ca. 1424–1427 PETER PAUL RUBENS, Elevation of the Cross, 1610. Fig. 10-17.
    • 13. FRANCESCO BORROMINI, San Carlo alle Quattr Fontane, 1665–1676. Fig. 10-7. #1 – Italian Architecture 15th vs. 17th Century LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1456–1470. Fig. 8-33. Italy
    • 14. Italy • Sculptural treatment of architecture • Projection and recession of façade (2) and interior, undulating motion (concave and convex) • Oval: dynamic shape vs. static circle • Dramatic effects of light and shadow BORROMINI, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1665–1676. Fig. 10-7.
    • 15. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, ceiling, Sistine Chapel, 1508–1512. FRA ANDREA POZZO, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, 1691-94 Italy – #2 ceiling fresco 16th vs. 17th century
    • 16. Italy • Illusionistic ceiling fresco (painter wrote treatise on perspective) • Single viewpoint for correct perspective (marked by disc in nave floor) • Seems to extend and open church architecture • Allegory of triumph of Society of Jesus; theatrical • Christ receives St. Ignatius, figures around them symbolize 4 corners of world FRA ANDREA POZZO, Glorification of Saint Ignatius, Sant’Ignazio, Rome 1691–1694. Fig. 10-13.
    • 17. DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas, 1656. Fig. 10-16. #3 – 16th vs. 17th Century Painting Italy vs. Spain RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), 1509–1511. Fig.9-7. Spain
    • 18. Spain • Royal portrait without definitive subject (Philip IV) • Enigmatic image of absolute monarchy • Artist’s noble status as member of court (in artist’s studio, Order of Santiago) • Natural light & loose brushwork • Large scale • Earthy palette (grey, brown) • Vision, space, reflection (viewer occupies same space as king & queen) • Art of painting as subject (the gaze & visual complexity) DIEGO VELÁZQUEZ, Las Meninas, 1656. Fig. 10-16.. 10’ x 9’ Copies of paintings by Rubens
    • 19. Las Meninas and Contemporary Art Las Meninas, Pablo Picasso, 1957 89 Seconds at Alcazar, Eve Sussman, 2004, video
    • 20. REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642, oil on canvas, Fig. 10-22. #4 – 15th Century Italian vs. 17th Century Dutch Painting Perugino, Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter, 1481 Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, Italy Dutch Republic
    • 21. Dutch Republic • Civic militia group portrait for assembly hall (Musketeers) in Amsterdam • Acquired shortened title later after varnish had darkened • Cropped in 18th cent. – arch, balustrade, steps in front gone • Challenge to represent participants (each (16) paid fee) • Selection of spontaneous moment (in act of organizing, arming themselves) • Light as dramatic device • Subtle modulation of light and shadow for mood Peter Greenaway’s Rembrandt’s J’Accuse http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZSAg5EqgiMI REMBRANDT VAN RIJN, The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch), 1642. Fig. 10-22., 11’ x 14’ Captain Cocq and lieutenant 14’ 12’ Girl is allegory of group – dead chicken symbol of guns used, arquebusiers, and victory over adversary
    • 22. Dutch Republic JAN VERMEER, Allegory of the Art of Painting, 1670–1675. Fig. 10-26.
    • 23. Dutch Republic • Quiet, peaceful domestic scenes of Dutch middle-class life • Women are primary subjects • Smaller scale • Careful rendering of objects (tapestries, clothing, jewelry) • Study of natural light (usually from one window on the left) • Pearly, light dabs of paint for shimmering, soft surface texture • Optical devices (camera obscura) • Allegory of the art of painting • History as muse: model’s laurel wreath, book, artist’s costume JAN VERMEER, Allegory of the Art of Painting, 1670–1675. Fig. 10-26. 3’ 4’ self-portrait in costume Map of Dutch Republic Clio
    • 24. Girl with a Pearl Earring, 2003 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m5ljByvlDP4 “Camera Obscura” scene
    • 25. France HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701. Fig. 10-31. “The Sun King” I am the state!
    • 26. France • Theatrical approach to absolute monarch (red curtain) • Propaganda and surrogate for king (aged 63) • Attributes: ermine coronation robe, scepter, curtain, crown, fleur-de-lis • Showing off legs, platform shoes for extra height (was ballet dance as youth) • Establishes Royal Academy which serves king’s artistic needs & champions classical tradition • Courtiers not allowed to turn back on painting HYACINTHE RIGAUD, Louis XIV, 1701. Fig. 10-31. 5’4” (without heels)
    • 27. France JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART, CHARLES LE BRUN, and ANDRÉ LE NÔTRE, Versailles Palace, begun 1669. Fig. 10-32.
    • 28. France • Louis XIV moves court • Proper setting for absolute monarch • Axes meet at bedroom • Outfitted by Royal Academy • Symbolic vocabulary of mythology, Apollo (god of light and sun) • Windows, chandeliers, Venetian mirrors bathe room in light • Controlled nature: fountains, grounds JULES HARDOUIN-MANSART and CHARLES LE BRUN, Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), ca. 1680. Fig. 10-33. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1C0vXtqcnU Marie Antoinette, Sofia Coppola, director, 2006