Europe, 1500-1600


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  • Leonardo – from Vinci, near Florence; art one of many interests (also mathematics, science, engineering (in fact heavily involved in military engineering projects in Milan for Sforza family, main patron, optics); extensive notebooks on human anatomy, botany, etc; many works unfinished, few paintings; preoccupied with laws governing processes and flux of nature and considered sight most important function; believed in supremacy of painting (wrote Treatise on Painting )-best for conveying the “soul” of man through subtle changes in lighting, gesture, expression Raphael—died year after Leo in 1520; heightened sense of grace, sweetness and lyricism and perfected compositional unity through interlocking gesture and expression; from Umbria near Urbino; father was a painter; studied in Florence from 1504-08; forewent Leo’s interest in dusky modeling to clarity and crispness in composition, saturated colors Michelangelo (la terribilita) – if leo and raphael more subtle and graceful, Mich work outwardly heroic and masculine; and contrary to Leo, Mich believed sculpture highest art form, since it mimicked the act of divine creation, although he is most known for his paintings, commissions he reluctantly took; he was also an architect and poet; archetype of the troubled genius; constantly disgruntled, sometimes paranoid, and feared persecution (portrait as flayed skin above). He also had stinky feet since legend had it he wouldn’t remove his pants or shoes for weeks at a time being preoccupied with work; he was a great believer in concept first, believing that in his sculpture, the artist could envision the image within and carving then became a process of removing excess, freeing the object locked in stone, so his process wasn’t so mathematical or precise, but rather intuitive. In this, he championed artistic self-expression. He was the consummate rule-breaker. Both leo and mich received Medici patronage
  • Entrance to chapel at Last Judgement; proceed backward in time toward altar; prophets and sibyls foretold coming of Christ; ancestors of christ in spandrels, old test. Scenes in pendentives; all scenes compartmentalized using illusionistic arch elements; overall themes are conflict between good and evil, youth and age
  • Europe, 1500-1600

    1. 1. “The Renaissance Man” Leonardo MichelangeloRaphael Titian Europe, 1500-1600
    2. 2. Italy Dates and Places: • 1500 to 1600 • High Ren. (1495-1520) • Rome, Florence Milan, and Venice Events & People: • Humanism • Reformation/ Counter-Reformation • Powerful courts & Catholic church • Artist-genius – raised funds for elaborate art projects highly competitive
    3. 3. Italy Themes: • Life of Christ and the Virgin Mary, saints • Portraiture • Classical mythology/antiquity • Allegory, poesia • Nature as muse Forms: • Balance, harmony, ideal beauty (Greco-Roman) • Disegno (drawing & design) • Venetian color (colorito), Mannerist distortion • Fresco (buon and secco) RAPHAEL, Madonna in the Meadow, 1505–1506. Fig. 9-6.
    4. 4. Italy LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, ca. 1495–1498. Fig. 9-3., 13’x29’
    5. 5. Italy • Fresco secco (dried plaster) • Mathematical linear perspective • Compositional emphasis on Christ • Unity through pose and movement • Studied emotion (fear/doubt) and subtle action • Capturing the observable world (halo behind Christ created by light) • Numerical symbolism (4 & 3 = earthly & divine) • Pictorial unity vs. iconography LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper, ca. 1495– church refectory, 1498. Fig. 9-3. Where’s Judas? Andrea del Castagno, Last Supper, 1447
    6. 6. Homage or Mockery? Appropriating Renaissance Art Yo Mama’s Last Supper, Renee Cox, 1996 Andy Warhol’s Mona Lisa, 1963 Serigraph Marcel Duchamp L.H.O.O.Q, 1917 Assisted readymade
    7. 7. RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), 1509–1511. Fig.9-7.
    8. 8. Italy • Pope Julius II, patron • Four branches of knowledge - philosophy, theology, poetry, and law • Philosophers of antiquity • Semi-circular composition, illusionistic space (Roman vaults) • Unity achieved through interlocking poses and gestures • Michelangelo as Heraclitus, the loner in the foreground RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), 1509–1511. Fig.9-7. Stanza della Segnatura, Library, Papal apartments Apollo Athena Plato Aristotle heaven (metaphysical) Earth (material)
    9. 9. Italy MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, 1501–1504. Fig. 9-9. “…the hands work and the eye judges” -Michelangelo
    10. 10. Italy • Visually pleasing proportion (contrapposto), not mathematical rules (slight distortion) • Classical figure; intense concentration • Anticipation of battle with Goliath, not victory • Symbol Florentine power over Medici (stood outside city hall) • Carved out of single block of discarded marble ( “the giant”) MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, 1501–1504. Fig. 9-9. 17’
    11. 11. Donatello’s David, 1440-60
    12. 12. Italy MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, ceiling, Sistine Chapel, 1508– 1512. Fig. 9-10. 5,800 sq.ft!! 131’ 43’
    13. 13. Italy • Pope Julius II, patron • Old Testament scenes on ceiling, Judgment on wall • Creation, Fall, Redemption narratives • Ignudi, ancestors, prophets, sibyls (over 300 figures) • Curved, irregular leaky ceiling w/ illusionistic paint. • Expressive and hypermuscular male and female forms (“bags of walnuts”) In Vatican (Pope’s chapel) spandrel lunette Painted standing up. not lying down! pendentive
    14. 14. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Detail of Sistine Chapel (Cumaean Sibyl), 1508– 1512.
    15. 15. The Creation of Adam, Michelangelo Sistine Chapel, fig. 9-11  Sculptural painting  Nondescript, unformed landscape  Spark of life given to Adam’s limp form  Eve or Virgin Mary and Christ? The Agony and the Ecstasy, 1965
    16. 16. Italy - Venice Giorgione, The Tempest, 1510, oil on canvas  Oil on canvas  Colorito – love of color  Nudes in landscape (nature as muse)  Allegorical  More secular
    17. 17. Italy - Venice TITIAN, Venus of Urbino, 1538. Fig.9-20.
    18. 18. Italy - Venice • Painted for Duke of Urbino • Venetian painters love color (colorito), atmosphere, texture • Oil on canvas glows • Color organizes composition (use of red) • Voluptuous body with smoky shadow • Servants search for clothes in background • In contemporary setting • Recognizable portrait (courtesan?) or allegory? (Venus—Roman goddess of love, beauty) Titian Venus of Urbino (1538) & Giorgione Sleeping Venus (1510)
    19. 19. Italy - Architecture ANDREA PALLADIO, Villa Rotonda, ca. 1550–1570. Fig.9-16.
    20. 20. Italy • Private villa (for entertaining) • Near Venice (Vicenza) • Central plan • Dome over crossing (inspired by Roman pantheon) • Four facades like Roman Ionic temple portals • Wrote architectural treatise (like Alberti, studied Vitruvius) ANDREA PALLADIO, Villa Rotonda, ca. 1550–1570. Fig.9-16.
    21. 21. Italy - Mannerism • Mannerist painting after 1520 • Courtly style • Self-conscious stylishness, not window onto world • Complex, exaggerated, difficult, ambiguous, intentionally distorted • Unstable composition, unnatural color • Often erotic in tone Parmigianino, Madonna with the Long Neck, 1534-40, Fig. 9-22.
    22. 22. Italy . BRONZINO, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, ca. 1546. Fig. 9-23.
    23. 23. Italy • Mannerist complicated allegory • Symbolism (masks = deceit; old woman = jealousy (or syphilis?) • Folly of love revealed by time (see hourglass) • Lascivious, sensuous (erotic interaction between Cupid and Venus) • Strong contours, undulating and graceful treatment of extremities BRONZINO, Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time, ca. 1546. Fig. 9-23.
    24. 24. Holy Roman Empire Dates and Places: • 1500-1600 • Germany People: • Martin Luther • Protestant Reformation (1517) - salvation by faith and grace, not works and ecclesiastical intercession • Iconoclasm & change in politics, religion, art ALBRECHT DÜRER, Four Apostles, 1526. Fig. 9-30.
    25. 25. Holy Roman Empire Themes: • Life of Christ, Virgin Mary, Saints • Temptation and suffering • Portraits Forms: • Renaissance illusionism (anamorphic perspective) • Surface description • Naturalism • Printmaking HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER, The French Ambassadors, 1533. Fig. 9-31.
    26. 26. Holy Roman Empire MATTHIAS GRÜNEWALD, Isenheim Altarpiece, ca. 1510-1515. Fig. 9-28.
    27. 27. Holy Roman Empire • Altarpiece for monastery church with hospital (plague, syphilis, leprosy, etc) • Gruesome description of wounds (Christ mirrors patients’ suffering – hands in rigor mortis) • Emphasis on suffering and transformation (St. Anthony) • Catholic inclusion of Lamb, Christ’s blood, plague saints MATTHIAS GRÜNEWALD, Isenheim Altarpiece, ca. 1510-1515. Fig. 9-28. 11’ 13’
    28. 28. 1st State (closed)
    29. 29. MATTHIAS GRÜNEWALD, Isenheim Altarpiece, second state (open), ca. 1510-1515
    30. 30. 2nd State (detail of center panel) 3rd State (detail of right panel)
    31. 31. Holy Roman Empire ALBRECHT DÜRER, Melencolia I, 1514.
    32. 32. Holy Roman Empire • German artist & theorist (treatise on perspective & human proportions) • Widely-traveled (studied Italian art) • Renowned printmaker (engraving) • Self-Portrait of “artist’s psyche” and trade? (tools surround him – compass, hammer, sphere, polyhedron) • Medieval medicine (four humours) • Represents imbalance (excess of bile) thought to inspire and afflict artists ALBRECHT DÜRER, Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504. Fig. 9-29.
    33. 33. The Artist’s Temperament – Genius and Melancholy Edvard Munch, Melancholy, 1894 Detail from Raphael’s School of Athens (possible portrait of Michelangelo
    34. 34. The Netherlands Dates and Places: • 1500 to 1600 • Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg People: • Protestants • Merchant class and peasants • Seek independence from Spain CATERINA VAN HEMESSEN, Self-Portrait, 1548. Caterina van Hemessen painted me / 1548 / her age 20
    35. 35. The Netherlands Themes: • Scenes of everyday life with subtle religious and moralistic content • Peasant life • Fewer altarpieces Forms: • Naturalism • Surface description • Illusionistic space Quinten Massys, Money-Changer and His Wife, 1514
    36. 36. The Netherlands HIERONYMUS BOSCH, Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505–1510. Fig. 9-33.
    37. 37. The Netherlands • Unusual triptych • Triptych with Adam and Eve, Hell, and “Garden of Earthly Delights” • “Earthly delights” become instruments of torture in Hell (music, gambling, etc) • Fertility symbols (strawberries, birds, etc) • Maybe wedding gift • Secular commission for private use • Alchemy? Judgment? HIERONYMUS BOSCH, Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505–1510. Fig. 9-33. 7’ 9’
    38. 38. Garden of Earthly Delights (details of left panel)
    39. 39. Garden of Earthly Delights (details of center panel)
    40. 40. Garden of Earthly Delights (details of right panel)
    41. 41. The Netherlands PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Fig. 9-37.
    42. 42. The Netherlands – “The Topsy Turvy World” • Human nature and man’s folly • Detailed and clever imagery • Nobility, peasants, clerics • Depiction of popular proverbs (“the blind leading the blind,” “they both shit through one hole (inseparable friends)” PIETER BRUEGEL THE ELDER, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Fig. 9-37. “ambitious idiot”
    43. 43. Diagram of Netherlandish Proverbs
    44. 44. Spain Dates and Places: • 1500 to 1600 • Iberian Peninsula and the Americas People: • Pious, Catholic • Conservative monarchs • Expanding empire Themes: • Life of Christ, Virgin Mary and Saints • Portraits JUAN DE HERRERA and JUAN BAUTISTA DE TOLEDO, El Escorial, 1563–1584. Fig. 9-39.
    45. 45. Spain • Secular and religious image • Greek artist travels to Spain via Italy • Expressive exaggeration, unnatural color = Mannerist style • Spiritual and emotional, not physical, properties EL GRECO, Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586. Fig. 9-40.