Patron: the person or entity that pays an artist to produce individual artworks or employs an artist on a continuing basis (Gardner)
“ These things give me the greatest contentment and the greatest pleasure because they serve the glory of God, the honour of the city, and the commemoration of myself”
- Giovanni Rucellai, a Florentine merchant and major patron of the arts during the Italian Renaissance
Palazzo Rucellai by Alberti, c.1450
Jay Pritzker Pavilion by Frank Gehry, Millennium Park, Chicago $200 million of park budget given by private patrons
Humanism – In the Renaissance , an emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge (especially of classical antiquity), the exploration of individual potential and desire to excel, and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty (Gardner). Renaissance = rebirth
Naturalism – the style of painted or sculptured representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition (Gardner). Cimabue, c.1280 Mantegna, c.1455 Raphael, c.1514
Painting Materials Tempera – a technique of painting using pigment mixed with egg yolk, glue or casein; dries quickly so applied sparingly; usu. on wood panel Oil painting – a painting technique using oil-based pigments (popularized in early 15 th century Flanders, then Italy); dries slowly; usu on wood Fresco – painting on lime plaster, either dry or wet (in the latter, pigments are mixed with water and become bound to plaster); most pop. in Italy in mural form
Materials for Sculpture and Architecture Bronze - Any of various alloys of copper and tin in various proportions, sometimes with traces of other metals Marble - metamorphic rock formed by alteration of limestone or dolomite, often irregularly colored by impurities Limestone - a common sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium Carbonate used as a building stone and in the manufacture of lime carbon dioxide and cement.
France, the duchy of Burgundy, and the Holy Roman Empire Bruges is capital of Flanders and economic center of Burgundy
Who won the competition and why? Discuss both formal design and use of materials.
What does the competition and its outcome teach us about popular taste in the 15 th century and Renaissance aesthetics?
Which panel do you prefer? Who should have won?
Filipppo Brunelleschi’s Sacrifice Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Sacrifice
Gothic drama and heightened emotion
Caught in mid-action
Crowded quatrefoil frame
Several cast bronze pieces (disjointed)
Emotionally restrained, graceful movement
Classical male nude (Isaac) on Roman-
inspired altar (acanthus frieze)
Interest in spatial illusion (rocky landscape)
Two cast bronze pieces (cohesive)
Renaissance Perspectival Systems One-point linear perspective Brunelleschi’s Experiment, 1413 Brunelleschi credited with rediscovery of principles of perspective drawing! Theorist Alberti codified Brun.’s ideas in his seminal texts On Painting , On Architecture and On Sculpture , which influenced a generation of Italian artists and architects!
Mathematical Truth and Formal Beauty in Italian Ren. Art MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, ca. 1424–1427. Fig. 8-23. Masaccio = “Ugly Tom”! (1401-28)