Aghricultural leaflet


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Aghricultural leaflet

  1. 1. 0 AGRICULTURAL LEAFLET CREATED BY: Mgs, TEFL Laura Gisella Romero Coronel 2012-2013
  2. 2. 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Profile of an agronomist 3 Agriculture 4 Branches of Agriculture 4 Organic & Conventional Food 6 Agricultural Machinery 7 Agricultural Plagues 8 Agricultural Product 9 Coffee 10 Soil 11 Taxonomy of Soil 11 Farm Tractor Rollover Prevention 12 Falls from Tractor and Trailing Equipment 12 Tractor Safety 13 General Guidelines for the Agriculture Work Livestock Handling Safety 14 Pesticide Poisoning 14 Grain storage and handling equipment 16 Safe Use of Hand Tools 17 Personal Protective Equipment 18 Manure pit gas hazard 19 Crop Protection chemical safety 20 Glossary 21
  3. 3. 2 DEDICATION I have done this leaflet with the help of different articles and handouts I found online to help my students to understand ESP English and agricultural terms used in the agricultural field and as a practical guide of consult in case of a problem in their daily work.
  4. 4. 3 Profile of an agronomist Agronomists facilitate the connection among producers and crop researchers regarding to new developments in crop varieties, disease and pest control, crop rotation, and tillage systems to be implemented into farmers growing operations. Job duties  Communicate the community the latest methods for controlling disease, weeds, and insects.  Advise farmers on cropping practices that will improve their incomes as well as protect environmental sustainability.  Evaluate new crop cultivars and their potential in a grower's cropping program.  Encourage the use of best management practices for farming techniques to minimize soil erosion.  Monitor the effects of soil characteristics, water levels, and water drainage on plant growth and implement crop management practices in order to enhance production.  Work with producers to analyze crop nutrient needs and fertility programs.  Participate in technology transfer and training activities.  Evaluate crop performance with management practices. Workplace The agronomist can work in an office doing paper work, participating as a policy maker or communicating with colleagues or experts in the field. In the field the agronomist can make presentations to farms and solve problems with producers.
  5. 5. 4 Agriculture It is the science or art of cultivating the soil, growing and harvesting crops, and raising livestock. Types of Farming Arable farms are ones where the main way of making money is by growing crops. Livestock farms are where animals and crops are both important part of the farm. Mixed farms are where animals and crops are both important to the farmer. Branches of agriculture Among the branches of agriculture we have: Agronomy, horticulture, silviculture, apiculture, aquaculture, ranching and forestry. Agronomy: It is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, feed, fiber and reclamation. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. Horticulture: It is the science , art, and business involved in intensive plant cultivation for human use. Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. Apiculture: It is also known as beekeeping is the maintenance of honey bees colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. Aquaculture is also known as aquafarming that is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and aquatic plants. Ranching is a method to raise less common livestock such as elk, American bison. Ostrich, emu and alpacas. Forestry: It is the science, art, of conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values for human benefit and it is practiced in natural plantations and stands.
  6. 6. 5 ORGANIC & CONVENTIONAL FOOD ORGANIC FOOD What is organic food? Food grows without synthetic pesticides or artificial fertilizers. The organic farming is conducted for crop rotations and spread of manure to keep weeds at bay. Products that are completely organic — such as fruits, vegetables, eggs or other single-ingredient foods — are labeled 100 percent organic and can carry the USDA ( The U.S. Department of Agriculture) seal. INORGANIC FARMING OR CONVENTIONAL AGRICULTURE It is a production system extremely artificial based on high consumption of external inputs ( fossil, energy, chemicals, etc) without considering the natural cycles. Among the advantages and disadvantages of organic farming we have Advantages of Organic Food  Reduces pollutants in groundwater and creates richer soil that aids plant growth while reducing erosion.  The flavor of organic fruit is better because it is a mixture of many different and complex molecules.  It increases the soil fertility as a biological process and the nutrients removed from the crops are replaced.  Protect Future Generations because numerous studies show that pesticides can adversely affect the nervous system, increase the risk of cancer, and decrease fertility.  Build healthy soil through elevating the antioxidants levels.  Promotes biodiversity because it respects the animals’ habitats.  It is required in a number of alternative treatments like cancer therapies due to the absence of pesticide residues. Disadvantages of Organic Food  Traditional fungicides generally kill any toxins creating molds, but organic farms may be more susceptible to this hazard because such fungicides are not allowed in organic production.  Manure and compost are often used to fertilize organic food but this can increase the risk of fecal contamination of the organic food elevating the fecal-carried diseases like E. Coli.  The group of organic farming producers is smaller than the group of conventional crops producers.
  7. 7. 6 Differences between conventional and organic farming Conventional Organic Apply chemical fertilizers to promote plant growth. Apply natural fertilizers, such as manure or compost, to feed soil and plants. Spray synthetic insecticides to reduce pests and disease. Spray pesticides from natural sources; use beneficial insects and birds, mating disruption or traps to reduce pests and disease. Use synthetic herbicides to manage weeds. Use environmentally-generated plant- killing compounds; rotate crops, till, hand weed to manage weeds. Give animals antibiotics, growth hormones and medications to prevent disease and spur growth. Give animals organic feed and allow them access to the outdoors. Use preventive measures — such as rotational grazing, a balanced diet and clean housing — to help minimize disease. Nutritional Value Organic Crops contained more significantly more vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus and significantly less nitrates than conventional crops. The recommended daily intake of organic vegetables is 75 mg for women and 90mg for men.
  8. 8. 7 Agricultural Machinery It is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. Types of Agricultural Machinery  Traction and Power  Self Propelled Machinery  Soil cultivation  Planting  Fertilizing and Pest control  Harvesting/ Post-harvesting  Hay Making  Loading Traction and Power We have two types in this group: Tractor and Crawler Tractor. Self Propelled Machinery We have 8 different types in this category: Bean harvester, beet harvester, combine harvester, forage harvester, maize harvester, pea harvester, potato harvester and rape swatter. Soil Cultivation We use these machinery for the soil: cultivator, chisel plow, harrow, plough, power tiller, portavator and spading machine. Planting. We can use a broadcast seeder, plastic mulch layer, potato planter, seed drill, air seeder, and transplanter. Fertilizing and Pest Control We can fertilizer using these: terragator, manure spreader, sprayer, lime spreader, slurry injector, and vacuum tanker. Harvesting/ Post-Harvesting We can harvest with these: potato digger, beet harvester, drum mower, trailer, grain trailer, bale trailer, vegetable picker. Hay Making We can rack the hay using bale grab, baler, conditioner, hay rake, hay tedder, hay cart, and mower. Loading
  9. 9. 8 We can use these devices: backhoe, front loader, rear loader, skid-steer loader. Agricultural Plagues A plague is an animal that produces damage to a crop, to people causing diseases and economic loss in the agricultural work. Types of Plagues The Stem Borer When the plant is young (spring), the newborn Larvitar feed on the leaves causing small symmetrical holes and damage the terminal bud (bud) killing the plant in early stages. Weevil These can be viewed by cutting up the corn. The damage is caused by the larva. Sometimes adults can be seen in affected plantations and the presence of these insects are monitored through a trap. Nematodes Nematodes are tiny worms that are only found when using a microscope. The presence of swelling or reddish-brown lesions is an indicator of the presence of nematodes. TYPES OF PLAGUES stem borer weevil nematodes
  10. 10. 9 Control of Pests There are three kinds of control: cultural, biological and chemical. The cultural control is when the agronomist use different techniques to control the pests. Besides, The biological consists on the use of natural methods such as the use of natural pests as depredators. Finally, The chemical control is when we use the pesticides to kill the insects that affect the crops. Agricultural Products The coffee Since 1860 the coffee is cultivated in Ecuador, especially in Jipijapa, which is the best area for the coffee . More than 105.137 families are dedicated to the coffee production. Our country has more than 5 associatives organizations and 53 exporting organizations. 250 million of dollar in coffee were exported in 2011 ( 55% and 45% in industrialised grain approximately) Ecuador is one of the largest exporters of dried coffee. Ecuador has a great production capacity: It is one of the few countries that export all the varieties of coffee: washed Arabic, natural Arabic and robust. The different ecosystems of the country give the opportunity to cultivate the coffee in each part of Ecuador, even in the Galapagos Islands. The location of our country makes our coffee one of the best in the world and it is very demanded in Europe. In our country the production of The Arabic coffee begins in March and ends in October, but the production of Robust coffee begins in February and ends in November.
  11. 11. 10 The potential Characteristics and benefits of coffee of the area The coffee surface is 200.000 Ha. The socio-organization strength ( more than 5 export partner organizations and 53 base organizations) Exportation: 258 million in 2011 ( nearly 55% coffee industrialised and 45% coffee in grain.) Production and target market The production of Washed Arabic is majority in El Oro, Manabí, Loja. Guayas and Zamora Chinchipe. Natural Arabic in Loja, Manabí. El Oro, Los Ríos and Guayas and Robust in Pichincha, Orellana, Sucumbíos and Manabí. In Ecuador the exportation of coffee during the 2011 was nearly 55.512 Tones. The ecological importance is manifested in the wide adaptability of coffee to different agro-ecosystems of Coast, Highlands., the Amazon Region and the Galapagos Islands. The social importance relates to generate direct employment for 150.000 families of farmers in activities like trade, agribusiness, craft, instant coffee industry, transport, and export. The organization of an important segment of the coffee that forms a broad social fabric and actively participate in national life, becoming a partner organizational strength. Benefits of coffee Scientifically proven that moderate coffee consumption help to prevent diseases such as : cancer , diabetes and cirrhosis. Cancer: Research in Europe, USA and Japan found that people who drink more than four cups of coffee per day is 24% less likely to develop colorectal cancer as it inhibits the secretion of bilic acids that are the precursors of this disease. Diabetes: According to the studies of the university of Helsinki ( Finland) coffee reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes because theophylline and caffeine are stimulants of pancreatic cell, which produce insulin the body needs. Cirrhosis: Research with more than 128.000 adults found that people who take the same amount of coffee, has 5 times less likely to develop liver cirrhosis or reduce mortality by 30% if the patient is already sick.
  12. 12. 11 SOIL It is the complex system that forms the outermost layer of the earth. At the boundary between various systems that meet in the earth’s surface. TYPES OF SOIL Sandy soil: do not retain water, have very little organic matter and are not suitable for agriculture. Moist soil: They have plenty of organic matter, color dark, retain water and are excellent for farming. Clay soil: It consists of fine yellow grains, forms pools and holds water. Stony soil: It is formed by rocks of all sizes, does not hold water and it is not good for farming. Mixed soil: It has intermediate features between sandy and clay soils. TAXONOMY OF SOIL There are two types of soil: organic and mineral soils. In the organic soil we hake the histosoles where as in the mineral soil is subdivided by inseptisoles, aridisoles, molisoles, oxisoles and vertisoles. In the organic soil we have the histosoles that are very light soil, with acid PH in general and good fertility and productivity. The inseptisoles are soil of low temperatures, have a high content of organic matter, poor drainage and amorphous clays accumulate. The aridisoles are typical desert solid, poor in organic matter and have clear colour.
  13. 13. 12 The molisoles are soil grassland, with dominance of clays and soil of dark colour. The oxisoles are present 1:1 ratio of clay, soils of low fertility and they are red and yellow colour, due to the high concentration of iron. The vertisoles are soils rich in clay, with strong expansion and they are gray or black colour. Farm Tractor Rollover Prevention There are nine steps that tractor operators must follow to avoid overturns 1)Safe operation : the operator tractor must read the operator manual . knows the equipment and how it handles. 2)Fasten Seat Belts Securely: The seat prevents the tractor operator from being thrown crushed or receive a severe injury if an upset occurs. 3)Avoid steep slopes: Watch out for bumps on the uphill side. Keep side- mounted equipment on the uphill side. 4)Reduce Speed: When turning, crossing slopes or on rough, slick or muddy surfaces reduce speed. A raised front-end loader is more likely to cause a rollover.
  14. 14. 13 OPERATIONS TO AVOID 5)Rules and regulations: A small moving vehicle (SMV) must be visible for a minimum of 500 ft Attach the SMV emblem to the rear of tower equipment if it obscures the rear of the tractor. 6)Operate tractor smoothly: Slow down before stopping ot turning when towing equipment. Sudden high-.speed braking can cause the equipment to jackknife or roll over . Turn safely by reducing engine speed, applying both brakes if needed and make a wide turn and allow the engine’s power to pull the load. 7)No riders: Tractors are designed for one operator, no passengers. 8)Hitching: Hitch as low as possible as hitching above the normal drawbar height may cause the tractor to tip over backward. 9)Parking: If the tractor does not have a parking brake, shift the transmission lever into the park position. Lower and raised equipment and remove the ignition key. Falls from Tractors and Trailing Equipment Runovers caused by falls from tractors and trailing equipment are one of the most common forms of unintentional injuries that happen on the farm or ranch. Falls from machinery can be prevented by adopting these basic practices: • Wear shoes and boots with slip-resistant soles and heels. • Keep platforms, foot-plates and steps clear of mud, snow, manure or other debris. • Before moving, check the tractor and trailing equipment to see that no one has climbed aboard without your knowledge. • Remove tools or other items that may cause a tripping hazard from the operator platform. • Don't use working farm equipment as a place to baby-sit children. Arrange for proper childcare. • Never allow anyone to ride on the drawbar or towed machinery. • Insist that no one ride on farm equipment except those required for its operation, instruction, or diagnostics. • Reduce speed on rough, uneven or hilly ground. • Watch for obstacles. • Wait for the tractor to stop before getting off. Set brakes and step down using handholds or rails. Tractor Safety Farm tractors provide the primary source of power on many farms, but it is also involved in a high proportion of farm fatalities and severe injuries. To avoid
  15. 15. 14 them, follow safe management principles and implement a tractor safety program on your farm. • Develop a "safety first" attitude. • Be physically and mentally fit when operating tractors. Fatigue, stress, medication, alcohol and drugs can detract from safe tractor operation. Take breaks. • Read operator's manual and warning decals. • Equip the tractor with a Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) and wear seat belts. • Inspect the tractor for any hazards and correct them before operating. • Make sure everyone who operates a tractor has received training and is physically able to operate it safely. • Shut down equipment, turn off engine, remove key and wait for moving parts to stop before dismounting equipment. • Keep bystanders and others away from tractor operation, especially children. Livestock Handling Safety It is important to recognize the symptoms of dangerous animals to avoid injuries or even the death. Among the symptoms we have to recognize from animals are: raised or pinned ears, raised tail, raised hair on the back, bare teeth, pawing the ground, Stiffed-legged gate, snorting and growling. HANDLING ANIMALS METHODS FACILITIES HEALTH AND HYGIENE - Avoid quick movements -Establish a routine -keep away children -be cautious with animals that are frightened. - have a route of escape when working in close quarters and animals. - provide special facilities for male animals. -well ventilated alleys Concrete flooring Good drainage Alleys and chutes should be wide enough Good ventilation Testing and immunization of livestock Sanitary practices to handle animals PESTICIDE POISONING The pesticides are a diverse group of substances with toxic effects. There are many forms to be intoxicated: by inhalation, dermal exposure, ingestion and ocular exposure. The inhalation through dusts, vapor, mists and gases represent a significant occupational hazard. The absorption through the skin is determined by the nature of the pesticide. Condition of the exposed skin, and external factors, such as temperature, duration of exposure and the area exposed. The ingestion may occur through accidental splashing of chemicals n the face and mouth,
  16. 16. 15 eating contaminated food, using contaminated smoking materials, or by rubbing the face with contaminated hands or gloves. The ocular exposure is usually the result of accidental splashing a pesticide while no wearing eye protection and may cause effects as burns to the eyelids and conjunctiva PESTICIDE FAMILIES AND SYMPTOMS The Organ Phosphates are cholinesterase inhibitors (nerve poisons) and range in toxicity from mild to acutely toxic. This family of pesticide includes: carbomate and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The carbomate are cholinesterase inhibitors that include carbaryl, dimetilan, landrin, carbofuran and propoxur. The symptoms may include: headaches. Nervousness, nausea, diarrhea, vision or respiratory difficulties. The chlorinated hydrocarbons are now banned in the U.S. because they affect the central nervous system or can depress or stimulate the central nervous system. This pesticide family includes Aldrin, BHC, Chlordane, DDt, Diedrin, Heptachlor, Lindane, Mirex and Toxaphene. The symptoms may include: constricted pupils, fatigue, diarrhea, stomach pain and tightness in the chest. GENERAL FIRST AID FOR PESTICIDE POISONING  Keep airway clear, provide artificial respiration, use oxygen available to support breathing. PESTICIDE FAMILY organo phosphate carbomate carbaryl dimetilan landrin carbofuran propoxur chlorinated hydrocarbo
  17. 17. 16  Decontaminate the victim as indicated by the material safety data sheet.  If poison was ingested, and the person is not vomiting and is fully conscious give the person water with 5 percent sodium bicarbonate.  Consult the insecticide label for active ingredients and specific first-aid treatment. Grain Storage Structures and Handling Equipment Storage and handling of large volumes of grain or feed on farms is common in many areas. Farm workers should make sure they take the proper steps to put safety first to prevent injuries, illnesses and even death like the followings: • Label grain bins to warn of entrapment hazards. • Lock entrances to grain handling areas to keep bystanders and children out. • Install ladders inside bins. • Do not enter grain bins that are being loaded or unloaded • If it is necessary to enter a bin, shut off and lockout power before entering. Use a safety harness and safety line. Have several people available outside the bin to lift entrant out in case of an emergency. • Wear approved hearing protection when working around noisy equipment, aeration fans, dryers, etc. • Be very cautious of grain that may have gone out of condition. Crusted grain may have cavities beneath the surface that can collapse, leading to entrapment and suffocation. • Keep bystanders and children away from grain bins and grain handling equipment.
  18. 18. 17 Safe Use of Hand Tools Tools have always been indispensable helpmates, and a good set of hand tools is essential for any farm shop, machinery or facility repair, but they also contribute to countless injuries when used incompetently. • Use the correct tool for the job. • Keep tools in good condition. Handles should be tight and free from defect. Cutting tools should be kept sharp. Wedges and punches should be free from "mushroom heads". • Use and maintain power tools according to their instructions. • Make sure power tools are properly grounded or are double insulated. Never cut the three-prong plug off or use a two prong adapter. • Switch off and unplug power tools before changing blades or servicing and repairing. • Wear clothing with no strings or loose ends to catch on things. • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), such as glasses, goggles, dust masks, face shields, hearing protection, etc. • Keep bystanders at a safe distance. • Keep all guards and shields in place. Learn to use a "push stick" with table saws. Unplug and put tools away after use. Consider locking out power tools to prevent others from using them without permission, especially young children.
  19. 19. 18 Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE) Personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the number and severity of farm work related injuries and illnesses. Personal protective equipment not only helps protect people but also improves productivity and profits. • Protect your head with a hard hat when performing construction work, trimming trees, repairing machinery, and doing other jobs with head injury risks. • Use a sun safety hat to prevent skin cancer. • Protect your vision with appropriate safety eyewear (safety glasses, goggles, face-shields) when applying pesticides, fertilizers, working in the shop, or in heavy dust conditions. • Protect your hearing with acoustic earmuffs or plugs when operating noisy equipment such as grain dryers, feed grinders, older tractors, chain saws, etc. • Protect your lungs with the correct respiratory equipment (dust masks, cartridge respirators, gas masks, air pacts) when working in dusty or moldy conditions, spray painting, applying chemicals, working in bins, tanks, silos, and manure storage places. • Protect your hands from everyday abuse with job-matched gloves and barrier creams. • Protect your feet with safety shoes or boots with non-slip soles and heels. • Protect your skin with impervious garments when using toxic or irritating chemicals. In addition, use sunscreen to protect against the sun's harmful rays.
  20. 20. 19 Manure Pit Gas Hazards A confined-space hazard that often claims multiple lives before anyone realizes there is a danger is manure gas. Manure pits can be oxygen-deficient, toxic and explosive. There are four gases in manure pits that are of primary concern. Hydrogen Sulfide is a highly toxic gas that is heavier than air. It can cause dizziness, unconsciousness and death. At low concentrations it may smell like rotten eggs, but at higher concentrations it deadens the sense of smell so that no odor can be detected. Carbon dioxide is an odorless, tasteless gas that is heavier than air. It displaces the oxygen supply in the bloodstream, which can cause unconsciousness and death. Ammonia is a gas that is lighter than air. It has a pungent smell and can irritate the eyes and respiratory tract. Ammonia also displaces oxygen in the bloodstream. Methane is also a gas that is lighter than air. The primary hazard of methane gas is that it can create an explosive atmosphere. This gas also displaces oxygen. It is important to never enter a manure pit alone, label the manure pit and manure storage areas to warn of the gas hazards, obtain and use monitoring equipment to determine the level of gases present in the manure storage area and a safety harness should also be worn and personnel should be available outside the storage area to monitor the entrant's progress.
  21. 21. 20 Crop Protection Chemical Safety Crop protection chemicals are necessary to ensure the production of food from our nation's farms and ranches. They prevent unwanted weeds, insects, rodents, fungus and diseases. When we work with chemical is necessary to do these things: • Always read packaging labels. • Keep up with Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the crop protection chemicals that you use because it contains additional health hazard data, spill or leak procedures and handling information. Be sure to keep a set separate from the storage area and label it when it contains pesticides. • Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) such as: chemical-resistant gloves, coveralls, boots, hat and apron, approved respirator with cartridges for pesticides, and chemical protection goggles and face shield to prevent work accidents. • Keep crop protection chemicals in storage areas that can be locked to keep bystanders and children . • Launder chemical-soiled c lothing separately from other laundry and triple rinse
  22. 22. 21 GLOSSARY Apron: a garment usually of cloth, plastic, or leather usually tied around the waist and used to protect clothing or adorn a costume Bystanders: one present but not taking part in a situation or event. Chutes: an inclined plane, sloping channel, or passage down or through which things may pass: slide Concern: to be a care, trouble, or distress to Fence: a barrier intended to prevent escape or intrusion or to mark a boundary Fossil: preserved from a past geologic age <fossil plants> <fossil water in an underground reservoir Hazard: a source of danger Livestock: animals kept or raised for use or pleasure; especially: farm animals kept for use and profit Hitching: to catch or fasten by or as if by a hook or knot Jackknife: to cut with a jackknife Cartridges: tube (as of metal) containing a complete charge for a firearm and usually an initiating device (as a primer) Earmuffs: one of a pair of ear coverings connected by a flexible band and worn as protection against cold or noises.
  23. 23. 22 Reference Agriculture An Encycloapedia Britannica Company. Merriam Webster ( 2013) Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Arm Tractor Rollover Prevention. The Texas Department of Insurance. Division of Worker’s Compensation (TDI,DWC) .Publication # HS94-044(9-07) Crop Protection Chemical Safety. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Greene,A,Scowcroft, B.and Tawse, S ( 2013) .The Ten Reasons to support the organic in the 21st century. Organic Education. Retrieved from Jessica De Costole ( 2013) The truth about Organic Foods.Redbook. Good Housekeeping published by Hearst Magazines Division, Hearst Communications. Retrieved from Livestock Handling Safety. The Texas Department of Insurance. Division of Worker’s Compensation (TDI,DWC) .Publication # HS94-042G(9-07) The National Educational Center for Agricultural Safety ( 2009). Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Ecuadorian’s coffee. Retrieved November 30th , 2012 from Gain Storage Structure and Handling Equipment (2009). Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Falls from Tractors and Trailing Equipment ( 2009) . Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Manure Pit Gas Hazard. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Organic Farming. Retrieved 20 January del 2012 from Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE). Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Pesticide Poisoning. The Texas Department of Insurance. Division of Worker’s Compensation (TDI,DWC) .Publication # HS97-115D(10-05)
  24. 24. 23 Safe Use of Hand Tools (2009). Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Tractor Safety ( 2009). Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Trump, Grant (1992) Environmental Career organization of Canada. Retrieved January 19, 2013 from Worthington, V. (2001). The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine Volume 7, Number 2, pp. 161-173.