Geology 3 Field AssignmentExploring and Learning Nature By: Laura Lopez
Oakhurst, Ca • Oakhurst is part of the Sierra Nevada Foothills • Oakhurst is the Gateway to the most beautiful park in the world Yosemite • Oakhurst, Ca is part of Madera County as well as the Sierra Nevada region. • Oakhurst is formerly known as Fresno Flats (Oakhurst History, 2000)
Lake Tahoe• Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake. It is located between California and Nevada.• Snow falls from November and April and with some rain causing snow to melt; This causes massive floods.• There are many pine trees. These in the background seem to be Lodgepole Pine. *My mother-in-law in Lake Tahoe 2010• It drains into Nevada’s Great Basin via the Truckee River (Peters, 2004)
How has it changed? • Made up of mostly Quaternary sediments and granite rocks. (Geologic map) • Rocks older than 600 million years are rare in California. • The oldest rocks, which are more than 1,000 million years old, are located in the eastern deserts and the eastern Transverse Ranges (San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains). (Williams, 2008) • With the erosions so powerful it propelled sediment into the valley which then became thousands of feet thick (Geology Overview, 2006)
• Trees here at Oakhurst have been around for many years.• Trees you see are: Oak, Pine and many plants Ex: bushes, flowers, etc• These trees are located all around the Oakhurst area• In the winter there are covered with snow and change color with the changing seasons
How has it changed?• Trees have been called the *One of the oldest trees in structural elements of the California from the Giant Sequoias (Alex, 2007) ecosystem• They are very tall and big all around, some reach 250 and 300 feet tall• They have existed longer than we have. For thousands of years, trees have grown.• It is important that the trees retain their needles through the winter. So they can immediately begin photosynthesis once spring returns. (Plants, 2011)
Lake Tahoe AnimalsLake Tahoe is home to a wide variety of animals. Animals thatlive in the forest, on ground or in the water. I didn’t get to see anyanimals while in Lake Tahoe. In addition, I did some research(Keep Tahoe Blue, 2011) and I learned about some of the animalsthat roam around Lake Tahoe. Therefore, when visiting thiswonderful place, you just might encounter an animal or two. Mountain Whitefish Pika Willow Flycatcher *Pictures from Black Bear KeepTahoeBlue.com
Animals I Encountered in Oakhurst As I took a walk into the woods in Oakhurst. I did comeacross a paw print though I am not too sure what animal it maybe. Lion came in mind and I was a bit terrified so I had to leave.Moreover, I went to another location about 10 miles away I seen adeer walking across the dirt road it’s a far away picture I didn’twant to get too close and scare it away. Though I was a bit scaredand even though I didn’t see a mountain lion I am glad that I gotto take a picture. In the state of California there are many animalsand plants. From different birds, fishes, bears to trees, plants, etc.
*Brown deer possibly looking for food. -Deer live about 9 to 11 years. *Big paw print*Pictures while on a nature walk in Oakhurst
How has it changed?Mountains outside of Oakhurst •Mountains are formed is when magma from beneath the Earth’s surface is pushed up, butMany mountains are made up of doesn’t actually crack through (Cain, 2009).volcanic activity. Or simply by the Then it will harden like a granite rock.Earth’s crusts. Mountains consist ofsedimentary rocks. Snow and rain •Another way mountains are formed is along fault lines. Blocks of Earth are uplifted anddon’t change the appearance of these tilted over as two plates grind together. Themountains. Also, this mountain seem uplifted part forms a mountain, and the loweredto be a glacial. You can see a bit of parts are filled in with eroded material. Ansnow on top. example of this is the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California. (Cain, 2009)
Igneous rocks• Means fire-formed• Formed from the solidification of molten rock material• It can be weathered and broken down to form sediment• Most igneous rocks contain quartz and will be granite *Two top rocks from my house which I found in the outskirts of Firebaugh, Ca. *Bottom rock found on the side of the road on Hwy 152
Sedimentary Rocks There are three basic types: • Clastic sedimentary rocks- sandstone and shale • Chemical sedimentary rocks- rock salt and some limestones • Organic sedimentary rocks- such as coal and some limestones which form from the accumulation of plant or*Top photo was taken in Oakhurst*Bottom photo found on Hwy 152 animal debris.
Metamorphoric Rocks• Modified by heat, pressure and chemical process usually while buried deep below Earths surface Quartzite• There are foliated and non-foliated rocks G r• Foliated consists of slate, gneiss, etc a which consists of layered that is n ----------- i produced and exposed to heat and t directed pressure e• Non-foliated consists of quartzite and marble that don’t have a layers Slate
Angular Disconformitywhere horizontally between parallel layers ofparallel strata of sedimentary rocks whichsedimentary rock are represents a period ofdeposited on tilted erosion or non-depositionand eroded layers,producing an angulardiscordance with the Non Conformityoverlying horizontal exists between sedimentary rockslayers. and metamorphic or igneous rocks when the sedimentary rock lies above and was deposited on the pre- existing and eroded metamorphic or *Definitions from Wikipedia, 2011 igneous rock.
Humans Homo Sapiens • Population is about 18,000 excluding visitors. (Oakhurst History, 2000) • Residents and visitors/tourists keep this town as well as the foothills clean. They do not harm any of the plants and animals. • Everything and everyone are affected by air. Humans create pollution that can harm all living things and can affect the mountains as well. We must take care of our environment.That’s Me
Humans How has it changed? Chukchansi Yokut Captain John (Shibana Chiefor Poko-Tucket “Horse Eater”), Mono Paiute MiWok Indian Chief There have been many people who wondered the now Oakhurst, Ca. Mi Wok, Mono and Chukchansi people graciously lived and flourished, surrounded by the breathtaking scenery of the rolling Sierra Foothills peppered with oak and pine trees. (Oakhurst History, 2000) Miwok once relied on its 135 acres of meadows, mixed pine forest and oak woodlands to furnish materials for shelter, tools and food (Maurer). However, many settlers (white folks) in 1850 came to the Indian land and wanted raise their children, farm and to seek for gold.
References• Alex. (2007, March). Retrieved November 1, 2011. from 10 Most Magnificent Trees in the World. Website: http://www.neatorama.com/2007/03/21/10-most-magnificent-trees-in-the-world/• Animals & Plants. (2011). Retrieved November 1, 2011. from http://keeptahoeblue.org/abouttahoe/animals-plants• Barrow, Mandy. (2011). Retrieved November 1, 2011 from The Mountain Environment. Website: http://primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/mountains/types.htm• Cain, Fraser. (2009, April). Retrieved November 1, 2011 from How Mountains are formed. Website: http://www.universetoday.com/29833/how-mountains-are-formed/• Images. From www.google.com• Maurer, Debi D. Retrieved November 1, 2011. from Native Americans: Chaw-Se: Honoring the Californians Who Were Here First. Website: http://www.sierrafoothillmagazine.com/natives.html• Native Languages. (1998-2011) Retrieved November 1, 2011. from http://www.native-languages.org/languages.htm• Oakhurst History. (2000). Retrieved November 1, 2011from Oakhurst History travel through time…on Hwy 49. Website: http://www.historichwy49.com/oakhurst/oakhist.html• Peters, G. L. (2004). California. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing.• Plants. (2011, July). Retrieved November 1, 2011. from http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/Plants.html#Gymnosperms• Short, Nicholas M. Retrieved November 1, 2011. from Geologic Map of California. Website: http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect6/Sect6_9.html• Vartan, Starre. (2011, February).Retrieved November 1, 2011 from Mother nature Network. Website: http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/stories/more-trees-than-there-were-100- years-ago-its-true• Wikipedia. (2011). Retrieved November 1, 2011. from Sierra Nevada U.S. & Unconformity Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierra_Nevada_(U.S.) & http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unconformity• Williams, M. (2008) California Geologic History. Retrieved November1, 2011. From University of Colorado. Website:snobear.-colorado.-edu/-Markw/-Mountains/-08/-CaliforniaMtns/-California_geolo- gic_history.-pdf