ibm.com/db2/pureScale




DB2 pureScale : A Technology Overview

Matt Huras, IBM.

 1                                     ...
Agenda

     Introduction
        Goals & Value Propositions
        Technology Overview



     Technology In-Depth
 ...
DB2 pureScale : Goals


 Unlimited Capacity
   Any transaction processing or ERP workload
   Start small
   Grow easil...
DB2 pureScale : Technology Overview
          Leverage IBM’s System z Sysplex Experience and Know-How

                   ...
Scale with Ease

 Without changing
  applications
    Efficient coherency protocols
     designed to scale without      ...
Online Recovery

                                                              DB2                           DB2          ...
Stealth System Maintenance


   Goal: allow DBAs to apply                    Single Database View
    system maintenance ...
Agenda

     Introduction
        Goals & Value Propositions
        Technology Overview



     Technology In-Depth
 ...
What is a Member ?
                                                     Member 0                      Member 1
           ...
What is PowerHA pureScale ?

                                                        db2 agents & other              db2 a...
Achieving Efficient Scaling : Key Design Points
 Deep RDMA exploitation over
  low latency fabric                      Lo...
Scalability : Example                                                            Clients (2-way x345)



   Transaction p...
Scalability : Example


                            12
                            11                                     ...
Member HW Failure : “Member Restart on Guest
                                                             Host (aka Restar...
Member Failback


                                                                                       Clients




   P...
Primary PowerHA pureScale Failure


                                                                                      ...
Summary (Single Failures)
                                                Other
                                          ...
Simultaneous Failures
                                        Other
                                        Members
      ...
“Stealth” Maintenance : Example


 Ensure automatic load balancing is enabled
  (it is by default)
                      ...
Agenda

      Introduction
         Goals & Value Propositions
         Technology Overview



      Technology In-Dep...
Client Connectivity and Workload Balancing
    Run-time load information used to automatically balance load across the cl...
Optional Affinity-based Routing
                                                                         App Servers App S...
DB2 pureScale : A Complete Solution

                                Clients




               Single Database View

    ...
DB2 pureScale

 Unlimited Capacity
       Start small
       Grow easily, with your business


 Application Transparen...
> Questions




 25                                    25
              © 2009 IBM Corporation
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DB2 Pure Scale Webcast

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Presentation from our recent webcast with the IBM Labs on DB2 pureScale

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DB2 Pure Scale Webcast

  1. 1. ibm.com/db2/pureScale DB2 pureScale : A Technology Overview Matt Huras, IBM. 1 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  2. 2. Agenda  Introduction  Goals & Value Propositions  Technology Overview  Technology In-Depth  Key Concepts & Internals  Efficient scaling  Failure modes & recovery automation  Stealth Maintenance  Client Configuration & Solution Packaging  Client configuration and load balancing  Solution Packaging 2 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  3. 3. DB2 pureScale : Goals  Unlimited Capacity Any transaction processing or ERP workload Start small Grow easily, with your business  Application Transparency Avoid the risk and cost of tuning your applications to the database topology  Continuous Availability Maintain service across planned and unplanned events 3 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  4. 4. DB2 pureScale : Technology Overview Leverage IBM’s System z Sysplex Experience and Know-How Clients Clients connect anywhere,… … see single database  Clients connect into any member  Automatic load balancing and client reroute may change underlying physical member to which client is connected Single Database View DB2 engine runs on several host computers  Co-operate with each other to provide coherent access to the database from any member Member Member Member Member Integrated cluster services CS CS CS CS  Failure detection, recovery automation, cluster file system  In partnership with STG (GPFS,RSCT) and Tivoli (SA MP) Low latency, high speed interconnect Cluster Interconnect  Special optimizations provide significant advantages on RDMA- capable interconnects (eg. Infiniband) CS CS 2nd-ary Log Log Log Log Primary PowerHA pureScale technology from STG  Efficient global locking and buffer management Shared Storage Access  Synchronous duplexing to secondary ensures availability Database Data sharing architecture  Shared access to database  Members write to their own logs  Logs accessible from another host (for recovery) 4 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  5. 5. Scale with Ease  Without changing applications  Efficient coherency protocols designed to scale without Single Database View application change  Applications automatically and transparently workload balanced across members  Without administrative DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 complexity  No data redistribution required Log Log Log Log Log  To 128 members in initial release 5 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  6. 6. Online Recovery DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2  A key DB2 pureScale design point is to maximize availability during failure recovery processing Log Log Log Log  When a database member fails, only data in-flight on the failed member remains locked during the Database member failure automated recovery Only data in-flight updates locked during recovery  In-flight = data being updated on the member % of Data Available at the time it failed 100 50 Time (~seconds) 6 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  7. 7. Stealth System Maintenance  Goal: allow DBAs to apply Single Database View system maintenance without negotiating an outage window  Procedure: DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2  Drain (aka Quiesce)  Remove & Maintain  Re-integrate Log Log Log Log  Repeat until done 7 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  8. 8. Agenda  Introduction  Goals & Value Propositions  Technology Overview  Technology In-Depth  Key Concepts & Internals  Efficient scaling  Failure modes & recovery automation  Stealth Maintenance  Client Configuration & Solution Packaging  Client configuration and load balancing  Solution Packaging 8 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  9. 9. What is a Member ? Member 0 Member 1 db2sysc process db2sysc process db2 agents & other db2 agents & other  A DB2 engine address space threads threads  i.e. a db2sysc process and its threads  Members Share Data log buffer, log buffer, dbheap, & dbheap, &  All members access the same shared database other heaps other heaps  Aka “Data Sharing” bufferpool(s) bufferpool(s)  Each member has it’s own …  Bufferpools  Memory regions  Log files Log Log  Members are logical. Can have …  1 per machine or LPAR (recommended) Shared database  >1 per machine or LPAR (not recommended) (Single database partition) 9 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  10. 10. What is PowerHA pureScale ? db2 agents & other db2 agents & other  Software technology that assists threads threads in global buffer coherency management and global locking  Derived from System z Parallel Sysplex & Coupling Facility technology log buffer, log buffer, dbheap, & dbheap, &  Software based other heaps other heaps  Services provided include bufferpool(s) bufferpool(s)  Group Bufferpool (GBP)  Global Lock Management (GLM)  Shared Communication Area (SCA) Primary Log Log  Members duplex GBP, GLM, GBP GLM SCA SCA state to both a primary and secondary Secondary  Done synchronously  Duplexing is optional (but recommended)  Set up automatically, by default Shared database (Single database partition) 10 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  11. 11. Achieving Efficient Scaling : Key Design Points  Deep RDMA exploitation over low latency fabric Lock Mgr Lock Mgr Lock Mgr Lock Mgr  Enables round-trip response time ~10-15 microseconds Buffer Mgr  Silent Invalidation  Informs members of page updates requires no CPU cycles on those Ca n members Yu e Ih ag p, av dP h e  No interrupt or other message er Ne th a e Re is w yo processing required loc pa u ge k? ar e.  Increasingly important as cluster im ag grows e GBP GLM SCA  Hot pages available without disk I/O from GBP memory  RDMA and dedicated threads enable read page operations in ~10s of microseconds 11 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  12. 12. Scalability : Example Clients (2-way x345)  Transaction processing workload modeling warehouse & ordering process 1Gb Ethernet  Write transactions rate to 20% Client  Typical read/write ratio of many OLTP Connectivity p550 workloads p550 powerHA pureScale members  No cluster awareness in the application  No affinity 20Gb IB  No partitioning pureScale  No routing of transactions to members Interconnect  Testing key DB2 pureScale design point 7874-024 Switch  Configuration  12 8-core p550 members Two 4Gb FC  64 GB, 5 GHz each Switches  Duplexed PowerHA pureScale across 2 additional 8-core p550s  64 GB, 5 GHz each  DS8300 storage  576 15K disks, Two 4Gb FC Switches DS8300  IBM 20Gb/s IB HCAs Storage  7874-024 IB Switch 12 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  13. 13. Scalability : Example 12 11 10.4x @ 12 members Throughput vs 1 member 10 9 8 7.6x @ 8 members 7 6 5 4 3.9x @ 4 members 3 2 1.98x @ 2 members 1 0 0 5 10 15 # Members 13 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  14. 14. Member HW Failure : “Member Restart on Guest Host (aka Restart Light)”  Power cord tripped over accidentally  DB2 Cluster Services looses heartbeat and Clients declares member down  Informs other members & PowerHA pureScale servers  Fences member from logs and data  Initiates automated member restart on another (“guest”) host  Using reduced, and pre-allocated memory model Single Database View  Member restart is like a database crash recovery in a single system database, but is much faster • Redo limited to inflight transactions (due to FAC) • Automatic; Benefits from page cache in PowerHA pureScale  In the mean-time, client connections are Fast; Ultra automatically re-routed to healthy members DB2 DB2 DB2  Based on least load (by default), or, DB2  Pre-designated failover member Online CS CS CS Fe nc e DB2 CS  Other members remain fully available throughout – “Online Failover” Lo g R ec Log Log Log Log s  Primary retains update locks held by member at the Pa ge time of failure CS s CS  Other members can continue to read and update data Updated Pages Updated Pages Global Locks Global Locks not locked for write access by failed member Shared Data Secondary Primary  Member restart completes  Retained locks released and all data fully available 14 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  15. 15. Member Failback Clients  Power restored and system re-booted Single Database View  DB2 Cluster Services automatically detects system availability  Informs other members and PowerHA pureScale servers  Removes fence  Brings up member on home host DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 CS CS CS CS DB2  Client connections automatically re-routed back to member Log Log Log Log CS CS Updated Pages Updated Pages Global Locks Global Locks Shared Data Secondary Primary 15 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  16. 16. Primary PowerHA pureScale Failure Clients  Power cord tripped over accidentally  DB2 Cluster Services looses heartbeat Single Database View and declares primary down  Informs members and secondary  PowerHA pureScale service momentarily blocked Automatic;  All other database activity proceeds normally  Eg. accessing pages in bufferpool, existing locks, sorting, aggregation, etc Ultra Fast; DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2  Members send missing data to Online CS CS CS CS secondary  Eg. read locks Log Log Log Log CS CS Updated Pages Updated Pages  Secondary becomes primary Global Locks Shared Data Global Locks  PowerHA pureScale service continues where Secondary Primary it left off Primary  No errors are returned to DB2 members 16 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  17. 17. Summary (Single Failures) Other Members Remain Automatic & Failure Mode Online ? Transparent ? DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 Member CF CF Connections to failed member transparently move to another member Primary PowerHA DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 pureScale CF CF Secondary PowerHA DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 pureScale CF CF 17 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  18. 18. Simultaneous Failures Other Members Remain Automatic & Failure Mode Online ? Transparent ? DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 CF CF Connections to failed member transparently move to another member DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 CF CF Connections to failed member transparently move to another member DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 CF CF Connections to failed member transparently move to another member 18 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  19. 19. “Stealth” Maintenance : Example  Ensure automatic load balancing is enabled (it is by default) Single Database View  db2stop member 3 quiesce  db2stop instance on host <hostname>  Perform desired maintenance DB2 DB2 DB2 DB2 eg. install AIX PTF  db2start instance on host <hostname> Log Log Log Log  db2start member 3 19 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  20. 20. Agenda  Introduction  Goals & Value Propositions  Technology Overview  Technology In-Depth  Key Concepts & Internals  Efficient scaling  Failure modes & recovery automation  Stealth Maintenance  Client Configuration & Solution Packaging  Client configuration and load balancing  Solution Packaging 20 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  21. 21. Client Connectivity and Workload Balancing  Run-time load information used to automatically balance load across the cluster (as in System z sysplex)  Load information of all members kept on each member  Piggy-backed to clients regularly  Used to route next connection (or optionally next transaction) to least loaded member  Routing occurs automatically (transparent to application)  Failover  Load of failed member evenly distributed to surviving members automatically  Fallback  Once the failed member is back online, fallback does the reverse Clients Clients 21 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  22. 22. Optional Affinity-based Routing App Servers App Servers App Servers App Servers Group A Group B Group C Group D  Allows you to target different groups of clients or workloads to different members in the cluster  Maintained after failover …  … and fallback  Example use cases  Consolidate separate workloads/applications on same database infrastructure  Minimize total resource requirements for disjoint workloads  Easily configured through client configuration  db2dsdriver.cfg file 22 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  23. 23. DB2 pureScale : A Complete Solution Clients Single Database View  DB2 pureScale is a complete software solution  Comprised of tightly integrated subcomponents Member Member Member Member CS CS CS CS  Single install invocation  Installs all components across desired Cluster Interconnect hosts  Automatically configures best practices CS CS Log Log Log Log  No cluster manager scripting Shared Storage Access or configuration required  This is set up automatically, upon Database installation 23 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  24. 24. DB2 pureScale  Unlimited Capacity Start small Grow easily, with your business  Application Transparency Avoid the risk and cost of tuning your applications to the database topology  Continuous Availability Maintain service across planned and unplanned events 24 © 2009 IBM Corporation
  25. 25. > Questions 25 25 © 2009 IBM Corporation
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