Exploring the Order of Precedence  when Using Contextual Dimensions for Mobile Information Delivery<br />Laura Crane<br />...
Background<br />Delivering VLE information onto mobile platforms  using RSS and Twitter.<br />Positive results, but time o...
Background – Spatial vs Temporal<br />Using RSS and GPS technology to deliver information based on time or location.<br />...
Preliminary Background Results<br />
Defining Context<br />Schilit, Adams & Want (1994)<br /> <br />Zimmerman, Lorenz &  Opperman (2007)<br />Dey (2001)<br />B...
Dimensions of Context<br />Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A.,&  Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In B....
Dimensions of Context<br />
Rationale for Study<br />“..We cannot enumerate which aspects of all situations are important, as this will change from si...
Description of Preliminary Study<br />Survey 1<br />Survey 2<br />Survey  3<br /><ul><li>Lecture Theatre
Weekday Morning
Designated Study area on campus
Lunchtime
Student Residences
Evening</li></ul>Results of Survey 1<br />Results of Survey 2<br />Results of Survey 3<br />
Results - Study 1<br />
Results – Study 2<br />
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Exploring the Order of Precedence when Using Contextual Dimensions for Mobile Information Delivery

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  • Talk about background of RSS for MLearning, with widgets on the mobile phone.Using mobile apps for delivering information was popular, but the updates themselves became a point of interest.
  • On-Going work – based upon previous work of mobile widgets and delivering information based on time and location.
  • Defining Context itself:The Situation Theory: Time, Location, Relationships to N, Individual and Situation. Schilit,Adams &amp; Want : First look at the emerging mobile devices and contextSchmidt,Beigl &amp; Gellersen: “a general understanding of what context is”, beyond location to “lowabstraction (e.g. noise level, temperature, ...) or carefully crafted for specific applications (e.g. user’s levelof attention).”Dey: Comprehensive view at Context as a concept – draws on previous attempts to define Context. “&quot;Context is typically the location, identity and state of people, groups, and computational and physical objects”Mobile Learning PerspectivesLonsdale, Vavoula, Sharples : Touches on ‘context aware’ with mobile learning for activitiesZimmerman: States five fundamental points of context : time, location, id, relationships to n &amp; activity. Argues that dimensions of context are only used when easy to implement.Does argue further points of ‘Variation of Approximation’ and ‘changes of focus’.
  • Order of Precedence for Study 1:ActivityTimeLocationIdentityRelationships
  • Order:TimeLocationActivityIdentityRelationships
  • Order:TimeLocationActivityIdentityRelationships
  • 1st Time2nd Activity3rd Location4th Identity5th Relationships
  • Zimmerman Does argue further points of ‘Variation of Approximation’ and ‘changes of focus’. – similar to levels of dimensions.
  • Exploring the Order of Precedence when Using Contextual Dimensions for Mobile Information Delivery

    1. 1. Exploring the Order of Precedence when Using Contextual Dimensions for Mobile Information Delivery<br />Laura Crane<br />Dr. Phil Benachour<br />Dr. Paul Coulton<br />LMLG Crossing Boundaries Conference <br />Bremen 21st March 2011 <br />l.crane@lancaster.ac.uk<br />
    2. 2. Background<br />Delivering VLE information onto mobile platforms using RSS and Twitter.<br />Positive results, but time of updates became a key discussion.<br />Frequency of updates not<br /> imperative for students.<br />
    3. 3. Background – Spatial vs Temporal<br />Using RSS and GPS technology to deliver information based on time or location.<br />Two groups of users spanning two semesters.<br />Study ending within the next two weeks.<br />
    4. 4. Preliminary Background Results<br />
    5. 5. Defining Context<br />Schilit, Adams & Want (1994)<br /> <br />Zimmerman, Lorenz & Opperman (2007)<br />Dey (2001)<br />Barwise (1980)<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />Schmidt, Beigl,& Gellersen (1999) <br /> <br /> <br />Lonsdale, Vavoula & Sharples (2004)<br /> <br />
    6. 6. Dimensions of Context<br />Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A.,& Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modelling and Using Context .pp. 558-571. <br />
    7. 7. Dimensions of Context<br />
    8. 8. Rationale for Study<br />“..We cannot enumerate which aspects of all situations are important, as this will change from situation to situation” Dey 2001.<br />Students perspective on their own contexts.<br />Useful for further work & studies for delivering information to mobile devices.<br />Dey, A. K. (2001). Understanding and using context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Special issue on Situated Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing 5 (1).<br />
    9. 9. Description of Preliminary Study<br />Survey 1<br />Survey 2<br />Survey 3<br /><ul><li>Lecture Theatre
    10. 10. Weekday Morning
    11. 11. Designated Study area on campus
    12. 12. Lunchtime
    13. 13. Student Residences
    14. 14. Evening</li></ul>Results of Survey 1<br />Results of Survey 2<br />Results of Survey 3<br />
    15. 15. Results - Study 1<br />
    16. 16. Results – Study 2<br />
    17. 17. Results – Study 3<br />
    18. 18. Aggregated Results<br />
    19. 19. Overall Order of Precedence for Study<br />
    20. 20. Points for Further Work<br />Investigation of ‘levels’ of dimensions.<br />Investigation & development of mobile applications for other dimensions.<br />Precedence of dimensions in situ, rather than in hypothetical situation.<br />
    21. 21. References<br />Barwise, J.(1987). Situations and small worlds. In The Situation in Logic, CSLI Lecture Notes, pp. 79-92.<br /> Crane, L., Benachour, P., and Coulton, P., “Dissemination of Learning Services: Using RSS for m-learning”, in Proceeding of the IADIS International Conference for Mobile Learning 2010, Porto, Portugal, March 2010<br />Dey, A. K. (2001). Understanding and using context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, Special issue on Situated Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing 5 (1).<br /> <br />Falk J.H & Dierking L.D. (2002). Lessons without Limits: How free-choice learning is transforming education. Institute for Learning Innovation.<br /> <br />Sharples, M., M. Milrad, I. Arnedillo Sánchez and Vavoula, G. (2009).Mobile Learning:Small devices, Big Issues. In: Technology Enhanced Learning: Principles and Products. Heidelberg, Springer. pp 233-249.<br /> <br />Syvänen, A., Beale, R., Sharples, M., Ahonen, M. and Lonsdale, P. (2005). Supporting Pervasive Learning Environments: Adaptability and Context Awareness in Mobile Learning. International Workshop on Wireless and Mobile Technologies in Education, pp. 251-253.<br />Zimmermann, A., Lorenz, A.,& Oppermann, R. (2007). An operational definition of context. In B. Kokinov (ed.),Sixth International and Interdisciplinary Conference on Modelling and Using Context .pp. 558-571. <br />

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