Impact of 3D on User Experience and Achievement.                                                                          ...
experience is through our visual sense” and that “approximately eighty          This is exactly why we want to leverage th...
3D gives them “the capability of visualizing events and objects as they mayappear from different perspectives simultaneous...
Education understood that and created partnerships with pioneering             The results of these various experiments ha...
The goal was not to replace the teacher but to see if this 3D animationcould be an efficient course material allowing the ...
sample of five persons, 2 men and 3 women (2 of them under the age of                  about both manuals and analyzed the...
more precise than its 2D counterpart. The users liked the interactivity of       will be no obstacle left to the developme...
9. ZAYAS Benjamin. "Learning from 3D VR representations: learner-           18. CHIKOVE Athel, Bryn SNOW, Pamela MEDDINGS,...
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Impact of 3D on User Experience and Achievement


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Impact of 3D on User Experience and Achievement

  1. 1. Impact of 3D on User Experience and Achievement. By Laura BETTEXAbstract very efficient way to get the students more interested and involved in their lessons. But we have the feeling that we could go even further byDassault Systèmes is the world leading company in 3D design software. Its introducing 3D technologies that have the power to keep millions ofsolutions are used in a variety of domains, to conceive industrial objects as players captivated for hours. Based on this observation, we wanted towell as consumer goods. This software suite will be used throughout this know what impact 3D had on the user experience and see what benefits itstudy to discover ways in which 3D technology can fundamentally help could have if used for educational purposes. To start, we digged intocreate new learning opportunities and enhance user experience. cognitive ergonomics literature to measure the impact on usersFirst will come a review of what is already known about the benefits of 3D understanding and learning capabilities.representations for cognitive ergonomics. Our theory is that 3D designmust help us to develop learner-centered pedagogy and create simplified, What we know about the impact of 3D on cognitive skillspersonalized, affordable learning.Then we will challenge this theory thanks to the results of previous The old saying “A picture is worth a thousand words” is an understatementexperiments on that topic, as well as our own series of tests including 3D when it comes to 3D design. Scientific research proved that “a 3-Dassembly instructions and 3D demonstrations. computer model” encapsulates a lot more information than a 2D imageThe study concludes that 3D does have the power to enhance the user and is “more easily understood because more detail is given through theexperience, but only if 3D models are properly conceived and if the users use of colors, lights and shades and shadows” (12). This fact is particularlyare well prepared. interesting if we consider that “human cognition includes a working memory that is limited in capacity and duration if dealing with novelKeywords: 3D, cognitive ergonomics, education, innovative learning, information” (5). This means that learners have to understand in a glimpselearning in 3D, user achievement, user experience, user performance, the entirety of a concept, a process or a phenomenon. But recent studiesworkload. have shown that “2D vision requires longer and slower information processing than 3D vision” (3). In this respect, 3D is the perfect means toIntroduction give them immediately all the information they need “so that information can be stored effectively in long-term memory” (5).The digital native generation of students has come with new expectationsand needs in terms of learning. Practically born with a laptop in their If 3D design has such a potential for enhancing user learning and userhands, they need more than books to be captivated … Over the last few experience, it is also because of the importance of the visual sense foryears, the introduction of new technologies at school has proved to be a collecting information. A study reveals that “much of what we learn and 1
  2. 2. experience is through our visual sense” and that “approximately eighty This is exactly why we want to leverage the educational value of 3D modelspercent of our sensory input comes from our visual system” (12). using them to develop learner-centered pedagogy and create simplified,Furthermore, we see the world around us in three-dimensions so there is personalized, affordable learning.nothing more intuitive or natural than playing with an object in 3D to learnhow it is build and how it works. Using 3D models to make the most of the time spent in classIn addition, three-dimensional representations do not only appeal to the As we have seen before, 3D technologies represent a powerful tool foreye but also to the brain as “3D vision appears to be essential and more creating stimulating learning materials that allow learners to receive a lotintuitive [than 2D vision], requiring less cognitive elaboration and mental more information and to understand a greater level of complexity. Theload” (3). In consequences, the “cognitive resources usually involved in the goal is of course not to replace the teacher or his conventional teaching2D image processing may be involved in other processes when 3D vision is techniques but to provide him with “valuable supplemental teaching andused, allowing to increase gesture precision and safety” (3). Using 3D learning resources to augment and reinforce traditional methods” (16).models is not only for the sake of better aesthetics, it has proved to berelieving the brain from excessive work load. Moreover, a 3D model needs to be designed only once and is replicable ad infinitum, on every computer, every screen. It represents a very powerful,“I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand”. though affordable course material that enables personalized learning as Confucius every students can possess his own model and play with it as he wants or even watch it again from home to prepare the lesson or do his homework.On the basis of these considerations, it is clear that 3D animations could be This is totally inconceivable when we think about the old plaster mock-upa precious tool in a constructivist approach of learning where people used for science education in most of the classrooms for example (whenactively construct their knowledge and learn by doing. If we used 3D they have one).images to teach a knowledge or a know-how, learners could be more than“passive recipients of prepackaged multimedia content” as they could This is why Tel Aviv University and the Science and Technology Education“examine images and manipulate three-dimensional models” thus Center (SATEC) in Tel-Aviv, Israel, worked on the introduction of 3D models“enhanc[ing] their understanding of scientific concepts and processes”(8). to teach Astronomy in primary school. Considering “the inherentAn Australian study even concludes that “to enhance learning, students difficulties of the subject matter”, the research team concludes that “theshould be given opportunity for exploration and manipulation within the need for new technological solutions in science education is clear” (8).environment” (11) what is not always possible for a variety of reasons, Because the subject “requires an understanding of three-dimensionalincluding safety issues or logistical and budgetary constraints. Using 3D dynamics, and demands advanced cognitive capabilities”, they created amodels as learning materials would solve these problems and give all dynamic 3D model reproducing the solar system (Figure 1) to help thestudents fair access to similar quality education. pupils understand the basic astronomical phenomena of day and night, seasons, eclipses, phases of the moon and the motion of planets. 2
  3. 3. 3D gives them “the capability of visualizing events and objects as they mayappear from different perspectives simultaneously” (8). Using 3D technologies can provide effective training in situations requiring the use of equipment prohibitively expensive or impossible to obtain otherwise. Similarly, it creates extraordinary opportunity for learners (and people in general) to discover things they could never think they would. 3D “provides a way of observing natural phenomena that, perhaps due to their size, duration, or location, are difficult or impossible to observe directly” (8) (Figure 2). For example, virtual reality allows “observation and examination of areas and events unavailable (such as underwater, historical scenes, reconstructions of archaeological sites) or impossible (for example, exploring Mars, traveling inside human body, moving among molecules) by other means” (16). Figure 1. Touch the Sky, Touch the Universe, a 3D model developed by Tel Avivs University.The example of this dynamic 3D model reproducing the entire solar systemis just an infinitesimal part of what 3D can do and how it can participate inthe creation of the school of the future, creating new exciting andunprecedented learning opportunities.The great power of 3D models is that they “extend to a wide range ofactivities, from training people to acting in dangerous environments toexperiencing contexts that in physical reality would be too expensive or Figure 2. A 3D animation showing the formation of a cyclone.impossible to access” (16). They can be used to teach knowledge or know-how, and the fields of application are just as varied as they are numerous Nowadays, the extraordinary power of 3D technologies is widely harnessedincluding military training, medical training (complex surgery), or special- by the Industrial and the Entertainment worlds, and we think that it is highneeds education for children with “cognitive deficits” (16). time that the Educational world benefits from it too. French Ministry of 3
  4. 4. Education understood that and created partnerships with pioneering The results of these various experiments have been very informative butcompanies in this domain. we nevertheless wanted to conduct our own series of tests to be able toThey notably rely on Dassault Systèmes expertise of 3D design to initiate make our own conclusions and see if it corresponded to the results ofthe revolution of 3D education. previous researches.In this context, we had a chance to conduct a series of tests to challengecognitive ergonomics theories and identify the possibilities and the 3D models in the hands of middle school students and novice usersobstacles in the introduction of 3D into classrooms. First, we chose to focus on an online 3D application (showing how to useAssessing the impact of 3D on User experience the machine tool of a technology classroom) that was designed by an intern at Dassault Systèmes 3D experience Lab (Figure 3) with theOver the last few years, many companies and many researchers conducted software 3DVIA Composer. We decided to bring this application inside atests to assess the impact of 3D designs on learning capabilities. We can real classroom and confront it to the targeted audience, namely a class ofthink of an experiment involving 224 nurses with no surgical experience middle school students (13-14 years) 1.who were asked to execute a motor task with a robotic system, either in2D or in 3D. The goal was to “evaluate the impact of 3D and 2D vision onperformance of novice subjects using da Vinci robotic system” and theresearch confirms that “3D view allows novice participants to executefaster a basic motor task” (3). The conclusions of the test even evoke “theadvantage of 3D vision over 2D view” and call for the development of“efficient and less expensive 3D systems in order to improve the accuracyof surgical gesture, the resident training and the operating time” (3). Suchtests emphasize the real potential of 3D technology to revolutionizeteaching methods and learners achievement.A whole battery of tests was also conducted to measure the efficiency of3D for assembly tasks, one of them including “solving 3D‐objectmanipulation puzzles” (2). Comparing two procedures is very common asfor “over 25 years, researchers from around the globe have used cognitiveload theory” to evaluate the effectiveness of procedures “by comparingthem to more traditional methods using randomized, controlledexperiments” (5). Comparing procedures this way is very revealing about Figure 3. A 3D application explaining how to use the machine tool Charly4Utm (available at 3DS “cognitive load effects” of each of them, and “provide us with novelinstructional guidelines that constitute the ultimate aim of cognitive loadtheory” (5). 1 Mr. Maranos class, from the Cité scolaire Michelet in Vanves. 4
  5. 5. The goal was not to replace the teacher but to see if this 3D animationcould be an efficient course material allowing the students to have a betterunderstanding and a greater autonomy.Procedure 1Due to the large number of students, the class is usually split in two duringtechnology classes. The teacher gave the standard lesson to the first group,explaining and showing himself the functioning of the machine and thesecond group was chosen to test the online 3D animation. During the firstclass with the group 2, the teacher Mr. Marano presented them theapplication. He explained where to find it, how to use it and asked them towatch at home 3 specific sequences to prepare the lesson.The actual test occurred a week later during the next class. The studentswere divided into three groups and watched the animation again thanks tothe three laptops we brought with us. Then each group was assigned aspecific task: design a part of the object they have to build during the year,define a marketing strategy to sell it or manufacture a specific part of the Figure 4. A student is watching the 3D animation on the tablet and givingobject on the machine tool. indications to the members of his group.We focused on the group responsible for the machining and provided At the end of the lesson, we distributed a survey to the students to collectthem with a touchpad containing the 3D animation so that they could their opinion about the experiment and the use of 3D models at it while they were using the machine. The members of the group We also interviewed the teacher to know his feelings about theperformed the task under the command of the student holding the introduction of 3D in his classroom and the efficiency of such a measure.touchpad and watching the indications (Figure 4). The results were extremely encouraging but will be discussed in further details in the general conclusion or our tests. Procedure 2 In a second time, inspired by the cognitive load theory applied to assembly tasks, we decided to compare a standard assembly instruction manual and a dynamic 3D version of this same manual. We selected a representative 5
  6. 6. sample of five persons, 2 men and 3 women (2 of them under the age of about both manuals and analyzed the results that are to be found in the15, 2 others between 20 and 30, and the last one above 30). following part of this article.The test protocol was very clear and identical for all; one by one they were After having conducted theses series of tests, we deducted a certaingiven LEGO bricks to assemble a small robot, a list of instructions and a number of remarks about the efficiency of 3D and its impact on the usermanual, either the paper or the 3D version (Figure 5). experience. Observations, conclusions and future perspectives The numerous studies conducted before ours concluded that 3D animations do have a tremendous impact on all the aspects of user experience and user achievement. They evoke teachers admitting that “the pupils in the 3D groups had deeper understanding, increased attention span, more motivation and higher engagement” (13) than the ones who didnt have access to the 3D models. They do not only mention the greater level of “pupil satisfaction with 3D learning [...] with an 83% approval rating” but also the measureable impact on pupils achievement with better memorization and better academic results, arguing that “the pupils in the 3D classes could remember more than the 2D classes after four weeks” and that they “gave more elaborate answers to open-ended tasks” (13). In the light of what we observed during our series of tests, we came to the same conclusions. The first experiment in the classroom reveals that in comparison to a standard lesson, the pupils enjoyed it as it was more “playful” and “captivating”. They appreciated the interactive aspect of the lesson and the fact that they could manipulate the 3D object. For his part,Figure 5. Left: the test with the 3D assembly instructions. Right: the test with the paper manual. the teacher told us that such 3D animation represent a huge help for him as the pupils can prepare the lesson at home and understand more rapidlyThey were timed and when they were done, they were given the other what has to be done. They are very enthusiastic about the class and worktype of manual so that they can compare it to the one they used. The fifth in a more studious atmosphere.person even assembled half of her robot with the paper manual and theother half using the 3D manual. Then we collected what they had to say As far as the second experiment is concerned, we obtained similar results as the 3D assembly manual was systematically pointed as more efficient, 6
  7. 7. more precise than its 2D counterpart. The users liked the interactivity of will be no obstacle left to the development of 3D to enhance the userthe 3D manual and regretted that the paper version sometimes looked experience.more like a “spot the difference” game when they had to find what hadchanged between two steps. A user even said that with the 3D application,he had the impression that someone was assembling the robot next to him Referencesand showing him what to do, what was very reassuring.Conclusion 1. NONIS, Darren. "3D Virtual Learning Environments (3D VLE)." Singapore: Ministry of Education, 2005. Print.Those real-life experiments enabled us to experience the great enthusiasm 2. ABBASI Sarwan. "Human‐computer interaction in 3D objectaround the use of 3D models but also to face the potential obstacles that manipulation in virtual environments: A cognitive ergonomicsmight arise, telling us that 3D models can revolutionize learning only if they contribution". Doctoral Thesis. Université De Paris‐Sud 11, Orsay,are properly used and introduced as users will need a reasonable level of 2010.comfort and mastery with the software to be autonomous and make themost of its possibilities. 3. BLAVIER, A., Q. GAUDISSART, G-B CADIÈRE, and A-S NYSSEN. "Impact of 2D and 3D Vision on Performance of Novice SubjectsThe 3D models do have the power to enhance the user experience but only Using Da Vinci Robotic System." National Fund of Scientificif they are simple and well-conceived, otherwise it could turn a reasonably Research, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.simple task into “a frustrating experience in the virtual world” (2). Users 4. LONG, J., and A. WHITEFIELD. "Cognitive Ergonomics and Human-shouldnt need a manual to use the manual... computer Interaction". Cambridge: Cambridge Univ, 2011. Print.It is a formidable tool that has to be used only when it gives additional 5. SWELLER, John, Paul L. AYRES, and Slava KALYUGA. "Cognitive Loadinformation and not just for the sake of it. Research proved that some Theory". New York: Springer, 2011. Print.paper manuals are perfectly well-suited for a certain number of activities, 6. CLARK, Ruth Colvin., Frank NGUYEN, and John SWELLER. "Efficiencypaper is sometimes even called “comforting”. Furthermore, the integration in Learning: Evidence-based Guidelines to Manage Cognitive Load".of 3D requires a certain equipment such as a computer and sometimes an San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006. Print.internet access, plus it can cause additional eyestrain if we use it too much. 7. "The NMC Horizon Report > 2012 Higher Education Edition".But as far as education is concerned, these logistical constraints could, disappear with the introduction of touchpads. 8. YAIR, Yoav, Rachel MINTZ, and Shai LITVAK. "3D-Virtual Reality inNowadays, the biggest obstacle remains the lack of relevant and good Science Education: An Implication for Astronomy Teaching". Jl. ofquality 3D educational content, but the team of Dassault Systèmess Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching (2001) 20(3), 293-Education Lab is more than dedicated to solve this problem. Soon, there 305. 7
  8. 8. 9. ZAYAS Benjamin. "Learning from 3D VR representations: learner- 18. CHIKOVE Athel, Bryn SNOW, Pamela MEDDINGS, Peter MOUTSIAS centered design, realism and interactivity". School of Cognitive and and Aaron COURTICE. "Technical Documentation in 3D Using Computing Sciences, University of Sussex Falmer, Brighton, UK. Augmented Reality". 2001. 19. ELLIOTT Jason, Lori ADAMS and Amy BRUCKMAN. "No Magic Bullet:10. ISABELLE Claire, Nancy VEZINA, Hélène FOURNIER, Paolo 3D Video Games in Education". Proceedings of ICLS 2002; Seattle, FONGÉMIE and Edgar LAVOIE. "Un environnement 3D pour faciliter Washington, October 2002. la formation en ligne".11. MESSNER John, Leman F. GÜL, Ning GU and Anthony WILLIAMS. "Virtual worlds as a constructivist learning platform: Evaluations of 3D virtual worlds on design teaching and learning". School of Architecture and Built Environment, University of Newcastle, Australia. 2008.12. BERTOLINE, Gary R. "Technical Graphics Communications, Fourth Edition". Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.13. Dr BAMFORD Anne. "The 3D in Education White Paper". 2011.14. STRANGMAN Nicole and Tracey HALL. "Virtual Reality/Computer Simulations, Curriculum Enhancement". National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum (NCAC).15. LITWILLER Tad and Joseph J. LAVIOLA JR. "Evaluating the Benefits of 3D Stereo in Modern Video Games". University of Central Florida.16. MANTOVANI Fabrizia."VR Learning: Potential and Challenges for the Use of 3D Environments in Education and Training". Towards Cyber Psychology: Mind, Cognitions and Society in the Internet Age. Amsterdam, IOS Press, © 2001, 2002, 2003.17. BOWMAN, Doug A, Sabine COQUILLART, Bernd FROEHLICH, Michitaka HIROSE, Yoshifumi KITAMURA and Kiyoshi KIYOKAWA."3D User Interfaces: New Directions and Perspectives". IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. December 2008. 8