Unit 6 learningrev[1] final
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Unit 6 learningrev[1] final






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Unit 6 learningrev[1] final Unit 6 learningrev[1] final Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 6: LearningBY: LAURA BROWN & CAMRYN JOSEPH P.5
  • Key Ideas Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive processes of Learning
  • How We Learn: Learning- a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience 2 types of Associative learning: 1. Classical Conditioning- type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events 2. Operant Conditioning- A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
  • Classical Conditioning A type of learning first described by Ivan Pavlov and the infamous “dogs”!
  • Classical Conditioning Acronyms UR or unconditioned response is a not learned: salivating when food** is presented US or unconditioned stimulus** is the food. CR or conditioned response is how the bell signaled food for the dog CS or conditioned stimulus is the bell that had been neutral but now means food Remember: Conditioned = Learned Unconditioned = Unlearned
  • Processes of Classical Conditioning: Higher-order conditioning- a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one experience is paired with a new and neutral stimulus creating a second often weaker conditioned stimulus Example: By using a dog and a bell in the Pavlov trials, the dog salivates to the bell, then the bell can be paired repeatedly with a flash of light and the dog will eventually salivate to the light alone as well as the bell.
  • Processes Continued Extinction -the diminishing of a conditioned response Occurs when a conditioned stimulus no longer signals an impending unconditioned stimulus Example: In previous example, if you ring a bell over and over again and never feed the dog, the dog will ultimately learn not to salivate when the bell rings
  • Processes Continued Spontaneous Recovery Appears after extinction and without training The response briefly appears upon presentation of the conditioned stimulus after a brief period of not having it.
  • Processes ContinuedGeneralization - Occurs once a response has been conditioned Similar stimuli to the conditioned stimulus elicits similar responses Example: Little Albert was conditioned to fear white rats, he also feared other things that resemble white such as white rabbits and Santa Clause’ white beard
  • Processes Continued Discrimination - The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimulus Example: The dog knows the sound of the bell for the food so he will not respond to a bell being played on the radio.
  • Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
  • Operant Conditioning Law of Effect Developed by E.L Thorndike, conducted experiments in a puzzle box States that behaviors followed by satisfying or positive consequences are strengthened and more likely to occur Behaviors followed by annoying or negative consequences are weakened and less likely to occur
  • Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner Interested in the ABCs of Behavior Designed an operant chamber (Skinner Box) Contained a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water: reinforcer
  • Operant Conditioning B. F. Skinner Developed four different training procedures -Positive Reinforcement -Negative Reinforcement -Positive Punishment -Negative Punishment
  • Operant Conditioning***Positive- something is added (not always good!)***Negative-something is taken away(not always bad)
  • Operant Learning Reinforcement Schedules Continuous Reinforcement- reinforce the desired response every time it occurs Partial Reinforcement- Reinforcing a response only part of the time  Fixed-Ratio Schedule- Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses (Every so many)  Fixed-Interval Schedule- Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed (Every so often)  Variable-Ratio Schedule- Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed (Unpredictable #)  Variable-Interval Schedule- Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals (Unpredictably often)
  • Operant Learning Fixed-ratio- “definite, definite number, fixed amount” (buy 2 shirts get one free) Fixed-interval- “definite period of time” (Checking cookies after the 10 min baking period)
  • Operant Learning Variable-Ratio Schedule- “unpredictable #”, gamblers schedule” (Playing a slot machine) Variable-Interval Schedule- “unpredictable amount of time “ (Mr. R’s pop quizzes)
  • Cognitive Processes in Learning Latent Learning- learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Insight learning- a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem , occurs after little or no interaction with our environment Observational learning- learning by observing others
  • Cognitive Processes in LearningObservational learning (continued) Mirror Neurons- frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing something!
  • Cognitive Processes in Learning Albert Bandura: Bobo Doll Experiment -Kids imitated adults’ actions to a doll We are especially likely to imitate people we perceive as similar to ourselves, as successful, or as admirable