•Miss. Latika Yadav( Research Scholar) Foods & Nutrition•Dr .Vibha Bhatnagar, Asso. Prof, Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Science, MPUAT, Udaipur
The presence of various nutrients is essential in human diet for healthy and active life. We need a wide range of nutrients for substance growth and development. The compound that are classed as nutrients are: water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. The macro nutrients and carbon compound synthesized by living organism, they are required in large amounts these include carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Globally, of the 6.0 billion people (2000 AD), 1.1.billion is hungry and undernourished. Half the poor of the world live in Asia. The UNICEF indicates that at least 5000 children die everyday due to diseases linked to malnutrition. Low calorie-intake is common. India accounts for 40% of the world’s malnourished children and 60 percent of Indian women are anaemic (World Bank, 1998).
How do we go about in providing balanced nutritious food when food itself is scarce?Realizing the need to carry out systematic research on lesser known crops of Realizing the need to carry out systematic research on lesser known crops offuture promise, the AICRP on under-utilized and under-exploited plants was future promise, the AICRP on under-utilized and under-exploited plants wasinitiated in 1982, under the aegis of the ICAR, during the VI Five Year Plan. initiated in 1982, under the aegis of the ICAR, during the VI Five Year Plan.The underutilized crops species identified by AICRP that have the potential to The underutilized crops species identified by AICRP that have the potential tofit into the existing or modified agro-farming systems are listed in (Table 1). fit into the existing or modified agro-farming systems are listed in (Table 1).
Table 1. Under-utilized crops prioritized for research Crop Group Crops Pseudo- cereals Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus), Buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum, F. amaranth tataricum), Chenopodium ( Chenopodium album, C. quinoa) Grain legumes Rice bean ( Vigna umbellate), Adzuki bean ( Vigna angularis), Buckwheat Faba bean ( Vicia faba), Winged bean ( PsophocarpusTetragonolobus) ChenopodiumRice bean Faba bean Winged bean
Crop Group CropsOilseeds Perilla ( Perilla frutescens), paradise tree ( Simarouba glauca) KankodaVegetables Kankoda ( Momordica dioica) Winged bean ( Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), Kalingada ( Citulus lanatus) Source : :Phogat et al (2002) Source Phogat et al (2002) Winged beanPerilla Kalingada
Pseudo-CerealsGrain amaranth, buckwheat and chenopods are the three important pseudo cereals thatare widely cultivated in the mountain region as well as in the plains. Table 2. Comparative food value of pseudo-cereals and cereal S.No Crop Protein Carbohydrat Lipids Minerals (%) es (%) (%) (%) 1 Amaranth 16.0 62.0 8.0 3.0Amaranth 2 Buckwheat 13.0 72.9 7.4 2.1 3 Chenopodium 14.0 65.0 7.0 3.0 4 Job’s tear 11.4 73.5 3.5 0.8 5 Wheat 12.0 69.0 1.7 2.7Buckwheat 6 Rice 6.7 78.0 0.3 0.3 7 Maize 11.0 66.0 3.5 1.1 8 Barley 11.0 69.0 1.3 1.9Chenopodium Source : :Joshi and Paroda (1991) Source Joshi and Paroda (1991) Barley Job’s tear Wheat Rice Maize
Grain legumesRice bean, Faba bean ,Adzuki bean, and Winged bean are the important underutilizedgrain legumes grown in the hilly/ plain regions. Table 3. Nutritive value (per 100 g) of under-utilized and 1 major food legumesS.No Crops Crude Fat (g) Carbohydra Fibre Ash(g) Protein te (g) (g) 2 (g)1 Rice bean 20.9 0.9 60.7 4.8 4.22 Faba bean 26.2 1.3 59.4 6.8 3.0 33 Adzuki 19.9 0.6 64.4 7.8 4.3 bean4 Winged 32.8 17.0 36.5 4.1 3.6 4 bean5 Chickpea 19.4 5.6 60.9 2.5 3.1 56 Pigeon pea 21.6 1.4 72.7 8.1 4.2 Source: Bhagmal (1994) Source: Bhagmal (1994) 6
Kankoda (Momordica dioica): it is grown throughout the country for its fruits, which are highly preferred as vegetable. The fruit is rich in Vitamin C and is ideal for patients suffering from diabetes and gout. Diabetes Diabetes Mature seeds are also used for various preparations and contain about 32-37% protein. It has diuretic properties. The flesh can be used for preparing pickles and sweet. The seed contain 20-40% oil used for cooking and as illuminant. The seeds are parched and eaten with other grains.
Perilla (Perilla frutescens): it is known as Bhanjira, is an important multipurpose crop of the Himalayan region but is more prevalent in the north-eastern region. The seeds are used in the form of a paste (Chutney) and consumed with rice or chapatti. Paradise tree (Simarouba glauca): Paradise tree has its origin in El- Salvador, South America from where it has been introduced in India. The seed of the plant yields 55-60% oil, suitable for human consumption.
Region FruitsCentral Black mulberry1,Asian Chilgoza2, 1 Pistachio3. 2 Source: Pareek et al (1998) Source: Pareek et al (1998) 3
Nutritionally fats and oils are important for absorption of Vitamin A, D and E. Seeds and nuts are energy dense foods being rich in oils, fats and calories. Such foods re especially required for growing children. The most important nut Producing species are Cashew nut 11, mogongo nut22, marula nut33, chilgoza nut44, pecan nut55, chestnut66, black walnut77, butternut88, pistachio99, Shea butter tree10 (45-60% fat), Acrocomia sclerocarpa11 (53.75%), 10 11 Arganai sideroxylon12 (50%), Madhuca longifolia 13(50%), babassu14 (60-70%), 12 13 14 butter fruit15 and avocado15 are also rich energy foods. 15 15 In melabesia, consumption of starch from the sago palm is the main source of energy food for more than one million people (FAO, 1995). 4 6 2 3 5 7 1 10 13 9 11 12 14 158
Protein is essential for the growth and maintenance of human Brazil nut body but its deficiency is widespread in poverty- ridden areas of the world. unlike most of the common fruits, some of the underutilized fruits are rich in protein, e.g. Brazil nut (14.3- 17.4%), Chironji (21.6%), Java almond (19.6%), European Chironji filbert ( 16.4-20%), black walnut (20.5%), white walnut (24.6%), ginkgo (10.2-10.5%), marula nut, etc. The fruit of Jessenia bataua contains a high quality protein and oil. Similarly in humid zone of West Africa, some underutilized Java almond fruit species are of exceptional nutritional value, e.g. the seeds of Ricinodendron africanum contain 28% protein and provide 570 calories/100g. European filbertRicinodendron Jessenia white walnut black walnut bataua marula nut ginkgoafricanum
Substantial increase in food production in many countries over the last five decades, the world still remains poorly fed. Over 800 million people are still chronically undernourished. Among them, nearly 200 million infants suffer from acute or chronic protein and energy deficiencies. The neglected and underutilized species common in the ecologically deprived regions inhabited by poor people are nutritionally rich and provide food security to the people in their native regions of diversity during the famine and scarcity periods in different parts of the world. When other crops fail during drought, famine and War and emergency periods, these fruits offer vital insurance and provide life support as food.