energy sources, quality , characteristics and classification( latika yadav)
ENERGY SOURCES, QUALITY AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ENERGY SOURCES & CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY SOURCESMs. Latika Yadav (Research Scholar), Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, College of H.Sc,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, MPUAT, Udaipur, rajasthan-313001, email.id: email@example.com
Definition of ENERGY The ability of a system to do work. ENERGY A physical quantity which produces a change or effect.Unit of measurement:the joule (J).
Although oil, natural gas, and coal willremain the primary energy sources for the foreseeable future, a variety of resources will be needed to meet the world’s growing demand. YENERG S OF SO URCE All energy sources have benefits, OR LD!THE W
QUALITY OF ENERGY SOURCESEnergy quality is the contrast between different Hydroelectricityforms of energy, the different trophic levels in ecological systems and the propensity of energy to convert from one form to another. It appeals to our common perception of the heat value, versatility, and environmental performance of different energy forms and the way a small increment in energy flow can sometimes produce a large transformation effect on both energy physical state and energy. For example the transition from a solid state to liquid may only involve a very small addition of energy. Wind Power Biomass Fossil Fuels Geothermal
ENERGY QUALITY is of 3 types: 1) Energy quality in physical-chemical science ( direct energy transformations):i) Constant energy form, but variable energy flowii) Variable energy form, but constant energy flow2) Energy quality in ecological physical chemistry ( direct and indirect energy transformations):i) Constant energy form and constant energy flowii) Variable energy form and variable energy flow3) Energy quality in biophysical economics ( indirect energy transformations)
1) Energy quality in physical- ENERGY TRNSFORMATION chemical science ( direct energy transformations):i) Constant energy form, but variable energy flow: T.Ohta suggested that the concept of energy quality may be more intuitive if one considers examples where the form of energy remains constant but the amount of energy flowing, or transferred is varied. For instance if we consider only the inertial form of energy, then the energy quality of a moving body is higher when it moves with a greater velocity. If we consider only the heat form of energy, then a higher temperature has higher quality. And if we consider only the light form of energy then light with higher frequency has greater quality (Ohta 1994, p. 90).
ii) Variable energy form, but constant energy flow : The situationbecomes more complex when the form of energy does not remain constant. Here,energy quality is defined by the relative ease with which the energy transforms,from form to form. If energy A is relatively easier to convert to energy B but energy Bis relatively harder to convert to energy A, then the quality of energy A is definedas being higher than that of B. (T.Ohta 1994, p. 90). DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFORMATION
2) Energy quality in ecological physical chemistry ( direct andindirect energy transformations): Ecological physical chemistry is concerned with the energyconversions where the energy forms and flows are not held constant, and how theform changes over successive indirect transformation steps in an ecological foodchain for example.i) Constant energy form and constant energy flowii) Variable energy form and variable energy flow Solar energy is categorized into direct or indirect energy transformation
INDIRECT ENERGYTRANSFORMATION3) Energy quality in biophysical economics (indirect energy transformations):The notion of energy quality was also recognized in the economic sciences. In thecontext of biophysical economics energy quality was measured by the amount ofeconomic output generated per unit of energy input (C.J. Cleveland et al. 2000).
Ranking energy quality HIGHEST QUALITY Ohta Ranking Odum Ranking Electromagnetic Information Mechanical Human Services Photon Protein Food Chemical Electric Power Heat Food, Greens, Grains Howard. T. Odum River-water potential DIFFERENT HIERARCHICAL Consolidated Fuels RANKS OF ENERGY FORM River Chemical energy QUALITY Mechanical Tide Gross Photosynthesis Average wind Sunlight LOWEST QUALITY
CHARACTERISTICS OF ENERGY Energy can be stored. Energy can be transported. Energy can be transformed.Energy can be transferred. Energy can be preserved. Energy can be degraded.
ENERGY SOURCE classification 2011 1) PETROLEUM & THEIR PRODUCTS Fossil Fuels2) BIO FUELS3) NATURAL GAS4) COAL5) BIOMASS6) HYDROGEN Biomass7) NUCLEAR ENERGY8) SOLAR ENERGY9) HYDROELECTRIC10) WIND POWER Wind Power11) GEOTHERMAL12) OTHERS Hydroelectricity Geothermal
PETROLEUM is formed from animals and plants that lived millions of years ago when heat and pressure turned decayed matter into crude oil. • Transportation fuel for the world• Basis of many products, from prescription drugs to plastics• Economical to produce, easy to transport• High C02 emissions l w ab• Found in limited areas ne e• Supply may be exhausted nr e before natural gas/coal resources no• Possible environmental impact from drilling and transporting
PROPANE is produced as a byproduct from natural gas processing and crude oil refining. It burns hotter and more evenly than other fuels.• Yields 60–70% less smog-producing hydrocarbons than gasoline/diesel fuel or propane exhaust• Nontoxic and insoluble in water• Doesn’t spill, pool, or leave a residue• Uses some fossil fuels in conversion l w ab• Highly flammable ene• Less energy in a gallon of propane nr e than in a gallon of gasoline or no diesel fuel
NATURAL GAS consists primarily of methane but includes significant quantities of ethane, butane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen sulfide. • Widely available• Burns more cleanly than coal or oil• Often used in combination with other fuels to decrease pollution in electricity generation• Added artificial odor that people can easily smell the gas in case of a leak ble e wa n• Transportation costs are high n re• Burns cleanly, but still no has emissions• Pipelines impact ecosystems
COAL is formed from trees and plants in vast primeval forests, when heat and pressure turned decayed matter into coal. Coal is a part of the fossil fuels family.• Abundant supply• Currently inexpensive to extract• Reliable and capable of generating large amounts of power b l• Emits major greenhouse gases ewa and acid rain ren• High environmental impact from n on e mining and burning• Mining can be dangerous for miners
NUCLEAR ENERGY is generated in reactors, when nuclear fuel fission heats water, and the steam turns turbines to run the generators that convert energy into electricity.• No greenhouse gases or C02 emissions• Efficiently transforms energy into electricity• Uranium reserves are abundant• Refueled yearly • Higher capital costs• Problem of long-term l w ab storage of radioactive waste ene• Heated waste water from o nr e nuclear plants harms aquatic life n• Potential nuclear proliferation issue
SOLAR ENERGY is generated when photovoltaic (PV) cells convert heat from the sun directly into electricity.• Nonpolluting• Most abundant energy source available• Systems last 15–30 years• High initial investment• Dependent on sunny weather• Supplemental energy may be l e needed in low sunlight areas w ab• Requires large physical space ne re for PV cell panels
HYDROELECTRIC POWER is generated when flowing water turns turbines to run generators that convert energy into electricity.• No emissions• Reliable• Capable of generating large amounts of power• Output can be regulated to meet demand• Environmental impacts by le w ab changing the environment e n• Hydroelectric dams re are expensive to build• Dams may be affected by drought• Potential for floods
WIND POWER is generated when wind turns turbines to run the generators that convert energy into electricity, which is then stored in batteries.• No emissions• Affordable• Little disruption of ecosystems• Relatively high output• Output is proportional to wind speed• Not feasible for all a bl e e w geographical locations ren• High initial investment• Extensive land use
BIOMASS is produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, recycled restaurant greases, and other byproducts of plant, agricultural, and forestry processing or industrial and human waste products. • Abundant supply• Fewer emissions than fossil fuel sources• Can be used in diesel engines• Auto engines can easily be converted to run on biomass fuel• Source must be near usage to cut transportation costs b le• Emits some pollution ewa• Increases nitrogen oxides, ren an air pollutant emissions• Uses some fossil fuels in conversion
ETHANOL is a subset of biomass that is manufactured from alcohols, ethers, esters, and other chemicals extracted from plant and tree residue. It can be made from corn, sugar, wheat, and barley.• Easily manufactured• Fewer emissions than fossil fuel • Carbon-neutral (C02 emissions offset by photosynthesis in plants)• Extensive use of cropland• Less energy in a gallon of ethanol than in a gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel• Costs more than gasoline to produce• Currently requires government subsidy to be affordable to consumers
HYDROGEN is found in combination with oxygen in water, but it is also present in organic matter such as living plants, petroleum, or coal. Hydrogen fuel is a byproduct of chemically-mixing hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. It’s stored in a “cell” or battery.• Abundant supply• Water vapor emissions only• Excellent industrial safety record• More expensive to produce than fossil fuel Systems• Currently uses a large amount of fossil fuels in the b le hydrogen extraction process ewa• Storage and fuel cell technology ren still being developed
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY is generated by heat in the earth’s core. It is found underground by drilling steam wells (like oil drilling). There is a global debate as to whether geothermal energy is renewable or nonrenewable.• Minimal environmental impact• Efficient• Power plants have low emissions• Low cost after the initial investment• Geothermal fields found in e bl few areas around the world e wa• Expensive start-up costs ren• Wells could eventually be depleted