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Andrew Goodwin


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  • 2. About Andrew Godwin• Andrew Godwin is currently a professor in cultural studies at the University of San Francisco• He is also the author of a well known book on Music Television and Cultural Theory called ‘Dancing in Distraction Factory: Music Television and Popular Culture’ made in 1992• His main interest are Media Aesthetics, critical theory and popular music.• He has published a vast amount of articles on media and cultural theory• Lastly, Goodwin is a significant theorist for music videos.
  • 3. His theory on music videos is made up of 6 key features which consist of:1. Music videos demonstrate genre characteristics for example stage performance in metal videos and dance routines for boy/girl bands2. There is a relationship between lyrics and visuals that either illustrate, amplify or contradict3. There is a relationship between the music and visuals.4. The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artists which may make the artist develop motifs which reoccur across their work (a visual style) that makes them identifiable.5. Commonly, there will be references to notions of looking: screens within screens, mirrors, cameras and particularly voyeuristic treatment of the female body.6. There is often intertextual reference to TV programmes, films and other music videos.
  • 5. According to Andrew Goodwin, we as the audience analyse music videos in five particular ways.1. Thought Beats – Seeing the sound in your Head2. Narrative and Performance3. The Star Image4. Relation of Visuals to Song5. Technical Aspects of Music Video
  • 6. Music Videos demonstrate Genre CharacteristicsIn Hip-Hop videos, the style of video tends to bethematic because it takes the themes of a song andmakes a video out of it. In this video, the theme isbased on ‘ Goldiggers’ who Kanye West and JamieFoxx rap and sing about. Rather than following astoryline, hip-hop music videos follow the genreand are very iconic. A common generic convention in hip-hop videos is the use of close ups, long shots and establishing shots. The effect of this, is to draw the audience’s focus on the main artists (who they will become familiar with) as well as everything that is going on in the video. The use of close ups are also used to draw attention to the artist’s expensive jewellery and other recognised brands that they wear.As well as the artist being shown in thevideo, it is conventional of a hip-hop videoto feature other artists that may eithersing in the video or appear amongst otherpeople within the video. In this video,Jamie Foxx is shown singing in the videowhereas John Legend is shown beingseduced by one of the attractive women inthe video.
  • 7. Relationship between In this music video, the relationship between the lyrics and the visuals are very clear. According to Goodwin, there is three Lyrics and Visuals ways in which music videos work to promote a song which consists of Illustrate, amplify and disjuncture. In this music video, the relation of visuals to the song is amplified which is similar to repeatability. The meaning and effects are manipulated and constantly shown through the video. This is the reason as to why there is fast editing between Kanye West and Jamie Foxx singing/rapping the lyrics and the women who are shown as ‘Goldiggers’ because it signifies to the audience the main meaning of the video and the relationship between the lyrics and the song. As the visuals become drummed into our vision, the audience become repeatedly aware of the lyrics and the meaning and overall, the message that the artist and director are trying to promote.“Oh shes a gold digger way over town, That digs on me” is thelyrics for the visual shown. This firstly implies to the audience thatthe girl in the video is a ‘Golddigger. This is made clear through theclose up shot of her whereby she appears to be well looked after.Her make up is very immaculate which suggests that she usesquality expensive products and her hair is in rollers that is likely tohave been done by the hairdressers. This idea of this isemphasised by her touching her hair. In the second shot hershoulders appears in the frame (almost as if she is holding thecamera) showing her pearls that immediately imply some type ofwealth. The way in which her eyes seductively looks into thecamera portrays two meanings. One of which could portray her asa sexy seductive woman and another that could relate to the lyricswhereby as a ‘Goldigger’ she digs on Jamie Foxx despite living wayover time meaning she uses him for money majority over the timeeven though she lives so far away. By using an eye level shot, itcreates a type of engagement between the audience and the female.
  • 8. Relationship between Lyricsand Visuals“From what I heard she got a baby by Busta” is the lyricfor this visual that is made very clear to the obvious.By placing the woman within a magazine cover with aheadline saying ‘Baby by Busta’ it simply implies that shehas had a baby with Busta Rhymes and is yet, a Goldiggerwho is likely to hide this information from the man shegets money from. “If you sleeping with this girl then you better be payed; You know why, It take too much to touch her” is the lyric for this video because it simply shows how these so called ‘Golddiggers’ will appear if you don’t pay them their money in which they feel they are entitled to for there good deed. The result of this is evidently, a girl who wants revenge which is made clear through the torch that she holds within her hand. By the background being black which contrasts well with the red/orange lighting from the torch, it connotes danger, hell and evil. It also suggests the lengths that she will go to in order to find him. Her stance (which appears like an action figure) and facial expression also emphasises the idea of her seeking revenge.“She got one of your kids got you for 18 years” is another clearvisual in relation to the lyric as it shows a boy who represents theGoldigger’s son who she had with the guy she gets money from.However, the mise-en-scene could suggest some type of negativitybecause the young boy is shown dressed up in a devil costume.This could imply that by having a hold on him for 18 years (dueto their son) she and the child has caused him great stress,depression as the child has been almost like a demon child. Thisdisplays a deeper meaning between the lyrics and visuals.
  • 9. In regards to the lyrics and visuals and the relationship between the two, Hype Williams who directed the video, promotes the song by‘Illustration’ within the video. This means that the music video, uses aset of images to illustrate the meaning of lyrics and the Hip-Hop genre.
  • 10. Relationship between the music and visuals Throughout the video, there is a clear relationshipbetween the music and the visuals. The theme is based on ‘Goldiggers’ which is made known to us by the first visual that we see. However, the use of the word ‘beware’ suggests that these women are people to look out for as they are of danger to men with money. As these visuals appear on screen there is the sound of afilm rolling creating the idea of a show that would have been viewed 10-20 years ago. After the acapella introduction by Jamie Foxx whereby he sings about Golddiggers, there is extremely fast editing that matches the beat of the drum at the beginning of the song. The effect of the beat being up tempo and alarming creates a fun, lively ready-to-dance atmosphere - almost as if its counting in the audience to begin singing along or dancing. Within this part of the video there are extreme close ups that focus on breast, eyes, teeth, shoes, and a fade in of Kanye West in the background. These group of shots portray everyaspect of women as your typical looking gold digger who presents themselves in a nice way by wearing goodmake up, expensive clothing and living up to her name as a Goldigger.
  • 11. The demands of the record label will include the need for lots of close ups of the artist and the artist motifs which reoccur across their work In order for the audience to engage and have a relationship with the artist, close up shots are very significant. Within this music video, there are various close ups and extreme close up shots of Kanye West, Jamie Foxx - whilst they are singing/rapping – and other people within the video. By usingthese shots it enables the audience to familiarise themselves with the artist, take note of what they aresaying through the movement of their lips as well what they are wearing. Within the video, Kanye West does a particular head movement to the beat of the song alongside others and alone. However, herepeatedly does it in the chorus whereby he sings ‘Broke Broke’ which is catchy and appealing phrase. The effect of this is to engage the audience in to something simple by which they can recognise Kanye West for within the video as well as if he does it in other videos. This is called the artist motif. The artist motif not only makes the artist identifiable but can also create a connection between the viewer and the artist as it enables the audience to do the movement with Kanye West in the chorus.
  • 12. There is frequent reference to notion of looking
  • 13. All through the music video, there is frequentreference to notion of looking from both theaudience’s perspective and the artists. As theartist, they look into the camera at directaddress to make it look as if they aresinging/performing to the viewer. This canalso be done to create a connection. From theaudience’s perspective, we look at all thedifferent ideas and people that the videoportrays to us. In particular, the voyeuristictreatment of the female body which appeals tomen and gives us a deeper meaning behindwhat is shown by the intimate behavioursshown that would be usually of a privatenature.
  • 14. There is often intertextual reference
  • 15. The intertextual reference that is most dominant, is the portrayal of women sexually and seductively that occurs inmany music videos of a Hip-Hop genre. At the beginning of this music video Hype Williams has some reference to 90s TVprogrammes that would begin with the film rolling as background music and anunbalanced camera showing the title of thevideo, the creator and the director. It couldbe said that the music video also begins in a film like style.