Fixed Expense increase in 1998 over 1997 due to higher depreciation expense, advertising expense, and salaries in 1997 than in 1998.
Controllable expenses include cost of sales, labor and benefits, supplies, inventory mark outs and adjustments, and store costs for donations, entertainment, and customer relations.
Tall corporate hierarchy affects communication between the corporate HQ and individual stores.
Staffing direction based on direct hour allowances Inventory control and ordering Check list of daily job tasks
Overall store capacity a function of the number of workers on the floor. Both at the register and at the bottleneck. With two people at bottleneck, cycle times are more around .29 minutes and hourly capacity is 208 units / hr. Store capacity much higher based on number of employees working, number of registers working, and exact product mix of sales.
Management steps in and out as needed, but is not overbearing. Wages have normally been maximized for economic reasons. We saw two excellent examples of employee empowerment.
This is directly from the Starbucks Mission Statement To communicate this, all employees get the Partner Information Manual We saw a great work environment in action at this location
The benefits package is not relevant to employees who are under the age of twenty. Remind that with the raises, standard policy has been to give maximum allow to keep overall wages competitive.
We estimate that the additional $16K is enough to hire 2 more PT partners.
Starbucks Presented by: Adam Berger, Justin Buchman, Donald Chase & Suzana HsuT HE F R A P P UC C I NOS
Presentation Outline Introduction to Starbucks Industry Overview Company Overview Site Analysis Recommendations for Improvement Focused Recommendation for Improvement Final Action Plan Impact Analysis Wrap Up The Frappuccinos
Introduction to Starbucks Company started in 1971 in Seattle, Washington Grew from 55 stores in 1989 to over 2,200 stores today Products sold include: - beverages - pastries - whole coffee beans - coffee-related retail items The Frappuccinos
Industry Definition Specialty Eatery Industry – Fits within the largest segment of disposable income spending -- food and beverages – Steady growth in this segment in the 1990’s has led to an abundant number of new companies – As demand for convenience has made eating out a normal routine, the demand for specialty food services has increased in recent years The Frappuccinos
Industry and Competitive Analysis Market Structure – Monopolistic Competition Competitive Activity – Many companies are in the market and competition is fierce – Competitors use location, product mix, and store atmosphere differentiation to establish market niche Industry Costs and Capital Structure – Low to moderate costs for each location – Major start-up expenditures are property and equipment – Major operating costs are labor and cost of sales The Frappuccinos
Industry PEST Analysis Political Influences – Relationships between coffee producing nations and US – State & Local government controls Economic Influences – Constant demand for food and beverages – Changes in disposable income could influence purchase levels Social Influences – Consumer preferences could shift from coffee to other beverages Technological Influences – Use of technology can improve operational efficiencies The Frappuccinos
Starbucks Corporate Strategy Maximize market penetration Provide a relaxing, attractive social atmosphere Offer high-quality products Create a great working environment Achieve profitability The Frappuccinos
Starbucks SWOT Analysis Strengths – Largest market share in industry – Differentiated atmosphere Weaknesses – Aggressive expansion could lead to managerial / financial problems Opportunities – Whole bean sales in supermarkets Threats – Lack of ownership of coffee farms can lead to price fluctuations The Frappuccinos
Company Financial Performance (1998 FY) Revenues $1,308.7 million (% of Sales) Gross Margin 195.7 million 15% Pre-tax Profit Margin 116.4 million 8.9% Net Income 68.4 million 5.2% Return-on-Assets 8.7% Return-on-Equity 11.0% Debt-to-Equity 0.04 12 mo. Revenue Growth 28.4% The Frappuccinos
Company Financial Performance (1998 FY) 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% -5%-10% Net Profit ROE ROA Debt/Equ 12-Mo Rev Margin Growth Industry Starbucks The Frappuccinos
Site Characteristics Leased store located on Central Street in Wellesley Store has over 1,000 square feet of retail space and 1,000 square feet of office and storage space in the basement Second most profitable store in the fourteen store region Located one block away from Commuter Rail train station and in busy retail shopping area Only one direct competitor (Au Bon Pain) in the area The Frappuccinos
Site’s Operational Results (1998 FYTD – 11 Months) Financial Operations 1998 1997 %∆ Total Sales $760,576 $796,688 (4.5%) COGS 242,593 262, 945 (7.7%) C/M 517,983 533,743 (3.0%) Fixed Exp. 367,746 431,923 (14.9%) EBIT $150,237 $101,820 47.6% – No money spent on independent advertisement – Local entertainment budget underutilized The Frappuccinos
Volume of Sales vs. Contribution Margin %$300,000 100.0% 90.0%$250,000 80.0% 70.0%$200,000 60.0%$150,000 50.0% 40.0%$100,000 30.0% 20.0% $50,000 10.0% $0 0.0% Espresso Whole Drip Coffee Pastries Blended Other Serveware Packaged Media Brewing Drinks Beans Beverages Beverages Food/Tea Equipment The Frappuccinos Margin % Dollar Volume Sold Product Contribution
Site 7-S Analysis Strategy – Store’s strategy is to create a comfortable Third Place environment – Serve customer a customized high-quality product – Achieve high level of profitability by focusing on high-margin items while generating add-on sales – Minimize overall expenses by focusing on controllable expenses The Frappuccinos
Site 7-S Analysis Structure S to re M a n a g e r – Functional in structure and relatively flat A s s is t a n t M a n a g e r – Corporate organization is tall with four levels of management above S h ift S u p e r v is o r s store management B a r is t a s B a r is t a s B a r is t a s The Frappuccinos
Site 7-S Analysis Staffing – Location has one manager, an assistant manager and 16 partners – Benefits package includes health, dental, and vision care, stock options, free shift drinks, and a free pound of coffee each week – Raises are based on semi-annual performance evaluations with raises ranging from 0-5% – Bonuses are not utilized, but the location has given away non monetary rewards The Frappuccinos
Site 7-S Analysis Systems – Corporate headquarters exercises controls over individual sites – Total Quality Management is specifically built into their processes – Utilizes a large amount of information technology (IT) – Internal controls for the store are determined by the manager based in part on information provided by the IT system The Frappuccinos
The use of IT at Starbucks Sales, Inventory,Inventory, Individual Individual Orders, Staffing Stores Stores Transfers Sales,Inventory, Individual Corporate IT Vendors, Orders, Budgets, Staffing Stores System Distributors, Future Sales Mgmt., Channel Members The Frappuccinos
Site 7-S Analysis Skills – Most important skills include “people skills” and drink preparation ability – Partners receive training to learn about products, brewing methods, and sales techniques – Retraining mainly occurs during new product roll- outs, although this site does not use regular meetings, but instead one-to-one discourse The Frappuccinos
Order Cycle Times Yes .53 Min Yes Pastry? No Take .53 Min BottleneckCustomer’s Order? Order Yes .40 Min No Pastry? No .27 MinBottleneck Capacity 114 / Hr The Frappuccinos
Site 7-S Analysis Style – Basic management style is Laissez Faire – Management motivates through reviews and raises – Work duties are assigned by shift supervisors – Employees are allowed to use initiative and empowered to make decisions The Frappuccinos
Site 7-S Analysis Shared Values (from Mission Statement) – Provide a great work environment – Treat each other with respect and dignity – Embrace diversity – Apply the highest quality standards for products – Develop enthusiastically satisfied customers – Contribute to the community and environment – Recognize that profitability is essential to future success The Frappuccinos
Alignment of Store with Corporate Strategy Contrary to the mission statement focus, the reduction of staffing levels appears to be more important than developing satisfied customers The relevance of the benefits package is misaligned considering the average age of employees The high turnover rate of partners and managers is detrimental to customer environment The Frappuccinos
Recommendations For Improvement1. Revamp the employee reward system2. Tighten focus on creating the “Third Place” environment3. Focus profitability measures on profitable sales, not just reduction in staffing The Frappuccinos
Revamp Employee Reward System Large percentage of the staff are under the age of twenty Benefits package focuses on medical, dental, and vision care, as well as the employee stock options Outside of hourly wage, and semiannual raises, there are few monetary rewards The Frappuccinos
Improve “Third Place” Environment Site has a very high employee turnover rate Manager “promoted” to a another store in hopes of improving their poor performance Site has very poor handicapped accessibility Condition of restroom in each of our visits was poor and had no baby changing area The Frappuccinos
Focus Profitability Measures on More Than Just Staffing Store is underperforming on some high margin product segments Too high a focus on minimizing direct labor as a key to achieve profitability Focus on high-margin items and profitable add-on sales By increasing pastry sales by 33%, store would realize a $16K increase in contribution The Frappuccinos
Focused RecommendationImprove “Third Place” Environment The Frappuccinos
Pros and Cons of Discounted Opportunities Revamp the Employee Reward SystemPros Cons – Employees are motivated – Pay and benefit structures with more incentive to dictated by corporate HQ perform – Cost of benefits would – Lower employee turnover additional benefits lower rates site profitability – Positive reinforcement – New reward system requires which leads to higher additional management feelings of job satisfaction The Frappuccinos
Pros and Cons of Discounted Opportunities (Cont.) Focus Profitability Measures on More Than Just StaffingPros Cons – Higher staffing levels – Staffing is a cost that will benefit other employees decrease profitability – Better customer service – Upper-level management – Improved customer perception of low focus could lead to employee productivity higher sales – Employees may get in each other’s way The Frappuccinos
Three-Step Action Plan For Improvement Decrease employee turnover rate – Focus on hiring older employees where benefits package is more appropriate – Base raises on performance rather than maximizing raises for economic reasons – Develop and actively maintain a reward system for employees (i.e. employee of the month) – Develop a system of regular employee communications / meetings The Frappuccinos
Action Plan (cont.) Improve site accessibility and cleanliness – Upgrade front door and restrooms for handicapped accessibility – Add a baby changing station – Redesign restroom to separate cleaning supplies from bathroom or move cleaning supplies to another location – Focus employee attention on restroom cleanliness The Frappuccinos
Action Plan (cont.) Enhance Starbuck’s differentiated atmosphere – Utilize entertainment budget to hire outside entertainers, have book / poetry readings, etc. – Display the store’s collection of games and activities more prominently – Make the location more of a “scene” The Frappuccinos
Impact Analysis - Benefits By focusing on the initial recruitment and hiring stage, and by rewarding employees based on merit current turnover rates will be reduced. By focusing on site accessibility and cleanliness, the physical facility will not detract from atmosphere. By improving Starbucks’ atmosphere, it will become a more attractive place to go. The Frappuccinos
Potential Risks Customers may not react positively to the changes being made Not enough available employees to meet re- aligned hiring needs Claims of age discrimination and negative affect on sales in youth demographic Costs associated with planned change The Frappuccinos
Wrap-Up Starbucks is the market leader in a growing market segment Starbucks is known world-wide for its high- quality food products and differentiated “Third Place” atmosphere The Wellesley location embodies the ideals of the corporate mission and has been very profitable, but there are still opportunities for improvement The Frappuccinos