Reproductiveeditedv 110923093801-phpapp02 (1)
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    Reproductiveeditedv 110923093801-phpapp02 (1) Reproductiveeditedv 110923093801-phpapp02 (1) Presentation Transcript

    • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
    • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
      • Consists of paired internal ovaries , paired uterine tubes (oviducts) , and a single uterus , and vagina
      • Accessory gland – mammary gland
    • FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
    • ANATOMY
    • MAIN FUNCTION/S
      • Secretion of female sex hormones
      • Production of oocytes for fertilization by sperm
      • Transportation of embryo to the uterus
      • Implantation of embryo
      • Development of fetus (pregnancy)
      • Nutrition of newborn
    • OVARIES
      • Flattened almond – shaped bodies
      • Situated deep in the pelvic cavity
      • One section is attached to the broad ligament by a peritoneal fold, mesovarium
      • Another section is attached to the uterine wall by ovarian ligament
    • OVARIES
      • Surface is covered by simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium called germinal epithelium
      • Under the covered surface is the tunica albuginea made of dense irregular connective tissue
        • Responsible for whitish color of ovary
    • HISTOLOGY
    • HISTOLOGY
    • HISTOLOGY
    • OVARIES
      • Below that tunica albuginea is the cortex of the ovary
        • Predominance of ovarian follicles
      • Deep in the cortex is highly vascularized connective tissue core of ovary, medulla
        • No distinct boundary line exists
    • HISTOLOGY
    • HISTOLOGY
    • HORMONES (OVARIES)
      • Estrogen
      • Progesterone
    • ESTROGEN
      • Manufactured mostly in ovaries by developing egg follicles
      • In addition, produced by the corpus luteum, placenta, liver, breasts and adrenal glands in smaller quantities
      • Essential to the menstrual cycle
      • Prepares uterus for pregnancy
        • Enriching and thickening of endometrium
    • ESTROGEN
      • Contributes to the development of secondary characteristics
        • Breasts, widened pelvis, increased body fat in buttocks, thigh and hip region
        • Less facial hair and smoother skin
      • Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) help to control production of estrogen
    • PROGESTERONE
      • Responsible for the changes in the endometrium in the second half of the menstrual cycle
      • For fertility and pregnancy
      • Prepare the endometrium for implantation of fertilized egg and its development
      • Maintain the uterus throughout pregnancy
    • PROGESTERONE
      • Low progesterone hormones have negative influences on your body, fertility, pregnancy and can even lead to an expelling of a fertilized egg
    •  
    • Histology of egg cell
    •  
      • The ovum or the female gamete is much larger than the sperm in size.
      • It is non - motile and laden with different types of energy rich materials like yolk, glycogen and proteins accumulated in its cytoplasm.
      • It is enclosed by one on more egg envelops. Size of ovum varies in different animals and depends upon the amount of yolk.
      • On the basis of amount of yolk, the ovum can be microlecithal (small sized egg with very small amount of yolk) Human ovum is microlecithal.
      • mesolecithal (egg containing moderate amount of yolk) and
      • macrolecithal (containing very large amounts of yolk).
      • the cell substance is known as the  yolk  or  oöplasm,  
      • the nucleus as the  germinal vesicle,
      •   and the nucleolus as the  germinal spot.  
      •  
      • The human ovum is surrounded by a number of egg envelopes:
      • vitelline membrane - A thin, inner transparent layer secreted by the ovum itself.
      • Zona pellucida - A thick middle layer which is transparent and non - cellular.
      • Corona radiata - An outer, thicker coat formed of radially elongated follicular cells.
      • Between the vitelline membrane and zona pellucida, there is a narrow space called perivitelline space