Parathyroid

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  • A small lobe of parathyroid gland, surrounded by connective tissue septa (S), shows mainly densely packed cords of small principal cells (P), also called chief cells. Older parathyroid glands show increasing numbers of much larger and acidophilic nonfunctional oxyphil cells (O) which may occur singly or in clumps of varying sizes. 
  • PARATHYROID PRINCIPAL CELLS
  • Parathyroid

    1. 1. PARATHYROID GLAND
    2. 2. PARATHYROID GLAND <ul><li>Four small glands </li></ul><ul><li>Located behind the thyroid gland, one at each end of the upper and lower poles </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be found in the mediastinum lying beside the thymus </li></ul><ul><li>Usually embedded in the thyroid capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the pharyngeal pouches </li></ul>
    3. 3. PARATHYROID GLANDS <ul><li>Contained within connective capsule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsules send septa into gland, merge with reticular fibers that support secretory cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consists of 2 cell types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxyphil Cells </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. PARATHYROID GLAND
    5. 5. TYPE OF CELLS <ul><li>Chief cells </li></ul><ul><li>Oxyphil Cells </li></ul>
    6. 6. CHIEF CELLS <ul><li>Small polygonal cells with round nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Arranged in cords presenting whorl – like appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm is filled with irregularly shaped granules </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally occur as clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone (parathormone) </li></ul>
    7. 7. CHIEF CELLS RED - Chief Cells
    8. 8. OXYPHIL CELLS <ul><li>“ Hürthle cells” </li></ul><ul><li>Larger than chief cells </li></ul><ul><li>Found singly or in small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Less numerous than chief cells </li></ul>
    9. 9. OXYPHIL CELLS RED – Oxyphil cells
    10. 10. PARATHYROID HORMONE <ul><li>Increases blood calcium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing bone resorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing renal excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase gastrointestinal uptake of calcium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulating Vitamin D </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces blood phosphate </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. PARATHYROID PRINCIPAL CELLS
    12. 12. PARATHYROID PRINCIPAL CELLS

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