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  1. 1. GLAND HORMONE TARGET TISSUE RESPONSEPituitary Gland • Anterior Growth Hormone • Most tissues • Increases protein synthesis • Breakdown of lipids • Release of fatty acids from cells • Increases blood glucose levels Thyroid – stimulating • Thyroid Gland • Increases thyroid hormone secretion (thyroxine and Hormone (TSH) triiodothyronine) Adrenocorticotropic • Adrenal cortex • Increases secretion of glucocorticoid hormones such as Hormone (ACTH) cortisol • Increases skin pigmentation at high concentrations Melanocyte – stimulating • Melanocytes in skin • Increases melanin production in melanocytes to make the Hormone (MSH) skin darker in color Luteinizing Hormone (LH) • Ovary in females • Promotes ovulation and progesterone production in the or Interstitial cell • Testis in males ovary stimulating Hormone • Testosterone synthesis and support for sperm cell (ICSH) production in testis Follicle – stimulating • Follicles in ovary in • Promotes follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovary Hormone (FSH) females • Sperm cell production in testis • Seminiferous tubules in males Prolactin • Ovary and mammary • Stimulates milk production and prolongs progesterone gland in females secretion following ovulation and during pregnancy in • Testis in males women • Increases sensitivity to LH in males • Posterior Antidiuretic Hormone • KIdney • Increases water reabsorption (less water is lost as urine) (ADH) Oxytocin • Uterus • Increases uterine contractions • Mammary gland • Increases milk “let down” from mammary glandsThyroid Gland Thyroid Hormones • Most cells of the body • Increase metabolic rates • Thyroxine • Essential for normal process of growth and maturation • Triiodothyronine Calcitonin • Primarily bone • Decreases rate of bone breakdown • Prevents large increase in blood Ca2+ levels following a mealParathyroid Gland Parathyroid Hormone • Bone • Increases rate of bone breakdown by osteoclasts • Kidney • Increases vitamin D synthesis • Essential for maintenance of normal blood calcium levelsAdrenal Glands • Medulla Epinephrine mostly, some • Heart • Increases cardiac output Norepinephrine • Blood vessels • Increases blood flow to skeletal muscles and heart • Liver • Increases releases of glucose and fatty acids into blood • Fat cells • In general, prepares the body for physical activity • Cortex Mineralocorticoids • Kidneys • Increase rate of sodium transport into body (aldosterone) • To a lesser degree, • Increase rate of potassium excretion intestine and sweat • Secondarily favor water retention glands Glucocorticoids (cortisol) • Most tissues (e. g. liver, • Increase fat and protein breakdown fat, skeletal muscle, • Increase glucose synthesis from amino acids immune tissues) • Increase blood nutrient levels • Inhibit inflammation and immune response Adrenal androgens • Most tissues • Male sexual characteristics • Female sexual drive, pubic hair, and axillary hair growth
  2. 2. Pancreas Insulin • Liver • Increases uptake and use of glucose and amino acids • Skeletal muscle • Adipose tissue Glucagon • Primarily liver • Increases breakdown of glycogen • Release of glucose into the circulatory systemReproductive organs • Testes Testosterone • Most tissues • Aids in sperm cell production • Maintenance of functional reproductive organs • Secondary sexual characteristics • Sexual behavior • Ovaries Estrogen and • Most tissues • Aid in uterine and mammary gland development and Progesterone function • External genitalia structure • Secondary sexual characteristics • Sexual behavior • Menstrual cycle • Uterus, Prostaglandins • Most tissues • Mediate inflammatory responses ovaries, and • Increase uterine contraction and ovulation inflamed tissuesThymus Gland Thymosin • Immune tissues • Promotes immune system development and functionPineal body Melatonin • At least the • Inhibits secretion of gonadotropin – releasing hormone, hypothalamus thereby inhibiting reproduction