1 ContendingActors pursue own outcomes strongly, show little concern for other party obtaining their desired outcomes2 YieldingActors show little interest in whether they attain own outcomes, are quite interested in whether the other party attains their outcomes3 Inaction Actors show little interest in whether they attain own outcomes, little concern about whether the other party obtains their outcomes4 Problem solvingActors show high concern in obtaining own outcomes, as well as high concern for the other party obtaining their outcomes5 CompromisingActors show moderate concern in obtaining own outcomes, as well as moderate concern for the other party obtaining their outcomes
Per Dual Concerns Model, choice of strategy is reflected in the answers to two questions:How much concern do I have in achieving my desired outcomes at stake in the negotiation?How much concern do I have for the current and future quality of the relationship with the other party?Avoidance: Get what you want without having to (waste time) negotiate, maybe have far better BATNA.Competition – distributive, win-lose bargainingCollaboration – integrative, win-win negotiationAccommodation – involves an imbalance of outcomes (“I lose, you win”) Maybe compromise for the future.
Strategy: Provides stability, direction and continuity for our tactical behaviors. Quinn 1991.Example: Integrative strategy designed to build and maintain a productive relationship.l
Assignment II: Negotiation Planning Memo IIAnalyze the other partyWhy do they want what they want?How can I present my case clearly and refute the other party’s arguments?Present the issues to the other partyDefine the protocol to be followed in the negotiationWhere and when will the negotiation occur?Who will be there?What is the agenda?
It provides you the information to do the negotiation. Otherwise you have no arguments.
4-1 Negotiation Strategy and Planning Rights Reserved
Systematic Planning Most negotiation outcomes are left to chance…why? Advance planning is overlooked: Time constraints Boring / Tedious Interested in Action / Doing The result is either no deal or suboptimal deals (winners curse, leave value on the table for one or both parties) Were not as quick, smart or clever as we think we may be. Results are failed or suboptimal negotiations: Lack of clear objectives Inability to evaluate offers accurately Inability to understand alternative proposal strengths & weakness
Use of Planning Research suggests (Rackham, 1980) that “skilled negotiators” vs. “average negotiators”: Explored a wider range of options for action Worked harder to find “common ground” with the other party Spent more time considering long term implications Thus, the skilled negotiators were able to understand fully when to accept, reject or continue negotiating. Were significantly more likely to set: Upper limits, Lower limits Understand the negotiating range of acceptable settlements
Key Steps to an Ideal Negotiation Process Negotiation proceeds through distinct phases or stages: Beginning phase (planning, initiation) Middle phase (negotiation, problem solving) Ending phase (resolution)
Key Steps to anIdeal Negotiation Process 4-5 P1, P2 & P3 Preparation What are the goals? How will I work with the other party? Relationship building Understanding differences and similarities Building commitment toward a mutually beneficial set of outcomes Information gathering Learn what you need to know about the issues (Eg.. Range [ZOPA] from Baker-Andersen)
Key Steps to anIdeal Negotiation Process P4, P5, P6 & P7 Information using Assemble your case/argument Bidding, Trading: The Dance. Each party states their “opening offer” Each party engages in “give and take” Closing the deal Build commitment, step-by-step. Implementing the agreement (who, what, when)
Negotiation: Most refer to it is simply step’s 5 & 6: Skilled negotiators employ all 7 steps.
Goals Types of Goals Need to be Specific, Measurable, Easy to Communicate. May be Win-Win or Win Loose, depending on your situation. E.g. A Cheap Car? Vs. New car 5 below dealer cost Better sales results vs. Sales growth 5% better than the industry growth rate. Substantive Goals Money Specific Outcome Result or Behavior Change Intangible Goals Reputation (maintain or create) Winning Market Entry Selling your company(any price) Procedural goals Agenda, Location, Law, Input in outcome
Goals – The Focus That Drives Negotiation Strategy Determining goals is the first step in the negotiation process Negotiators should specify goals and objectives clearly -prioritized The goals set have direct and indirect effects on the negotiator’s strategy. E.g. Money $$$ or a Specific Action/Outcome Process goals, dates, timing Reputation and Relationship.
Strategic Options 4-14 Per Dual Concerns Model, choice of strategy is reflected in the answers to two questions: How much concern do I have in achieving my desired outcomes at stake in the negotiation? How much concern do I have for the current and future quality of the relationship with the other party? r
Strategy: The Dual Concerns Model - Modified Integrative Strategy Compromising Distributive, Win –Loose Strategy No Deal, I Have a better BATNA Accommodation: I let you win, enhance relationship: Compromise for Future?
Strategy versus Tactics Strategy:The overall plan to achieve one’s goals in a negotiation based on situation and resources available Tactics:Short-term, actions designed to enact or pursue broad strategies Tactics are subordinate & driven by strategy Planning:The “mapping” component of the strategy process Example: Integrative strategy designed to build and maintain a productive relationship, & create the most value between the two. Example: Open –ended questions, active listening to understand others genuine interests, problem solving or hard ball actions Example: How will I implement the strategy?
Getting Ready to Implement the Strategy: The Planning Process Define the issues Assemble the issues and define the bargaining mix The bargaining mix is the combined list of issues Define your interests Why you want what you want Know your limits and alternatives Set your objectives (targets) and opening bids (where to start) Target is the outcome realistically expected Opening is the best that can be achieved Assess constituents and the social context of the negotiation
Negotiating Planning Guide Lewecki Text Chapter 4, Figure 4.3