Global Strategy, centralization-decentralization debate part ii only[cvg 08]


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  • (from What is Strategy, Porter 1996, p 4.)TQM: OE focused since the 1980’s Japan on improving thingsBaldrige Quality Award, six sigma, Two reasons why these OE tactics are ineffective: 1) Competition for efficiency raises the bar for everyone. 2) The more benchmarking and improvements (KPI’s) they do, the more ALL companies begin to look alike. This means that companies become copycats, giving away all the value to the customers and retaining little profit margin for themselves. The curve moves outward and customers benefit. Price wars.Frequent mergers prove this thinking: economize, reduce costs, improve scale, etc. Companies buy each other due to stock performance pressure because they have no other ideas. No unique competitive strategy.Lets take a look at a good example…. The Moving vcomp[any,
  • Use container company versus old trucking company.
  • Global Strategy, centralization-decentralization debate part ii only[cvg 08]

    1. 1. Global StrategyCritical Concepts in Global Strategy II<br />Steve Varela<br />
    2. 2. Rate of Change is AcceleratingCompetition is Everywhere<br />Many have seen Firms “Restructure” and “Downsize”<br />Many firms have tried “Re-Engineering”<br />Problem: There are Diminishing Returns on Operational Effectiveness.<br /> You can’t… “Save your way to Success”<br />Successful Firms do Not Just Over-Execute, i.e. Japanese Firms 1970-1980’s<br />they also Out Think and Out Innovate their Peers<br />
    3. 3. Productivity Frontier<br />Value Created<br />Left: What value you provide<br />Bottom: At what cost<br />Constantly moving outward..<br />New technologies<br />New management approaches<br />This cannot continue indefinitely…<br />
    4. 4. Operational Effectiveness ≠ Strategy<br />Operational Effectiveness<br />Strategic Positioning<br />Higher Quality<br />Higher Speed<br />Higher Productivity<br />Lower Defects<br />Lower Costs<br />Lower Inventory<br />“Performing similar activities better than rivals”<br />Perform differentactivities than competitors<br />Perform similar activities in different ways<br />“Choosing a different set of activities to deliver a unique mix of value”<br />100’s of activities required to create, produce, sell and deliver products/services.<br />A firm can outperform its competitors only if it can establish a difference that it can preserve.<br />
    5. 5. Moving Company<br />
    6. 6. It Continues with ‘Fit’<br />Fit as Consistency<br />Are the resources internally consistent (match)<br />Avoid Resource Acquisition and Management Inconsistencies<br />I.E. <br />Wal*Mart focuses primarily on those activities and resources that contribute to its position of cost advantage<br />Dell Computer specializes in those activities that contribute to its cycle time, operations cost and price advantages<br />
    7. 7. Fit as Reinforcing<br />Do resources in one area reinforce resources in another area to build competitive advantages?<br />Location facilities reinforce distribution skills<br />Information processing resources complement inventory control<br />Location and Distribution along with IT skills reinforce inventory management competencies<br />Classic WalMart Example: <br />EACH STRENGTH IS SYMBIOTIC TO EACH OTHER<br />
    8. 8. Fit as Optimizing: Are resources assembled where they exploit naturally occurring competitive benefits?<br />SW Airlines: Exclusive use of 737’s<br />Maintenance (Cheaper), Parts (Cheaper)<br /> Flight Crew Training/Availability (Cheaper)<br /> Airport gate options , more flexible<br /> Airport gate crews, more flexibility, backup<br /> Food Catering: Simple Box<br /> = Lower costs system wide, each decision is related and benefits spread to other processes/costs.<br />Low Cost Structure allows them to attack markets by bringing down prices through greater utilization/efficiency of resource set.<br />
    9. 9. Management Tactics:<br />Focus attention on Key resources that possess a majority of desirable characteristics<br />I.e. Low Imitability, High Transferability)<br />Deploy resources that conform to strategy, eliminate those that don't “Fit”.<br />Rethink Value Contribution / Process<br />GE’s “Work Out” Program<br />
    10. 10. Questions? <br />
    11. 11. Contradictory Forces in Global Competition<br />Global firms are faced with a clear set of Contradictory Forces:<br />The need for Global Rationalization<br />Scale and Scope Economies on a global basis<br />The need for Local Responsiveness<br />Adaption to local governments, markets, standards and tastes<br />
    12. 12. Factors Favoring Global Rationalization<br />Asset Intensity: more capital needs (eats) more volume<br />Global Competitors: expansion, don’t be left out – fear<br />Global Customers (if you cant supply me everywhere, you cant anywhere)<br />Global Suppliers: enabler, since supply is global, you can purchase globally also<br />Technology Intensity (R&D): Needs to be spread around the world; economics<br />Universal Needs, Preferences, Tastes<br />Real needs (washing machines, cellular phones, internet)<br />Created needs (McDonalds, Coca Cola, Starbucks in Brazil, China)<br />
    13. 13. Factors Favoring Local Responsiveness<br />Unique local needs, preferences, service<br />Government Intervention, Licensing<br />Industry Standards (sizes, protocols)<br />Lack of Global Competitors (open door)<br />Limited Economy of Scale Opportunities<br />Locally Specific Marketing Tastes<br />Marginal Incremental Benefit to Economies of Scale<br />
    14. 14. The Contradictory Forces<br />Need for Global Rationalization<br />High Costs, Centralized, Big Factories, Heavy Costs<br />Komatsu (high need) Phillips Electronics<br />Need for Local Responsiveness<br />Decentralized, market driven, power in local markets.<br />Locally tailored products, little need for collaboration<br />
    15. 15. Caterpillar & Komatsu<br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. The Contradictory Forces (cont)<br />Most Firms are on one side or the other<br />Boeing (high centralized)iPhone(more local)<br />Whirlpool<br />A note on acquisitions<br />Work better in Local Responsive Organization, Just a name change.<br />Global/Centralized firms find employees/tacit knowledge rarely moves to HQ.<br />
    18. 18. Popular Strategic Approaches<br />Need for Global Rationalization<br />“Global Firms” need massive economies of scale<br />Customers accept a standard product<br />Boeing (high need) Phillips Electronics (low need)<br />Need for Local Responsiveness<br />“Multi-Domestic” firms offer locally tailored products<br />Benefits of local responsiveness outweigh the inefficiencies<br />
    19. 19. Broad International Strategy Types<br />High Global Rationalization<br />GLOBAL<br />Tight, hierarchical integrated chain of activities that span multiple markets<br />Production is standardized across all countries – same platforms<br />Global scale economies are stressed<br />Company will have one approach to markets irrespective of country location<br />REGIONAL<br />Operation's are integrated within a region<br />Regional decision making for production/marketing and sales functions<br />Country differences within region are downplayed<br />Company may have several regional strategies<br /> MULTI-DOMESTIC<br />High degree of responsiveness to national markets<br />National subsidiaries enjoy a high degree of autonomy<br />Efficiency emphasized on country by country basis<br />Company will have multiple “Country Strategies”<br />High Local Responsiveness<br />
    20. 20. Questions???<br />
    21. 21. Strategy Types x Organizational Structure<br />Organizational Structure should be constructed to facilitate the Strategy…<br />Nurture<br />Facilitate<br />Expedite<br />
    22. 22. Broad Organizational Structures<br />Globally Integrated<br />Centralized: R&D, Production, Marketing, Planning, Resource mgmt, HRM, and Finance<br />Regional/Local: Sales & Distribution<br />Regional<br />Centralized: HQ, Finance Controls and Portfolio & Core R&D<br />Decentralized: Product Choices, Sourcing, Production, Marketing, Sales and HRM, R&D<br />Multi-Domestic/Local<br />Centralized: HQ, Finance Controls and Portfolio Choice<br />Decentralized: Product Choices, Sourcing, Production, Marketing, Sales, R&D and HRM<br />Multi-Local<br />Centralized: R&D, Production, Mktg., Planning, Resource Mgmt, HRM.<br />Local: ??? Depends: Product Priority or Market Priority.<br />
    23. 23. Some Characteristics of Successful Global Firms<br />Coordinated World Strategy<br />Global Organization and Management<br />Global Management of Cash Flows<br />Global Resource Mgmt & Allocation<br />Focus on Core Competencies<br />Global Transfer of Learning<br />
    24. 24.
    25. 25. Coordinated World Strategy<br />In global industry, more firms coordinate their activities on a worldwide bases<br />3 or 4 bosses, both product and geographic markets<br />Results on a 3 or 4 dimensional matrix within the company<br />Strategy and Tactics must be consistent to each other AND across all major product and geographic markets<br />The Strategic position of a global firm in a single geographic market may be substantially determined by the firms overall global position<br />May be defensive<br />Strategy may dominate, easy economic decision.<br />L.M. Ericcson: all employees speak English because it is difficult to find good international talent willing to learn to speak Swedish.<br />
    26. 26. Global Organization and Management<br />Build and sustain a global organization structure<br />Create formal reasons to think globally (meetings, events, awards)<br />Track your competition on a global basis<br />Encourage Communication across formal boundaries<br />Good ideas can originate almost anywhere<br />Cycle time also applies to implementation of new ideas<br />Reinforce the need for Cultural Awareness and Sensitivity<br />You need to understand all significant markets and players<br />A successful multicultural team can be a competitive advantage<br />
    27. 27. Global Management of Cash Flows<br />Build and Sustain Global Cost Advantage<br />Scale, Scope or Experience Advantages<br />Low (total) Cost Locations<br />Build and Sustain Profit Sanctuaries or Market Fortresses<br />Geographic Region<br />Home Country<br />Strategically coordinate international cash flows<br />International Cross Subsidiaries<br />Minimize tax Obligations<br />
    28. 28. Global Resource Allocation: Tie Resource Allocation to Strategic Goals<br />Will expenditure further firms broad corporate goals?<br />You need to send consistent signals over time<br />Continually re-calibrate environment/goals/behavior combination<br />Don’t Rely solely on Financial Returns<br />Need time to build profit sanctuaries<br />May need presence in a specific geographic center of research<br />Some manufacturing flexibility is important; Hedge currency flow with capital assets<br />To offset government or FX pressures<br />To learn techniques or processes from others<br />Define Human Resources Broadly (Globally)<br />Human resources should flow through organization<br />Cultural Biases will emerge, <br />Long term planning is essential here <br />
    29. 29. Focus on Core Competence<br />Core competence at the heart and soul of a firm<br />Consist of collective organizational learning in a critical area<br />Core products, business units and end products flow from them<br />Few firms will have more than a few of these such competencies<br />Traditionally originate from Asia<br />Honda Engines, Canon Imaging <br />Dominating an area of core competence may offer unforeseen benefits<br />Should lead to domination of core products<br />May shape evolution of applications and end markets<br />Get in or Start the Standards Body and you are: Google / Bill Gates / Garmin (GPS)<br />
    30. 30. Global Transfer of Learning<br />Organizations Learn: Basic Principle of Core Competence<br />Local Knowledge Bases within the firm are real assets<br />Measurement systems do not capture them (I.e income statement, balance sheet)<br />Knowledge, like money has Velocity<br />The more the user gets it, the greater the effect<br />Unlike physical assets, use may enhance this asset<br />A global firm needs to transfer learning from around the world<br />Real economies of scope are possible<br />Cycle Time is important here also<br />Learning's from Brazil must flow to Mexico, Thailand, US, Japan… Otherwise, What’s the advantage of being Global?<br />
    31. 31. Symptoms of Successful Globalization<br />Debates with managers from other countries<br />Fewer total basic products<br />More variants on basic products<br />More worldwide products<br />Foreign exchange rates are often an issue<br />Global managers must understand the idea of FX risk<br />Increased interaction with managers from other countries<br />Increased travel time; more time in field<br />More discussion about customers, competitors, technology and suppliers with counterparts in other countries<br />Multiple reporting relationships<br />Life in the 21st Century…<br />
    32. 32. Questions???<br />
    33. 33. Summary<br />Fit: it’s the unique way we put together our resources to deliver our product/service<br />Global / Local Strategic Choices'<br />People are incentivized to collaborate, share knowledge across firm 24x7, continuously…<br />
    34. 34. Recent News, Quotes & Organization Examples<br />Appendix<br />
    35. 35. A Simplified View of Distributing Autonomy<br />Corporate Headquarters<br />Regional Centers<br />National Units<br />Considerations <br />Global<br />Strategy<br />World Product<br /><ul><li> Strength of globalization drivers</li></ul>Regionally based or Adapted product<br /><ul><li>Product characteristics</li></ul>Regional Strategy<br />National Strategy<br />Nation based or adapted product<br /><ul><li>Strategic positioning vs. operational implementation</li></li></ul><li>Global BusinessManagement<br />Commercial OperationsWestern Hemisphere<br />Commercial OperationsEastern Hemisphere<br />Responsible for alltrade marketing andsales in North Americaand Latin America<br />Responsible for alltrade marketing andsales in Europe, Asia,Africa, Oceania<br />Responsible worldwidefor all product lines:<br /><ul><li>Manufacturing
    36. 36. R&D
    37. 37. Strategic Marketing</li></li></ul><li>“I want my business in Brazil to be run by Brazilians, the business in Japan by Japanese, the German operation by the Germans…”<br />Senior VP, Dow Chemical Company<br />
    38. 38. “From the early 1950s through the late 1970s, Caterpillar placed thousands of employees abroad. As a result, five out of six top managers have had international experience and are well equipped to deal with global competition. <br />Recently, however, there has been a marked reduction in the use of expatriates. How will the future generations of Caterpillar managers gain the expertise that is, and will continue to be, a key factor in the company’s competitive success?” <br /> Lee Morgan<br />Retired CEO and Chairman<br />Caterpillar Corporation<br />