Global Review Overview


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  • Limited awareness; limited synthesis of knowledge and experiences  poor incorporation in programs and policies
  • Abby: make this into a pie chart – first category blue, next two categories as shades of green, last two categories as shades of yellow/orange
  • Landscapes manual/sourcebook with a brief introductory core module and supporting modules derived from the technical KPsLandscapes for People, Food and Nature book focused on the ways that integrated landscape processes have been developed and implemented to solve rural sustainable development challenges
  • Coordinated set of research across continentsScope is on integrated landscapes and landscape initiatives– through both local/grassroots and external actionRelated research in Asia, but with a different focus
  • Abby: please creat title slide with an iconic African landscape – semi-arid would be good – and the Africa white icon-ish map in the upper right
  • Blank slide for transition
  • Abby: please creat title slide with an iconic African landscape – semi-arid would be good – and the Africa white icon-ish map in the upper right
  • Blank slide for transition
  • Abby: please creat title slide with an iconic African landscape – semi-arid would be good – and the Africa white icon-ish map in the upper rightThere is an alternative photo of Ethiopia behind, by FisehaHailemichael
  • Abby: Map of the coutnrieABBY: please Algeria, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroun, central African Republic, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Tunisia, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Ugandas in Africa where ecoag initiatives have been found
  • Phil: state where this project is going nextPhoto from Burundi, Creative Commons license.
  • Laos – Nam ha protected area with integrated agriculture.
  • Global Review Overview

    1. 1. Global ReviewJeffrey MilderEcoAgriculture Partners
    2. 2. Global Review Framing Key Impediments toScaling-up Effective ILM 1. Knowledge and experience not Global Review synthesized or shared Learn systematically from prior experience 2. Limited capacity to implement effective Synthesize information for key user groups practices Provide a robust evidence base 3. Unsupportive policies, incentives and investments
    3. 3. Global Review Goal:To bolster and communicate the evidence base aboutintegrated landscape approaches to support practitioners,policymakers, and advocates to develop and scale-up effectivepractices
    4. 4. Global Review Goal:To bolster and communicate the evidence base aboutintegrated landscape approaches to supportpractitioners, policymakers, and advocates to develop andscale-up effective practicesMeans to this Goal:Draw on the expertise of leading practitioners, researchers, andexperts from around the world to implement an appliedresearch portfolio consisting of about 40 “KnowledgeProducts” that document and communicate key dimensions ofthe practice, impact, potential, and key mechanisms supportingintegrated landscape management
    5. 5. Global Review StructureKnowledge Products Address 9 Key Questions Related to four key themesKQ 0: global review of ILM practiceKQ 1: current extent & future potenial of ILM Global PotentialKQ 2: role of ILM in supporting climate changeadaptation and mitigationKQ 3: biophysical aspects of implementing ILMKQ 4: social and institutional aspects of implementing Action in LandscapesILMKQ 5: market mechanisms to support ILM MarketsKQ 6: policy and governance to support ILMKQ 7: priority investments to support ILM Future DirectionsKQ 8: research agenda for ILM
    6. 6. Status of Global Review Knowledge Products (KPs) KPs already completed KPs not yet funded, but lower priority 3 8 12 KPs fundedKPs not yet funded, and in progress and high priority 11 4 KPs funded and in design
    7. 7. The Global Review: A Tasting Menu● KP 0.8 – integrated landscapes ‘storybook’ (illustrations)● *KP 2.1 & 2.2 – integrated landscapes for climate change adaptation, mitigation, and climate-smart agriculture● *KP 3.6 – integrating food and energy in rural landscapes● *KP 3.7 – integrated landscapes for resilience and disaster risk mitigation● *KP 4.3 – landscape governance for multi-objective, multi-stakeholder mgmt.● *KP 5.2 – “ILM in an age of supermarkets”● *KP 6.5 – integrated landscape/ecosystem approach to foodshed planning● *KP 6.3 – national policy analysis to support integrated landscapes● KP 7.3 – economic costs & benefits of integrated landscape approaches● KP 8.2 – how plant breeding can support multi-functional rural landscapes
    8. 8. Key Sets of Global Review Outputs● Publications in peer-reviewed journals (and special issues)● Set of briefs for awareness-raising, outreach, and advocacy● Landscapes manual/sourcebook and curriculum materials for training practitioners & landscape leaders● Multi-media (video, photo narratives, etc.) to communicate compellingly, including to non-reading audiences● Landscapes for People, Food and Nature book
    9. 9. This afternoon’s session Who? What? The Continental When? Reviews Where? Why? Thematic Global How? Review Studies
    10. 10. An overview of the continental reviewsResearch questions1. Where is ILM happening? What kinds of problems does it seek to solve? Who is leading these efforts?2. What activities comprise integrated landscapes and initiatives? How are they structured and implemented?3. When, where, and why have ILM approaches been effective or ineffective in advancing multiple landscape goals?4. Based on this experience, how can we support the wider and more effective adoption ILM in places where it can provide significant benefits?
    11. 11. Research methodologySTEP 1: Cast a wide netSTEP 2: Evaluate and filter resultsSTEP 3: Tier 1 survey—landscapes & initiatives continent-wideSTEP 4: Stratified sample for Tier 2STEP 5: Tier 2 “deep dive” analysisSTEP 6: Analysis and knowledge sharing
    12. 12. Latin America Natalia Estrada, CATIE Jeffrey Milder, EcoAgriculture Partners Fabrice DeClerck, Bioversity International Abigail Hart, EcoAgriculture Partners Celia Harvey, Conservation International Photo: IFAD
    13. 13. Where are the landscapeinitiatives located?n = 212 potential initiatives
    14. 14. Characterization of the collected Keyword / School of thought landscape initiatives Community based Conservation / sus. Genesis Improving VC intl dvpmt proj. Model forest Landscape-scale… Biosphere reserve Watershed mgmt.intl conservation proj. Sustainable tourismintl research program Buffer zonesGovernment / research Rural development Multilateral Climate change Biological corridors Government aid Protected areas Regional platform Water management Field school - 5 10 15 20 (2) 3 8 13 18 23
    15. 15. What land uses were present in these landscapes? Major Minor Don’t exist Pasture Tropical moist forest Annual grain crops Temperate or upland forest Agroforestry Forestry plantations Other sun-grown perennials Villages / towns / urban Grassland Water Other annual crops Tropical dry forest Wetland Industry, mining, oil/gas dvpmt - 20 40 60 80 100
    16. 16. What were the main motivations for the landscape initiative? Enhance sustainable land management O A N Conserve biodiversity B M Stop or reverse land/resource degradation C L Increase farmer incomes D K Conserve soil / increase fertility E J Manage water quality or flow F I G H Improve crop productivity Not Very important important
    17. 17. Investments in agriculture Core Supporting Not Included Crop intensification (agroecology) Agrobiodiversity Soil conservation Agroforestry Value chainExtension or capacity building programs Home gardens New crops or crop varieties Implementation of laws or incentives Livestock intensification (agroecology) Irrigation systems Crop intensification (conventional) - 20 40 60 80 100
    18. 18. Investments in forestry, conservation, and NRM Core Supporting Community-based NRM New conservation areasImproved forestry management Extension for forestry/NRMNew protected areas established Watershed management New mgmt plans for existing PA 0 20 40 60 80 100
    19. 19. Investments in livelihoods and human wellbeing Core Supporting Not Included Enterprise development Traditional knowledgeIncome generation and diversification Gender equity Malnutrition and hunger MigrationLand tenure and resource access rights Human health 0 20 40 60 80 100
    20. 20. Investments in multi-sectoral coordination and planning Core Supporting Not Included Technical assistance for ILM Capacity building for ILM New landscape coordinating bodyStrengthen existing coordinating bodies Local/local conflict mediation Local/external conflict mediation 0 20 40 60 80 100
    21. 21. AsiaSocio-ecological production landscapes in AsiaKaoru IchikawaUnited Nations University – Institute of Advanced Studies Photo: Nakwoodford
    22. 22. Socio-ecological Production landscapes (SEPLs) ● Developed by interactions between humans and nature ● Local knowledge, techniques, rules and norms regarding wise use of natural resources and sharing of benefits and burdens ● Benefit people and maintain ecosystems and biodiversity
    23. 23. SEPLs in Asia ● Pastoralism ● Rice cultivation: ● Temperate ● Tropical (hills and mountainous) ● Lowland
    24. 24. Photo: T. Okayasu Photo: JWRCPastoralism Rice cultivation system● Dry and/or alpine climate with seasonal/ ● Temperate and humid climateirregular pattern of precipitation ● Integrated land use system representing a● Controls herds load on vegetation by mosaic patterntranslocation ● Woodlands are managed regularly● Traditional institutional system of pasture ● A decreasing and aging populationand livestock management resulting in abandonment of farmland and● Political and economic regimes change woodland● Overuse and abandonment of pasture land
    25. 25. Photo: JWRC Photo: JWRCRice Rice cultivation systems with fisherycultivation, homegarden, shiftingcultivation, livestock ● Lowland near the wetland areas● Tropical climate in hills and mountains ● Production systems and/or crop varieties● Complexity of landuse and mixed livelihoods along with the gradient of water condition.● Irrigation system for dry season ● Accompanied by fishery activities.● Shifting cultivation and the extraction of wild ● Population increase and market economy plants● Growing population/ migration to urban areas development● Development of market economies ● Conversion of land use and extraction of● Intensification and abandonment wetland vegetation
    26. 26. Common characteristics● Practices that enable adaption to spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions ● Fallow systems ● Combined use of different production systems ● Combined use of different of different species/varieties of crops and livestock ● Land use according to topographic conditions● Local institutional systems that adjust and coordinate resource use
    27. 27. Challenges and responsesChallenges ● Population increase ● Emigration ● Development of market economy ● Degradation of SEPLs (overexplotation,conversion,abandonment)Responses ● Policy development and implementation of land tenure and resource management such as community forestry ● Projects on community development, awareness raising, restoration of ecosystems and abandoned agricultural facilities, supported by NGOs, private sector organizations, governmental bodies and international organizations
    28. 28. AfricaPhilip Dobie, World Agroforestry CentreJeffrey Milder, EcoAgriculture Partners Photo: CGIAR Climate
    29. 29. Landscape approaches found across thecontinentForestsDrylandsWetlandsWatershedsCross boundaryProduction systemsConservation reserves
    30. 30. Availability of data• Basic information reasonably easy to find• But reporting is not complete or easily accessible• NGO work particularly difficult to track down• More propoganda than reliable, quantified data• Little on impact
    31. 31. Key themes of landscape initiatives (n=68) Ecosystems services Policy/governance Conservation/ biodiversity Land degradation Investment/finance Land degradation Poverty/ livelihoods Productive systems Communities/ CD NR management 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
    32. 32. Preliminary evidence & implications• Most projects dominated by NRM, with design by conservationists• Development aspects often appear weak: where are the people’s needs?  Mention of livelihoods > poverty alleviation > improved incomes• Some focus on governance; little on policy and legislation (IUCN a commendable exception)• Very mixed approaches to investment, from serious intent (TerrAfrica) to passing mention• Surprisingly little on climate change, ecosystems services, or tourism• Impact quantification generally weak
    33. 33. Implications for future projects• Need much more study of costs and benefits, with quantitative comparisons of approaches• Need much more focus on impacts (landscapes and people)
    34. 34. Thanks for yourattention!