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This presentation focuses on sharing analysis undertaken on the growth of area cleared for, or planted with industrial plantations from 1975 to 2010 across Indonesian Borneo determined by visual inspection of >182 Landsat images. It also discusses the trajectory of land cover changes before industrial plantations establishment to identify whether plantations have been established on: 1) intact forests, 2) logged forests; 3) very degraded forests; or 4) smallholder agricultural areas. Finally, the proportion of 2000-2010 deforestation (loss of old-growth natural forest cover) caused by industrial plantations and by small farmers is analyzed. The implications of these findings for the large versus small-scale debate will be discussed.