Seminar 13 Mar 2013 - Session 2 - Forests and food by CPadoch
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Seminar 13 Mar 2013 - Session 2 - Forests and food by CPadoch

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Around one billion people rely to some degree on wild harvested products for food and income, the direct contribution of forests to diets is considerable and often crucial, if often hidden from urban ...

Around one billion people rely to some degree on wild harvested products for food and income, the direct contribution of forests to diets is considerable and often crucial, if often hidden from urban and official eyes. This direct food contribution adds not only considerable calories but also much needed protein and micronutrients to the diets of local populations as well as additional income for buying food. But the contributions forests make to food production may be far more important than data on direct provisioning suggest. The role of forests and their contribution to agricultural productivity is frequently mentioned, but better evidence is clearly needed. The value of ecosystem services to agriculture (including regulation of water flow and quality, pollination services, the tempering of climate change, and other crucial services) has largely been overlooked by policy-makers and businesses. Also little explored is the extent and impact of managing “natural” forests for food and other important products including the fuelwood used for food preparation. The spectrum of forest management for food, ranges from subtle alterations of the abundance of fruit-bearing trees, animals, and other species to the management of forests by creating forest gaps for swidden agriculture. These practices are rarely recognized, little understood, often criminalized.

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Seminar 13 Mar 2013 - Session 2 - Forests and food by CPadoch Seminar 13 Mar 2013 - Session 2 - Forests and food by CPadoch Presentation Transcript

  • Forests and FoodChristine Padoch
  • Forests and Livelihoods From CIFOR’s Poverty and Environment Network (PEN) data on forests and rural incomes : Forest income contributes >20% of total household income for people living in or near forests With other “environmental” income, >25%; more than from planted crops THINKING beyond the canopy
  • Food from forests: bushmeat  5 million to 6 million tons of bushmeat eaten annually in the Congo Basin  This is roughly equal to the total amount of beef produced each year in Brazil  For many communities up to 80% of their intake of protein and fats.
  • But the direct contributions of forests are eclipsed by their services to agriculture Water filtration and regulation Pollination services Temperature regulation Aquatic resources Temperature regulation Genetic resources
  • Why are forest contributions (food , etc.) not valued? Existing tools for assessing income and food sources – do not capture their importance Much of the activity falls between sectors and is thus “illegible” Many forest people and their livelihoods are “invisible”
  • Smallholder management of forests has been “invisible”• For millennia forests and other non- agricultural ecosystems have been managed to better satisfy a variety of human and societal needs, including the need for food• However, these traditional forms of management have remained mostly invisible to researchers• We need to focus on identifying, understanding and evaluating their realities, potentials, and the trade-offs they demand.
  • purma vieja chacra nueva platano chacra purma vieja chacra en produccion chacra en produccion frutal platano platano yucal y platanal frutalpurma huerta
  • Managed Forests in Amazonia
  • Acai palm (Euterpe oleracea) raquiles broom dye fruit juice domestic animal fodder smoke rubber (coagulate) fruit fertilizer roof cover leaves “poguega” shrimp bait wrap “peconha” climbing belt general covers leaves/ crownshaft heart of palm leaflets hat paper pulp construction beams foundation for general trunk trunk construction floor boards fences walls bridges “cacuri” fixed fishing trap Construction of raised plant bed roots Medicine for stomach Figure courtesy of E. Brondizio problems
  • Expansion of municipalities producing acai fruit, 1985-2004 according to IBGE 2004 ~1985*Brondizio, E. S. 2008. The Amazonian Caboclo and the Acai Palm: Forest farmers in the Global Market. New York:New York Botanical Garden Press.
  • Terrain preparationCrops: Annuals Unmanaged Selective clearing Unmanaged forest Clearing & leveling Papaya bi-annuals Acai  Banana Lemon grass Pineapple  Inter-cropping Thinning & Sowing Intensive Managed Acai plantation Transplanting in rows Acai over bananas Pruning acai clumpsPerennials Acai monoculture Acai agroforestry Acai agroforestry Figure courtesy of E. Brondizio
  • Average no sacks of açai (~48 kg fruit/sack) produced permonth by 36 sample households in Mazagao (2000 – 2011) 60 50 40 Forests 30 Fallows House Garden 20 10 0 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
  • Management for Multiple Products
  • Smallholder management of forests has been “invisible”• For millennia forests have been managed to satisfy a variety of human and societal needs, including the need for food• However, these traditional forms of management have remained mostly invisible to researchers• Is working with smallholder forest management (rather than teaching farmers conventional forestry practices a promising way for assuring food, incomes, and sustainable landscapes