Seminar 13 Mar 2013 - Session 2 - Appraisal tools for landscape level functions by BLusiana

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We have developed generic and replicable tools to assess hydrological, carbon, biodiversity and hydrological functions of a landscape. The Rapid Hydrological Appraisal (RHA) identifies and reconciles …

We have developed generic and replicable tools to assess hydrological, carbon, biodiversity and hydrological functions of a landscape. The Rapid Hydrological Appraisal (RHA) identifies and reconciles local, public/policymakers and scientist perspectives on hydrological issues in a landscape. Using a parsimonious hydrological model we can assess the current hydrological situation and prospect impact of possible land cover change on hydrological function. The Rapid Carbon Stocks Appraisal (RACSA) assesses landscape ability to store carbon. The tool entails measuring plot-level carbon stocks for forest and tree based systems, and performing land cover/land cover change analysis to produce landscape carbon/carbon loss map. Further integration with land use profitability data and a land change model, we can perform trade-off analysis on carbon versus livelihood for various plausible development pathways. The Quick Biodiversity Survey (QBS) provides an initial estimate of the biodiversity value of a landscape. Using indicator animal groups and plants, the approach surveyed a 1-km long transects in which the layout and frequency of sample points are determined by the animal groups being surveyed. The survey uses local guide who is knowledgeable about local plants and animals. Species identifications are carried out in consultation with experts. The outcome of three appraisal tools can further be used as the basis for PES schemes development. We had applied these tools in various regions in Southeast Asia. The tools potentially can be applied in other regions as well.

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  • 1. Appraisal tools for assessing landscapefunctionsBetha LusianaECOLOGICAL MODELLING UNIT – ICRAF SouthEastAsia Regional OfficeTree cover transitions and investment in multi-colored economyMarch 13th 2013
  • 2. CRP 6.3 Landscape management for environmentalservices, biodiversity conservation and livelihoodsKey Research Themes6.3.1. Understanding drivers of forest transition as a prerequisite for their management6.3.2. Understanding the consequences of forest transition for environmental goods and services and livelihoods6.3.3. Enhancing response and policy options to sustain and maximize environmental and social benefit from multifunctional landscape
  • 3. Appraisal tools for landscape functionsPaLA: Participatory Landscape AppraisalRHA: Rapid Hydrological AppraisalRACSA: RApid Carbon Stocks AppraisalRABA: Rapid Agro-Biodiversity Appraisal – using QBS (Quick agro-Biodiversity Survey)
  • 4. RHA Framework: Integrating stakeholders’ knowledge To clarify: What watershed function is being provided How the watershed function is provided Who provides this service How it is being impacted land cover change
  • 5. 1. Land cover/land cover change analysisInformation on distribution of land cover, historical use Land Cover Proportion Forest in Singkarak Basin Pine Mix garden 13% 15% Mix garden (coconut) Agricultural fields 1% 11% Ricefield 12% Shrub 8% Grass 5% 2% Settlement 1% Water body 15% 17% No data (cloud and shadow)
  • 6. 2. Stakeholder analysisWho is involved, who is affected by the watershed Stakeholder groups in Nagari Paninggahan, Singkarak Stakeholder Male farmers Female farmers Local government Non-government Composition From jorong From jorong Head of Jorong, Bundo Kanduang, (village) (village) Koto Planning Agency: Majelis Ulama Subarang, Baru, Kampuang BPN (Badan Nagari, Karapatan Parumahan, Tangah. Perencanaan Antar Nagari. Gando. Nagari), PLTA (HEP, Hydro Electric Power), BP-DAS Province
  • 7. 3. Local and Policy-maker knowledge surveyWhat are perceived watershed issues and solution.Factors influencing water availability Factors influencing flooding Crop Banio, Surian, Riparian Area Open Rainy Bayua, Madang land season Pines (Natural Forest) Grass Cutting Fire Needles hazard. leaf Deep root Big leaf Water quantity River Erosion of river Used for fire flow wood and hut. Land coverage Meandering River Type of Soil Tree sediment density Lake Soil sediment Clay evaporation Groundwater Limestone Dry Outflow Water holding capacity on lake Season Rainy Dry Water Source Lake water Rainy surface Water tunnel Flooding Flooding of rice field
  • 8. 0.85 Performance H 0.8 4. Modelling landscape hydrology 0.75 0.7 0.65 0.6 What is the effect of land cover? Rainfall? 0.55 0.5 on Landscape water balance? Hydro electric power performance? Paningahan Degrad. _ Degrad. _ all Sev.Degrad. Sev.Degrad. Current LU Lakeside _ Lakeside Degrad. _ mix _LU 1 0.9 0.8 Performance HEPP 0.7 0.6 Best year 0.5 Mean 0.4 Worst year 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 50% less 25% less Default 25% more 50% more rain rain rainfall rain rain
  • 9. 5. Integrating and reconciling local, policy-maker and scientificknowledgePerceived watershed issues and solution Declining water quality due to Sedimentation and erosion Declining water qualitybilih’to erosion reducedqualitydue to water ‘ikan due Sedimentation and erosion threatened PLTAClimatic variation influences the erosion reduced ‘ikan bilih’ reduced ‘ikan bilih’ threatened PLTAperformance of PLTA caused by Flooding more than land Intensive agriculture &use change Flooding caused by Intensive agriculture & deforestation deforestation caused deforestation deforestation of water yield for insufficiency caused insufficiency of water yield for PLTA PLTA Reduction of water quality will Reforestation to reduce erosion and increase water availability of also influence the performance Reforestation toofreduce erosion and increase water availability Disappearance ‘ikan bilih’ due to PLTA (euthrophication) decreasing water quality and overfishing
  • 10. 5. Integrating and reconciling local, policy-maker and scientificknowledge Reforestation to reduce erosion and increase water availabilityReforestation of ‘critical land ‘will not be enough to increasewater yield & may actuallyreduce water yield due toincrease in evapotranspiration
  • 11. Implication of RHA oucomes? Before RHA: Reward scheme focused on HEPP as buyer and reforestation as the main activity to increase water availabilityAfter RHA:Rewad schemes are multi-scales. Target buyerbecomes wider and the objectives ofwatershed management are maintaining waterflow as well as water quality
  • 12. Reward scheme activities in Singkarak - multiscalesWatershed Scale :12 Nagari around Lake Singkarak (Selingkar Danau) form a grup andcommited to manage watershed functions & to developmanagement plan with provincial environmental department forsubmisiion to the Ministry of Environment Nagari Paninggahan
  • 13. Reward scheme activities in Singkarak - multiscalesNagari/District Scale:1. Ecocertification of organic coffee2. Voluntary Carbon Mechanism – small scale
  • 14. Where have we applied the carbon, agro-biodiversity and hydrological appraisal tools?Potentially in other region as well ..