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Delve 2009

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Delve into primary industries with this e_magazine including stories about buying local, seeding clouds, shark breeding, bat colonies, sustainable timber production, adapting to climate variability, ...

Delve into primary industries with this e_magazine including stories about buying local, seeding clouds, shark breeding, bat colonies, sustainable timber production, adapting to climate variability, local fishers and much more.

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Delve 2009 Delve 2009 Document Transcript

  • 09 LV E DE Buying loca Adaptive fu l Aussie f ishe ture rmen www.dpi.nsw.gov.au
  • From the M Our primar y p inister role, in the liv roducers play an integ es of each an ral, but often d every one o sty meats and overlooked f us. The avai lability of fish is an acce ergy and pted Contents Contents vegetables, ta ur homes, en 4 Oils just ain’t oils fresh fruit and ber to build o eeded. All of e. Tim ected when n 5 Sunday roast gets even tastier par t of our lifestyl e also exp frastructure ar dustries. 6 Biochar revolution m etals for our in ur primar y in uch more is courtesy of o ainable 6 Seeding clouds this and so m adaptive, sust nsuring safe, ries is the 7 Get to know your forests and parks mmitted to e rimar y Indust The NSW Go vernment is co es. NSW Department of P stry 7 Fishing fees stri , fisheries, fore primar y indu h the stat e’s agriculture 8 Wobbegongs released from city beach and profitable artnering wit 8 Nursing shark cannibals governm ent agency p to meet this g oal. nge urc es industries f the broad ra 9 Mellow, yellow pasta hits plates and palates an d mineral reso to give yo u a sample o stries we 10 ‘Old’ crop gets new future een designed ea of the indu This pub lication has b t plays, alo ng with an id 10 How do fish cross the road? e departmen 11 f functions th C Pretty key indicators to environmental health o donald, ML e you enjoy it The Hon Ian Mac . 11 Half a million bugs – now that’s a collection p support. I ho imary Industrie s Minister for Pr 12 Adaptation key to future production ergy 14 Minister for En es Helping farmers adapt to climate variability ineral Resourc 16 Hanging with 100 000 smelly friends Minister for M ment ate Develop 18 Lessening coal’s greenhouse emissions key to future Minister for St 20 Local timber – the better choice 22 Local fishers team with top chefs Production team Leah Flint, Kylie Davies, l tor- Genera propriate Fro m the Direc n, is a truly ap 24 College turns out new generation of farmers Carmen Perry, Kellie Lobb, for informatio ar y 25 PROfarm short courses Nicole Edwards and ‘Delve’, being the search tment of Prim m NSW Depar ar y 26 Ross Longley ublication fro Organics in the city e state’s prim title for this p in supporting th minently 27 Organics in the country e work we do nducted by e Industries. Th y research co ng on 28 LandLearn NSW tensive or issues impacti carry on in acked b producers is b all manner of delve: to formation into 29 Comparing apples and Earth ntists, delving qualified scie 30 What’s on our website search for in thorough re ility. , production an d sustainab ar y producers is then sh ared with prim roader 31 What’s happening around NSW in 09? le knowledge own to the b W hile this valuab role w e play is not kn apshot of just ent of Primar y Industries work and the ill give a sn NSW Depar tm much of our ope this publication w ire you to delv e Communicat ions Branch commu nity. We h readers th at might insp , Maitland NSW 2320 516 High Street 09. f our work to rtment of Prima ry Industries 20 so me aspects o w.dpi.nsw.go v.au South Wales thr ough NSW Depa ember 2008). Ho wever, PO Box 34 4 r website ww W 2310 New further at ou gain new © The State of e of writing (Dec and to check Mail Centre NS rmative, and ding at the tim Hunter Region N 1836 -6 759 rstan date y of Australia ISS ledge and unde they rely is up to re sting and info dustries National Librar is based on know on upon which 2 or 02 4931 6666 the primar y in this publication re that informati endent adviser. d ‘Delve’ inte on contained in the need to ensu the user’s indep publisher take T: 1300 736 12 hope you fin artment and The informati of or ers are reminded mary Industries author and the .gov.au I dep in knowledge, us partment of Pri uth Wales, the e work of our use of advances officer of NSW De State of New So rties. w w w.dpi.nsw insight into th beca th the appropri ate third parties, th e rd pa information wi provided by thi currenc y of the nt is provided by in the document on in this docume ation included dorsement. of the informati ess of any inform government en we support. Richard Sheldrake t some ctn ply Recognising tha iabilit y and corre ent, does not im cy, currenc y, rel rial or advertisem y for the accura , either in edito no responsibilit company in Delve eral vice or Director-Gen dustries The inclusion of any product, ser of Primary In Department 2 NSW Delve Delve 3
  • Sunday roast gets tastier even Sunday lamb roasts across NSW have composition and eating been getting more delicious and quality of meat. it’s partially due to research work “Quality has also conducted by NSW DPI scientists in been improved Cowra, in the central west. by processing NSW DPI meat scientist David Hopkins techniques and we has been recognised by the global are continuing work scientific community for research that’s in both those areas.quot; contributed to improving the eating Market approval of local lamb quality of lamb and sheep meat. Extra-virgin Aussie olive oil has a taking up to seven days to complete. has been reflected in lamb exports product sold overseas, mostly to “Both consumers and industry which hit record highs in 2007, while particular fruity tang, suited for Fatty acid tests need to be accurate USA but also to Italy and Spain. have been able to benefit from our domestic demand continues. drizzling over salads, combining with to 0.1%! Chemical tests are complemented research into producing tender, balsamic vinegar as a dip for crusty by sensory tests – smell, flavour and Working from NSW DPI’s Cowra An increasing range of Australian- tasty meat,quot; Dr Hopkins said. bread, or adding some zip to soups. colour – conducted by an expert Agricultural Research and Advisory grown oils are available, with the NSW DPI research has contributed Station (CARAS), Dr Hopkin’s team With a premium price tag, it’s Wagga facility having international ratings panel. to improved genetics which allows has extended their research to beef important that consumers know accreditation for its testing. Having And our first rate Aussie oils are producers to enhance the carcase and goat meat quality. they are getting the real deal, the this facility is vital for local olive oil generally fresher than imported oils too. Luscious lamb roast finest of oils, when buying the extra- producers, with 50% of the local So it goes to show, oils just ain’t oils. virgin product. NSW DPI runs an olive oil analysis Can yo service to ensure that oil labelled as u taste Ingredients: Method: 7. Cover with foil after 3 hours - the lamb the diff Place 8 erence? should be golden brown by then and extra-virgin olive oil is the real thing, to 10 dr 1 leg of lamb, bone in 1. Remove lamb from fridge about an mouth ops of o you don’t want it to burn! for a m li without any other oils like canola in your inute, w ve oil into you 2 tbsp olive oil hour before cooking so that it comes 8. Remove from oven and allow to rest mo hile also rm to room temperature. being added. tip to th uth a few tim inhaling outh. Hold it 3 cloves crushed garlic for 20 minutes before carving. e es air. Roll in your o o This type of authentication is really ru back of your to to cover your the 1 tbsp fresh oregano - 2. Preheat oven to 160 C (140 C fan-forced). nny, or ngue. Is taste bu oil around 3. Mix olive oil with crushed garlic, 9. Eat and enjoy! important for preserving standards thick? Y it swee ds, from leaves picked, chopped ou can Like win e, the ta then sp t, spicy or bitt the chopped oregano, salt and pepper. side dishe s: and maintaining consumer confidence. numbe ste of e it out th er? Is it Salt and pepper Suggested ara, ro xtr apples, f ways. The fru a-virgin olive o e oil! 4. Massage the olive oil mix into the tatoes, kum Extra-virgin oil comes from the cold articho ity flavo il is des Juice of 1 lemon lamb. Squeeze over lemon juice. • Oven roasted po nip nd pars pressing of olives and contains no and pu ke u t your b s, almonds or r can taste like ibed in a cr 5. Place lamb on rack in baking pan, pumpkin a like brocco lini, more than 0.8% acidity. The tests uds to t he test, even flo w fresh he filled with 2cm of water. egetables • Steamed v nd carrot along w ers! Take a tas rbs, ra conducted at NSW DPI’s laboratory ith the te toda y 6. Bake for 5 hours, basting with pan cauliflowe alad with th e lamb oil. • Try a fresh Greek s 4 in Wagga Wagga are complex, often juices every hour. in summer vy! uce and gra the mint sa Delve t • Don’t forge Delve 5
  • Biochar revolution Get to know your forests and parks Scientists from NSW DPI continue to absence of oxygen, generating A joint study is underway for a Did you know there is a range of driving, bushwalking and a back-to- 780 national parks, from the coastal investigate the potential of biochar energy and biochar. slow-pyrolysis plant on the north public land types in New South basics Aussie bush experience. With rainforests to outback deserts. to help address climate variability coast of NSW. If adopted, such Wales, and that in each of these a more than 400 state forests, there are Rather than the carbon in the State parks are another example of public and improve our farming soils. slow-pyrolysis plants could recycle range of different activities can be plenty of tracks to be explored – and biomass being released into the land, many of which are on the banks of What exactly is this weird- atmosphere as CO2 as it would be biomass waste from urban and undertaken? your dog is welcome to join you too! rural areas, converting it into some of our most scenic waterways. A sounding product? Biochar is a through normal decomposition or State forests are managed by Forests energy and biochar for use in National parks, meanwhile, are areas range of accommodation is provided charcoal-like substance produced burning, the biochar retains the NSW from within NSW DPI, and farming and forestry. set aside for their predominantely including caravan sites and cabins. from recycling biomass during carbon. provide timber for us to build homes, untouched landscape and nature a renewable energy production Keep up to date with developments infrastructure, furniture and more. For more information on land managed Added to soils, biochar can conservation. Some popular sites process called slow-pyrolysis. at www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/research/ by the NSW Government see: contribute to soil health and water- But it’s not only good wood that we have fees, with facilities ranging Biomass (such as green waste and holding capacity – potentially topics/climate-change. get from these forests. Managed from electric barbecues, flush toilets www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/forests animal manure) can be recycled increasing the productivity of for a range of benefits including and powered campsites through o by heating to 550 C in the farming land. www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au recreation, state forests are great to remote clearings reached only spots for camping, four-wheel by hiking. There are more than www.stateparks.nsw.gov.au Seeding clouds Fishing fees Thinking about dropping a line off fish such as mahi mahi and are a hit the snow melts in spring, supplies and the environment, with a local jetty, setting a crab pot from with those who enjoy big fish sport. additional water will be available more snow cover in the mountains a canoe or heading to sea for a day But you don’t have to be on the for the generation of renewable helping to address the adverse of game fishing? Sounds like great ocean to see, or catch, the benefits. electricity, as well as providing effects of climate change on the fun, but make sure you pay the NSW Tens of thousands of mulloway have additional water release for river alpine region of NSW. recreational fishing fee before you do. been stocked in estuaries like Botany systems. The cloud seeding generators With more than one million people Bay, and millions of eastern king prawns Snowy Hydro Limited has are solar powered and use a paying the recreational fishing fee have been stocked into Wallagoot Lake extended its cloud seeding sophisticated communications every year, it seems the message and Back Lake on the south coast. program thanks to the NSW system across the region. is out, and more and more people Government’s decision to extend Artificial reefs have been constructed Some state forests near Cloud seeding technology has been are seeing the benefits of paying and placed in key recreational fishing cloud seeding research to 2014, and up and contributing to the future of Tumbarumba are home to cloud successfully used in the USA for the havens such as Lake Macquarie. to expand the current target area to recreational fishing. seeding generators, which release past 50 years and in Tasmania for These are proving a winner for both the north, doubling the size of the very small quantities of a seeding the past 40 years, with water utilities The fees fund a range of initiatives fish and local divers. For more details, check out the project area to approximately 2150 agent into the atmosphere to continuing to use cloud seeding to ensure healthy fish stocks and recreational fishing pages at square kilometres. Fees also help fund fisheries officers improve cloud efficiency and technology to augment water www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fisheries or awesome fishing for the future. to patrol waterways, facilities such as The project, which began in 2004, is supply systems. produce additional snowfall. pick up a copy of the recreational showing great potential to benefit Today, 23 fish aggregating devices fish cleaning tables and measuring The aim is to increase natural not only electricity consumers, are seasonally placed along the stations and a range of other fishing guides from your local 6 snowfalls in the winter, and once but irrigators, skiers, town water coast. These devices attract pelagic programs. fishing tackle outlet. Delve Delve 7
  • s a hits plates and palate Wobbegongs released from city beach Seven wobbegong sharks bred in many fish and chip shop menus, to be effectively Mellow, yellow past captivity were released in waters off with this shark being part of our managed and A new, brighter, deep-yellow But the beneficiaries are not just Pasta from this new variety is not Manly Beach in Sydney in late 2008. NSW commercial fishery. to ensure pasta that meets Aussie tastes pasta lovers. Farmers are also sticky when cooked and there are wobbegongs and cooking style will be the benefiting from the variety’s minimum losses of starch leaching Well-camouflaged bottom dwellers, So why put the sharks back into the remain on menus culinary end product of an improved agronomic performance. into the cooking water. For the wobbegongs are found in oceans ocean rather than onto the cleaning and in the ocean. improved durum wheat variety pasta makers, there has been no off Australia, usually in depths of up table? The seven wobbegongs NSW DPI chemist Dr Mike Sissons bred by NSW DPI. compromising the dough properties to 50 metres. were radio-tagged so that their While wobbegongs can has examined the variety and found of this variety - it’s strong. The high habitats could be monitored. A be caught by licensed The new variety has been given the its key attribute to be its excellent Many divers see wobbegongs as grain protein and high semolina number of their wild cousins were commercial fishers, name Caparoi - derived from the yellow pigment content, which ‘friendly’ sharks, as although they can yield will also appeal to the pasta also tracked to see how they acted recreational fishers are Italian word capitano which means translates into a bright, clean yellow grow to up to three metres in length, manufacturers and millers. in comparison with their aquarium- no longer permitted to ‘leader’. semolina and pasta product. they do not attack unless provoked. bred counterparts. keep these sharks. The wheat, developed by NSW DPI That’s fortunate – as they have a NSW DPI expects the new variety Its cooking properties are also in partnership with the University mouthful of small sharp teeth that The aim of the Australian first study NS W D of durum wheat will be especially excellent. It produces a pasta that of Adelaide and Grains Research grip tightly, even through wetsuits. is to develop a good understanding comm PI has produ sought after by pasta makers. has a firm texture when cooked – ercial fi ced a g Development Corporation, was of the underwater lifestyle of is also sh uid one that suits the Australian palate. Sold as boneless fillets or flake, a fascin ers to identif e to assist the first to be released by the new these fish, enabling populations interes ating g y shar k wobbegong forms the basis of t in s uide s, bu alliance. tomato pasta har k s . for any t See ww one wit it and and ray w.dpi.n sw.gov h an Chicken, pesto Method Nursing shark cannibals s’. .au and se er ves 4) Ingredients (s Nursing shark cannibals arch fo r ‘shark 1. Heat 1 tables Delicious basi s poon oil in a large l pesto l frying pan ov 2 tbsp olive oi er medium-h Ingredients st fillets heat. Season igh 3 chicken brea ch and pepper. A icken with salt 45g (1 /4 cup) dd pine nuts Cannibalism isn’t that uncommon in After four years of development, late- 400g pasta lved Cook for 5 m to frying pan. 1 1 /2 cups fr tomatoes, ha inutes each si esh basil leav the animal kingdom, but for some stage wobbegong shark embryos 500g cherry until cooked th de or 2 small garli es l pesto plate. Cover w rough. Transfer to a c cloves, halv species like the grey nurse shark, were transferred into a specially 2 /3 cup basi ith foil to kee p warm. 60g (3/4 cup) shredd ed bringing an end to this practice in developed womb, with fluids matched 2 /3 cup cream 2. Cook past a in a 5 tbsp olive oi ed parmesan er of boiling, sa large sauce pan l just a few animals could assist in the to the fish’s internal chemistry. Salt and pe pp eese lted water un til just Method very survival of the species. 60g shaved parmesan ch rve tender. Drain . R eturn to sa ne nuts, to se uce pan. The embryos remained in the and toasted pi 3. Add rem aining oil to 1. Preheat oven pine nuts over to 180 C. Spread the o The critically endangered grey nurse pan. H eat over frying ‘womb’ for a few weeks, before six high heat. Ad a baking tray shark has a bizarre way of reproducing. tomatoes. Coo d oven for 5 m . Bake in shark pups were ‘born’ into a tank. k inute Each female has two wombs capable 3 minutes or , tossing of ten, for R emove from ov s or until toasted. The progress of these sharks will be 4. Thinly sl until just ten der. 10 minutes to en and set aside for of producing 30 to 40 embryos ice chic cool. at a time. So what’s the problem? monitored for a year. cream and ch ken. Add pesto, 2. Place the pi n NSW DPI scientists will continue over low heat icken to pasta. and parmesan e nuts, basil, garlic The embryos eat each other in the It’s a world first, although moving until well com Toss processor and in the bowl of a food Add tomatoe bi womb until only one or two remain! to grey nurses is quite some years with the innovative research s. Season wit ned. pr chopped. Wit ocess until finely and pepper. To h sa program, aiming to boost the grey ss gently to co lt h the motor ru nning, away. Pregnant sharks would be 5. Spoon pa mbine. gradually add NSW DPI scientists have been working nurse population beyond the 500 sta into servin stream until the oil in a thin steady subject to a caesarean section to Sprinkle wit g bow well combined on the creation of an ‘artificial estimated in the waters off the h parmesan an ls. . remove early-stage embryos before d serve. 3. Store leftover womb’, with the aim of applying the a thick layer pesto in a jar cannibalisation began – this first Australian east coast. of with technique to grey nurse sharks in the prevent disco olive oil on to p to 8 trial was completed using late- louration. future – keeping the hungry cannibals And while ferocious in utero, grey Delve separate from one another. stage embryos. nurse sharks in the ocean are placid. Delve 9
  • ‘Old’ crop gets new future Pretty key indicators to environmental health A fast-growing plant that can In 2008, the NSW Government Hemp bast fibres are strong and Delicate and gorgeous, for many The technical and scientific input of monitor the environmental health of be used to make paper, textiles, introduced legislation to allow have a range of applications, from people a fluttering butterfly evokes entomologists is essential in keeping regeneration efforts after bushfires building materials, soap, animal industrial hemp to be grown clothes and handbags through memories of summer afternoons potentially devastating pests and and mining. feed, skincare products and biofuels. in the state. Unlike marijuana, to ropes, canvas and carpet and time spent outdoors. diseases from crossing our borders. backing. Fine paper, newsprint Entomologists believe more than A plant that requires little or no industrial hemp has lower levels and cardboard are other end But insects such as butterflies are Other projects are focused on 220 000 insect species call Australia pesticides, no herbicides, little water of the psycho-active ingredient products, along with biodegradable more than just bright and pretty – insects such as wasps and the home, with just 86 000 currently and controls erosion. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). alternatives for plastics. they are often key indicators of the important role they play in cropping identified. So, it seems there’s Sounds like a farmer’s dream? Growing to about five metres in health of local environments. by keeping pest insects at bay. They a lot of exciting work ahead for This plant is a reality and is in fact Industrial hemp is a brand new crop are tagged as ‘beneficial’ for being researchers examining the good, the height, the fibre of the hemp plant one of the oldest crops known for NSW. NSW DPI will work with Entomologists are scientists who either predatory or parasitic on bad and the ugly of the insect world! is one of the most valuable parts. to humans. In recent years it’s farmers to determine whether it can study the nature and habits of other species. It is commonly called bast, which gained a reputation for the more become an alternative broadacre insects. NSW DPI entomologists are refers to the fibres that grow on summer crop, supporting a viable Insects can also be used to monitor alternative uses of one of its working on a range of projects. the health of ecosystems. Ants and the outside of the woody interior local industry. cousins, marijuana. leafhoppers have been used to of the plant's stalk, and under the Biosecurity is one area of focus. It is industrial hemp. outermost part (the bark). ad? Half a million bugs – now that’s a collection h cross the ro How do f is Do you have ants in the kitchen? Bogong moths in the lights? The Lovingly pinned, slide-mounted or preserved in alcohol and labelled management teams monitor and control plague locusts to protect This may sound like a riddle, but it’s Weirs, road crossings and odd roach or two in the shed? with details of where and when our crops and vegetation. no laughing matter. floodgates were installed to allow These are the insects we have each specimen was collected by Not all insects are bad; in fact some the fish to get through. Unlike trout learnt to live with. NSW DPI’s entomology staff, these are beneficial to the environment Our native fish need a variety and salmon, native fish struggle to collections represent a physical and humans. Some are predators of habitat types to breed and Now consider for a moment 560 000 jump over even small barriers. Photo by Scot t Nic hols record of agricultural insects in NSW or parasites of pest insects, helping feed. But how do they get insects in one room — fascinating since 1890. to keep their numbers down. And across roadways, barriers and Construction of four rock-ramp for some, a skin crawling nightmare other obstructions along the fishways have mimicked natural The success of this project and for others! Just like the insects at home, there are some pollinate our crops, while way through rivers, streams and stream conditions by providing a others such as ‘Bring Back the Fish’ the good, the bad and the plain ugly others help to recycle nutrients are a result of a collaborative effort Orange, in the central west of NSW, back into the soil. between estuaries? series of pools that allow the fish when it comes to agricultural insects. and funding involving the federal is home to one of the largest and to gradually swim up and over the And the ugly? Well that’s a matter NSW DPI has been working on government’s Natural Heritage most comprehensive agricultural One of the nasties is the plague barrier. of personal taste. a ‘Breaking Down the Barriers’ Trust and coastal Catchment insect and mite collections in locust. Swarms of plague locusts project which has improved access Our native fish, like the Management Authorities. Australia. The important reference can extend over many kilometres, to over 500 kilometres of upstream recreationally important Australian Environmentally minded councils, collection assists researchers and consuming or damaging all habitat in rivers and streams bass, are now breathing a sigh keen recreational anglers and farmers to determine how best to vegetation in their path. Migrations stretching from Taree down to of relief and are enjoying their willing landholders also helped live productively side by side with of over 500km overnight are not Gosford, in our central coast. freedom to travel upstream. 10 with the fish-friendly designs. our six-legged friends. uncommon. Each year emergency Delve Delve 11
  • Adaptation key to future production It’s official, an international panel of dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, traditional planting or breeding Climate research by Reducing emissions (as part of an new systems that are sustainable in climate scientists has confirmed the generally from human reliance on seasons become longer or shorter international approach) would the face of a changing climate. NSW DPI earth’s climate is changing. burning of fossil fuels for our energy depending on the weather. prevent some of the worst-case The focus is on developing predictive needs and the expanding population. Climate change is one of the most scenarios of climate change Scientific modelling of various Extreme weather events may impact capacity to better understand significant challenges currently occurring in Australia. All NSW emissions scenarios, for the next These emissions have caused a crops and our timber and seafood the likely impacts on key NSW facing society. primary industry sectors have a 20 years tell us that it will be hotter thickening in the ‘blanket’ layer of industries, and result in less supply primary industries at the regional – between 0.6°C and 1.8°C – with Forecasts of changing weather role to play in reducing emissions. scale; enhancing ability to mitigate gases of the earth’s atmosphere. and therefore increased prices for the inland areas expected to have higher patterns present primary industries Mitigation options include capture emissions in all primary industry This has caused the ocean and land foods and products we currently enjoy. temperatures than coastal areas. with particular challenges in how to and storage of carbon dioxide sectors; and developing capacity for temperatures to become warmer Consumers are becoming increasingly predict, adapt to and mitigate against emissions from power stations; adaptation to climate change in all Rainfall patterns will change. Some at unprecedented rates, and it’s the informed about sustainability the impacts of a changing climate. reduction in methane emissions from primary industry sectors. areas can expect up to 10% less extent of further warming that has issues, with climate change another ruminant livestock; management of rainfall, while others up to 5% more. people concerned. It is clear that all primary industries For more detailed information see aspect to consider when making crop, pasture and forest systems to will be substantially affected. It is www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/research/topics/ In the hot extremes, heatwaves and For our primary industries, this responsible purchasing choices. enhance carbon stocks in vegetation critical, therefore, that a concerted climate-change/key-issues heavy rainfall events will become gradual warming will pose and soil, and to reduce nitrous oxide NSW DPI is investing resources effort is made to mitigate emissions more frequent, and there will be challenges as well as provide new emissions; and use of agricultural and in assisting primary producers to from all sectors, including the more hot days and warm nights and opportunities. forest biomass for bioenergy. adapt and respond to a changing primary industries sector. Also, a moderate decrease in frost. As consumers, our favourite foods climate, so that we can continue to NSW DPI continues to conduct knowing that some change is So what has caused it? There is might become more abundant or enjoy the food, fibre and energy inevitable, primary industries must research into both mitigation consensus that this has been caused less available, or be available at created by our primary industries in develop capacity to adapt to a and adaptation strategies to limit by increasing emissions of carbon different times of the year as the a sustainable way. changing climate. emissions and assist with developing 12 Delve Delve 13
  • Helping farmers a Helping farmers adapt to climate variabidapt to climate variability lity NSW DPI is investing resources Methane is produced through the Increasing temperatures are in assisting primary producers digestion process in cows, resulting in already reducing the period for to adapt and respond to climate a release of gas through the animal’s rye grass growth, creating feed change. By educating landholders mouth. Methane has a longer lifetime supply gaps. Higher temperatures and industry about the predicted in the atmosphere and absorbs more can delay sowing and reduce changes in the climate, it’s hoped radiation, and so has what is called early winter production, and rising they will become better equipped a ‘higher global warming’ potential temperatures in spring could mean to make decisions about the than carbon dioxide. the growing period is reduced. future of their businesses and Research is being conducted to Strategies for dealing with heat livelihoods. find out if there are particular genes stress in cattle may include The work NSW DPI is conducting is responsible for higher feed efficiency crossbreeding to obtain a timely and relevant to the challenges (and less gas), and in the future, cow more suited to a hotter our primary producers face in cows may be selectively bred so that environment, avoidance of stock response to a changing climate. methane emissions may be reduced. mating in the hotter part of the Feed bases for the dairy industry year, and provision for shade and For example, in the agricultural are also likely to be impacted by the sprinklers. livestock sector, research is being conducted to determine how changing climate and this could result A host of water use efficiency farmers might best mitigate the in increasing feed costs to the farmer projects have been conducted in contributions of their business – potentially passed on to consumers. relation to irrigated agriculture to greenhouse gas emissions, New summer-adapted forage species sectors such as the dairy pasture, particularly in an effort to reduce are being suggested to overcome horticulture and viticulture NSW DPI is working with farmers New opportunities for farmers atmosphere while improving crop methane emissions from livestock. possible feed supply gaps. industries. to improve irrigation management have opened in the area of carbon and pasture productivity. and water use efficiency, and is farming and land rehabilitation. You can find more information on all researching the interaction of water The trialling and development of our current climate related research and fertiliser use. Physical protection new land management practices at www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/research/ structures for high-value crops (for can result in more carbon topics/climate-change example shade cover for broadacre irrigated vegetables) are also being sequestration in the soils to investigated. remove carbon dioxide from the 14 Delve Delve 15
  • Hanging with 100 000 smelly friends Being in the midst of a sea of At dusk, they spiral into the sky and After logging, 100 000 flying “But ima 100 000 family and friends is hard circle their camp before flying off foxes remained in the camp, gine livi to imagine. Think of the Royal for the night’s foraging. demonstrating how effective 100 000 o ng with Easter Show or perhaps an open guidelines for the protection of thers, ha nging Forests NSW ecologists keep a air music festival and you get the special native animals can be. out toget her all d close eye on this camp, just as they picture of just how many make up ay do with sightings of any rare and State forests are managed for a this number. But imagine living threatened animals uncovered range of values, with efforts made every da with 100 000 others, hanging out together all day every day… during forestry operations. to maintain or even enhance y…” habitat for key species. At its peak, more than 100 000 In Inglebar State Forest, a native flying foxes were tallied in a gully of Ecologists and their teams work in Spotlighting is also used to find an forest on the north coast of New moist brush box in the state forest forests across the state conducting array of animals, from tree-dwelling South Wales, a colony of grey- near Macksville. As the forest was seasonal surveys. The efforts gliders to creek-side frogs. headed and black-headed flying to be selectively logged for timber, are made day and night, during foxes screeches and flutters. The information collected during areas around the colony were fine weather and torrential rain, Leathery wings flap in the breeze these surveys contributes to forest protected. Harvesting took place in along tracks and through hard-to- and squawks abound as the management. Before harvesting 2007 and early 2008, outside of the penetrate scrub. creatures jostle for a sleeping takes place, measures are critical breeding season. position or preen their fur. A range of techniques is used. For implemented to protect the habitat owls like the powerful owl, sounds of rare and threatened species. The of other owls or the noises made critical areas are marked on harvest by tasty possums are used to elicit plan maps, ensuring contractors and a response. Staff are trained to supervisors know the location of the recognise the various calls. They habitat and other features. can also recognise scats (poos) And back to Inglebar. Imagine and other evidence of animals like the smell of these creatures! Way, scratches on tree trunks. way worse than toilets at a music A range of traps is also employed, festival. Some days are tougher set overnight to safely catch micro than others for the intrepid bats or small marsupials. Those ecologists. caught are weighed and measured before being safely set free. 16 rd Spencer Photos by Howa Delve Delve 17
  • There’s a lot of energetic debate As coal-fired electricity generation fired power stations can only be The most promising method going on about the role coal will is one of the major sources of achieved by capturing carbon of storing CO2 captured from play in our power supplies in the emissions, exploring options emissions before or after the coal coal-fired power stations is future. In NSW, it seems coal will to reduce and capture these is burnt, then safely storing it. This geosequestration. In this process play a major role in our domestic emissions is underway. Coal is known as carbon capture and captured CO2 is compressed into a and industrial electricity supply contributes about 2% of global storage (CCS). Assessing potential supercritical state (so it performs for many more decades. Today, it primary energy demand, second sites for the safe storage of CO2 in like a liquid) and is then pumped provides 90% of our electricity, with only to oil (35%), and is used NSW is a priority for NSW DPI. into geological formations such as alternative options not yet at a scale to produce 39% of the world’s Carbon dioxide could be captured deep saline formations, depleted to be viable alternatives. electricity. Coal is also the key from large point sources, such oil and gas fields, unmineable coal requirement for the production as fossil fuel power plants, and seams, and deep ocean masses. But with climate change a recognised of two other building blocks stored, instead of being released reality, the NSW Government In Victoria, a geosequestration plant of modern society – steel and into the atmosphere as occurs in is committed to reducing the is already underway, designed to cement. most plants today. If applied to a state’s greenhouse gas emissions. demonstrate the safety and security An interim target of Year 2000 While increasing the combustion modern conventional power plant, of the transport, injection and greenhouse gas emission levels by efficiency of coal would help to it’s estimated that carbon capture storage of CO2. 2025, and a long-term target of a reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and storage could reduce CO2 60% reduction in greenhouse gas significant reductions in carbon emissions into the atmosphere by The NSW Government has set up emissions by 2050, have been set. dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal- more than 85%. a Clean Energy Fund to support renewable energy and clean coal research. A Clean Coal Council, reporting to Parliament has also been established to help drive reform measures even further. Meanwhile, $22 million has been It’s the first time such technology, should provide the base for a invested by the government in which can be used on new or $150 million demonstration-scale these initiatives, including a existing power stations, has been carbon capture and storage project $5 million pilot carbon capture used in Australia, with a range of in NSW by 2013. Studies of the plant on the NSW Central Coast, experimental trials to determine the Sydney Basin and Darling Basin through a joint initiative by Delta potential to adapt the technology Reservoir carried out by NSW DPI Electricity and CSIRO. to NSW coal and power station reveal that, like Victoria, NSW does conditions, capturing up to 5000 have potential for CO2 storage. The research-scale Post Combustion tonnes of CO2 a year. Capture (PCC) pilot facility is capturing For more information see: greenhouse gas emissions from the This project, in conjunction www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/minerals/ 18 Munmorah Power Station, using with the search for carbon resources/coal/low-emissions-coal- ammonia absorption technology. geosequestration sites by NSW DPI, technologies Delve Delve 19
  • ild uy and bu Local timber – the better choice B le Aussie sty build d Think before you buy. There is no guarantee that imported timber has been It may have also been produced at the expense of local communities. Buy Australian or check iata pine an Gra b some rad e stunning harvested legally, and certification before choosing your From floorboards to pergolas, can be recycled and best of all Timber is environmentally a billy cart; lay som uct its production may have decking or construction timbers. ring; constr gardening edging to furniture has stunning attractive features. friendly and sustainable. bla ckbutt floo ine resulted in destroying forest h cypress p For more information on forest – timber is a big part of our Timber is renewable. Forests NSW NSW state forests are a cubby wit box ecosystems, threatening on a brush management and timber everyday living. But have you manages over 2 million hectares sustainably managed, and this wall s; entertain woodwork endangered species and ever considered the origin of the management complies with verandah ; or take up impacting negatively on production in NSW see: of native forests and plantations, re from our timber you are using? strict environmental regulations and craft furnitu the environment. www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/forests with around 2% harvested for r red gum timber each year. Part of the role ensuring issues such as unique rive Australian-grown timber is the biodiversity, water quality, cultural best choice when buying timber of Forests NSW management is to ensure that our timber resources heritage and scenic landscapes and timber products. are protected during forestry meet our needs now and for Timber stores carbon. We Timber is natural and is one future generations. Around 7 operations. know that trees absorb carbon of the oldest known building million seedlings are planted each Timber production in dioxide from our atmosphere, materials sourced from our year to renew our plantations, Australia is subject to but research has revealed that environment. Timber boasts while native forests regrow after world-class regulation that the carbon actually remains natural characteristics, is durable, harvesting disturbance. consumers can trust. The locked up in the trees and is Australian Forest Certification stored in timber products. scheme enables all users and In Australia, wood products consumers of timber products store an estimated 230 million to choose stock from sources tonnes of carbon. Harvesting that have been certified as and replanting trees within our being derived from sustainably managed plantations means managed forests. The scheme that our state forests continue works on an Australian Forestry to absorb carbon and help in Standard and a Chain of combating climate change. Custody system which verifies the process as it progresses Timber offers local job from log to finished item. opportunities and helps grow the economy. There are around 15 000 jobs generated by forest industries in NSW, mainly in regional areas. 20 Delve Delve 21
  • th top chefs rs team wi Flathead and cuttlefish with garlic, tomato and chunky bread Local fishe By Peter Evans from Hugos play in regional communities Commercial fisher Paul Bagnato says Ingredients (Serves 4) Method and the many other benefits that fishing is a way of life. ¼ cup olive oil 1. Add the oil, garlic, chilli and anchovies to a cold frying come from the commercial fishing pan. ‘If you’re born a Bagnato, you’re 8 cloves garlic, thinly sliced business. born a fisherman,’ Paul says simply. 1 tbsp chopped long red chilli 2. Place over heat and cook until the garlic starts to turn Eden-based fisher John Jarvis was Before his father and his six brothers golden. one of the faces of the campaign, 4 anchovy fillets moved to Australia in the late 1950s, 3. Add parsley and flathead and cook fish for 30 seconds emphasising the changes that his family were fishing in Calabria, ¼ cup chopped flat-leaf parsley on each side. have been made in the industry Italy. 400g Flathead fillets, skin off, chopped into since he started in the business 27 4. Add the tomato, water, salt and pepper and cook ‘It’s not just a job, it’s what we large pieces years ago. until the flathead is just cooked through, then add the live for,’ Paul said. ‘We’re all 110% 2 cups canned tomatoes, cruched in the hand cuttlefish. Paul Bag n ato ‘Nowadays it’s all about fishing comitted to making sure people ¼ to ½ cup of sparkling or plain water 5. Add the bread and allow it to soak up the oil. smarter – catching species with keep getting fresh, top quality Salt flakes and freshly ground pepper, to taste 6. Serve on a platter. With so many Aussies living close healthy populations,’ John said. local seafood on their plates today, ‘And people are also buying their tomorrow and in the future.’ 250g Cuttlefish, cleaned, scored and cut into to the coast, it’s no wonder that seafood smarter, too. They’re more 2.5cm strips See www.aussieseafood.com.au for more recipes and details. seafood is a favourite fare at The campaign used local fishers barbecues, dinner parties and our knowledgeable about what they’re 2 thick slices ciabiatta bread, toasted and torn and renowned chefs to serve tasty best restaurants. buying and what they’re eating. into pieces recipe ideas using fish that might ‘Plus, they want to know where it not have been high on the shopping We are certainly fortunate to came from and that it was caught list in the past. By selecting seasonal have access to fresh, tasty and in a sustainable way. You couldn’t seafood, consumers can contribute sustainable seafood brought to us get better water quality and to the viability of local businesses, by local fishers. sustainability practices than here in rather than choosing imported NSW DPI has recently supported the Australia.’ products. first-ever campaign staged to raise The seafood industry employs The campaign was initiated by the awareness and appreciation of these 4000 people in NSW, many in small Sydney Fish Markets with a grant local fishers and the role they play in family businesses that rely on high from the federal Department of bringing in their prized catch. levels of skills and local knowledge Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Targeting seafood consumers, the learnt over many generations. Such NSW DPI was a proud supporter, initiative was designed to draw businesses are a vital part of coastal along with industry body Seafood attention to the part these fishers towns like Eden and Coffs Harbour. Experience Australia. 22 Delve Delve 23
  • ut new turns o ion of farmers College PROfarm short courses generat How do farmers, rural businesses, local government and the On-demand courses are available and can be tailored to the specific There’s sure to be a course to suit any landholder or farm worker. community keep up to date with the needs of individual groups. Many courses are also beneficial to City kids who dream of horses and latest in training and education? They city dwellers, who love the land and Many courses are subsidised to freshly tilled paddocks can turn this enrol in a PROfarm short course. all it has to offer, in areas such as reflect the public benefits provided dream into a reality with a year or identifying native plants and weeds, PROfarm short courses are specially by the adoption of more sustainable and traditional timber construction. more of study in the Hunter Valley. designed by NSW DPI to provide vital farming practices. Through its agricultural colleges, training and practical skills to meet If you are interested visit Popular courses include farming in a www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/profarm NSW DPI offers a range of programs the ever-changing demands of today’s changing climate, organic farming, for the full list of courses, and enrol and courses designed for students farming and agribusiness sector. practical beekeeping skills, weeds and today. in Years 10, 11 and 12 who want to There are over 100 different courses their control, better bull buying, horse have a future in primary production. to choose from, delivered around handling, and off-road four wheel Tocal College, CB Alexander NSW by our highly skilled staff. drive training, just to name a few. Campus, is just two hours from Sydney, yet a lifetime away from the hustle and bustle of the big city. Full-time, part-time and distance education courses are offered at the college, located near Maitland. Hands-on experience with farm be directly supporting people with A one year, full time Certificate III in machinery and cropping and food”, Hugh said. Agriculture equips students for a life tilling complement the work with “In regards to the environment, on the land – working in industries livestock. modern education has made me including beef cattle, sheep, dairying Managing the landscape is a large aware of the detrimental impacts and horses. Students live on campus part of the courses, with property of some of the practices we and experience farm life at the College. planning and total catchment have been using in agriculture, That’s one of the unique aspects of management studied. but I’m also aware of the ways Tocal – it is a commercial farm run Business management skills, being to fix, support and sustain the by students. There are more than vital for farmers, are covered at Tocal. environment through correct and 100 stock horses, 1500 cattle, 200 sustainable practices.” dairy cows, 300 sheep for wool and Student Hugh is enjoying his studies meat production, and four poultry at Tocal, coming straight into the Look out for Hugh and a new sheds turning out up to half a college after completed the Higher generation of ‘Tocal’ farmers over million meat chickens each year. School Certificate. the next few years. Students live on the Tocal property, “As agriculture provides people For more information on joining with fees covering tuition and board with food, by going on to manage students like Hugh, 24 and lodging. and produce crops, meat, milk, I’ll see www.tocal.nsw.edu.au Delve Delve 25
  • Organics in the city Start your own ‘no dig’ organic vegetable garden 1. Choose a flat spot in your yard 6. Add a thick layer (20 cm) of loose that gets at least five hours of straw or sugar cane mulch to sun each day. You can make this the garden and another layer of garden straight on top of your fertiliser, and then top it off with lawn without digging up the 10 cm of compost. grass. If space is limited, try using Organic farming systems are best Organic farming practices increase protection of plant and wildlife 7. Water the garden until it's wet described as farming systems that humus levels in the soil, leading to habitats. a barrel or other large container. but not soaking. do not use artificial chemicals. improved water-holding capacity. 2. Create a border at least 20-25 NSW DPI is working with farmers 8. Plant your seedlings! Some, consumers are increasingly The practices reduce pH fluctuations to develop effective organic cm high around your ‘patch’ and increase long-term soil fertility. using bricks, logs or planks of You will need to add more mulch looking for nutritious organically farming practices, increasing grown food free of chemical Synthetic compounded fertilisers, the sustainability of these local Australian timber. and organic matter to your patch as residues, in addition to the pesticides, growth regulators and businesses and reducing costs to it breaks down. Keep topping it up 3. Start with a 5 mm layer of environmental benefits. The local livestock feed additives are excluded consumers. and you will have fresh vegetables cardboard or newspapers. and export markets for organic from these farms, resulting in in as little as eight weeks. Overlap each page of paper so foods are expanding by about 16% benefits to the environment and to that weeds can’t penetrate. ‘No dig’, doesn’t mean ‘no weeds’! each year. human health. You will have to keep an eye on your 4. Place a layer of lucerne hay pads Organic farmers aim to achieve a Localised resources such as plant patch and remove weeds. Mulch will on top, leaving no gaps, to a t try totally integrated production system and animal waste are used, with help keep them at bay. hy no height of 10 cm. e lawn, w , old tin where increased biodiversity and a the aim to maintain the genetic Suggested ‘easy grow’ vegetables: n’t hav pots 5. Follow with some good organic If you do getables in ner you can balanced soil ecosystem encourage diversity of the agricultural system w ve ontai ot fertiliser (e.g. manure from Silver beet, squash, peas, to gro any other c a sunny sp plant and animal health. and its surroundings, including the chickens, horses or cows) to a potatoes, tomatoes. cans or cho ose ula rly. ? Just to water reg t off. ink of height of roughly 2 cm (make th embe r to star 26 sure you wear gloves). an d rem a great way are Herbs Delve Delve 27
  • Compa in Comparing apples and Eart h le Just how much of the Earth’s surface is needed for growing food and fibre for a world of people? A teacher guided activity. Materials Suggestions: • apples (or substitute, e.g. 1. Provide the students with a copy with e , especially atewid e of knives onstrator W, the st ry potatoes) of the activity to take home to Risk alert: Us ts. A dem arn NS ima • chopping boards or plates do with their families. ger studen d students eat an to L andL e ram about pr build youn ne apple a n W elcome cation prog aims to • knives 2. Discussion points will be could cut o ximate amount. edu NSW to directed by the purpose for appro s chools Lan dL earn nd students What to do ries. sa nd using the activity and the year indust ity of teacher discussion a Step by step, teachers should read level of students. Experience ac ed n, the instructions to the students for the cap te in inform the productio and feedback from teachers • Use as a prompt or example for pa t rimary them to follow. It is more effective par tici making abou gement of p if they do not have the instructions suggest it is more effective to students to produce a game, n na SW. decisio tion and ma sources in N in front of them. The activity save the discussion to the end of puzzle, poster or other means to p re consum and natural can be done in pairs, or it can be the activity. deliver a similar message. ts produc demonstrated by the teacher and Discussion: Use of our nat one or two students, depending on • What is the key message ural resources and fibre is es to produce foo circumstances and age. sential. Carefu d underlying the activity? of the environ l managemen www.landlearnnsw.org.au Video case studies Excursions ment through t 1. Slice an apple into quarters. • What actions can students take knowledge an improved d technologie Your web window to the world A range of educational videos • Forest excursions (Sydney & Set aside three of the quarters, to care for their patch of this to ensure we w s is necessary as they represent water on the ill always have of primary industries, focused produced by NSW DPI are available Gosford) precious Earth: ...as individuals, natural resourc those es to use with programs and resources for on the LandLearn NSW website, Earth’s surface. as a class and school, with their environmenta out causing • Farm visits (Tocal near Paterson, l damage, such families, in their community? biodiversity an as schools. Find out about excursions, including agricultural case studies Yanco, Camden) 2. Cut the remaining quarter in d declining hea loss of classroom resources, courses, which link a typical family meal half. Set aside one of the halves • Compare apples and Earth lth of rivers. careers and events. Play games, with the farmer who produced the • Royal Easter Show (Sydney) as uninhabited deserts, swamps to introduce the concepts of download photos and watch videos. food. Go to www.landlearnnsw.org. • Field day (Tocal) and the Arctic and Antarctic areas. sustainability, without using au/production-chains/video-case- 3. Divide the remaining piece the word (which is so difficult to Free photos • Fishing workshops (statewide) studies into quarters. Set aside three of define). Produce concept maps Over 200 images are now available • Weed Warriors (statewide) based on discussion. Become a fan the pieces for land that is too on Flickr for free. The new photo www.landlearnnsw.org.au/ rocky, wet, hot or poor for crop • Introduce topics or themes library for schools contains a For those who are part of the social educators/face-to-face production. around natural resource wide range of images ideal for networking site Facebook, you can 4. The remaining piece is 1/32nd management, agriculture, downloading and pasting into now become a fan of LandLearn of the original apple. Peel this farming and food assignments and presentations. NSW. Becoming a fan will enable you section. The peel represents the production in NSW or a Go to www.landlearnnsw.org.au/ to keep up to date with the latest thin layer of soil that is available specific region, feeding image-library news and programs for schools. for producing all of the world’s the world, landcare and 28 food and fibre crops. environmental management. Delve Originally created by California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom. Delve 29
  • , w w w.dpi .n s w. g ov. au NSW DPI’s website contains a huge Heading to the amount of fascinating information. bush? Look at our pages on exploring NSW DPI participates and supports many Go to www.dpi.nsw.gov.au some of the events throughout the year. Going fishing? Check out our pages hundreds of state on recreational fishing while you forests across NSW. Here are a few where you can visit us to  Henty Machinery Field Days (near Wagga Wagga) pay your recreational fishing fee. From collecting gather industry information and learn how 22-24 September Knots and rigs; bag and size limits; mushrooms in pine primary industries are important in our www.hmfd.com safety tips and tips for releasing forests, four-wheel daily lives. driving up a steep  Australian National Field Days (Orange) your catch. Search for ‘recreational 20-22 October fishing’. mountain track or  Sydney Royal Easter Show 9-22 April www.anfd.com.au camping in a spot www.eastershow.com.au Trying to get a handle on coal and completely alone.  Farming Small Areas Expo (Sydney) the part it plays in the NSW energy Search for ‘forest  Murrumbidgee Farm Fair 21-22 April 13-14 November mix? Interested to know what other recreation’. www.murrumbidgeefarmfair.com.au www.farmonline.com.au minerals we mine? How royalties are collected and what they are Puzzled about  Tocal Field Days (Paterson) 1-3 May Special Days worth? Search for ‘resources and bioenergy, carbon www.tocalfielddays.com • World Forestry Day 21 March investment’. trading, methane and carbon  Primex (Casino) Field Days11-13 June • NAIDOC Week 5-12 July Did you know that water is our dioxide, carbon sinks, soil carbon, Did you know Belgenny Farm at www.primex.net.au • National Tree Day 2 August most critical and vulnerable biofuels and the plethora of other Camden Park (just on the outskirts  Sydney Timber and Working with Wood Show 19-21 June • National Threatened Species Day 7 September resource? Farmers manage 76% initiatives talked about in the media of Sydney) is the birthplace of Australian agriculture and the www.workingwithwood.com.au • National Landcare Week 7-13 September of the land in NSW and a similar concerning climate change? Search proportion of the state’s developed original home of John and • National Water Week 18-24 October for ‘climate change mitigation’.  Mudgee Small Farm Field Days 24-25 July water resources. If you want to read Elizabeth Macarthur? The site is www.arec.com.au about what producers and NSW DPI Details about farm tours, forest run by NSW DPI for a range of excursions, science events, purposes including special events,  Sydney International Boat Show 30 July–3 August Field Days are like large trade shows relating are doing to make changes, search to the agricultural industry. Get up close to for ‘water’. classroom resources, games, functions and education. Search for www.sydneyboatshow.com.au careers and courses for teachers ‘Belgenny Farm’. farm machinery, see demonstrations, seek can be found on our site. Search for  Ag-quip Field Days (Gunnedah) 18-20 August information, trial new products or get a taste for ‘LandLearn’. www.farmonline.com.au the rural lifestyle. 30 Delve Delve 31
  • ction duction pro ro fi tab le ent P e ma nagem A daptiv ries A dust taina ble in Sus mun ities ibran t com V NSW Department of Primary Industries – partnering with industries to ensure food, fish and timber production and mineral resources development. Contact us: Fisheries: 1300 550 474 Agriculture: 1800 808 095 Mineral Resources: 1300 736 122 Forestry: 1300 655 687 NSW DPI Head Office: 02 6391 3100 32 w w w. d p i . n s w. g o v. a u Delve