Farm to Factory - dairy farming with Jet and Emma


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Jet and Emma show us what it takes to get milk from farm to fridge.

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Farm to Factory - dairy farming with Jet and Emma

  1. 1. Getting Down and Dirty on the dairy farm with Emma & Jet
  2. 2. Emma and Jet • My name is Emma I am 16. As part of my HSC I am doing a dairy traineeship at Clover Hill Dairies • My name is Jet. I am also doing a dairy traineeship with Alan and Leesa Swan at Hillview Dairy
  3. 3. Hi I’m Jet Hi I’m Emma
  4. 4. Update on farm yard happenings • Tanika joins the team • The Silkies have babies
  5. 5. Recently Jet’s sister Tanika started to do some morning milkings.
  6. 6. And our home grown fertiliser team are now proud parents of 8 mini fertiliser producers Aren't they just adorable
  7. 7. There was one little guy who mum and dad discarded. So we took him inside , gave him a blow dry to warm him up, put him under a light , treated him like royalty and a week later he is bigger than all his brothers and sisters - Aah the gift of life such a good feeling
  8. 8. What are Emma and Jet going to talk about today? Today we are going to tell the farm to factory story starting with harvesting the milk on farm and its journey to your breakfast cereal bowl .
  9. 9. Farm to Factory
  10. 10. In 2002 we built our new dairy .
  11. 11. This is our dairy plan
  12. 12. Our new dairy has 28 machines. It is very energy efficient and one person can do the milking by themselves. It’s a lot more fun when two people work together.
  13. 13. Cow Comfort In our dairy not only do the cows have plenty of shade they also have a 360 degree view of the ocean.
  14. 14. Our dairy is designed to make the most of natural renewable energy to reduce the need for non renewable energy like electricity.
  15. 15. Waiting patiently
  16. 16. The dairy is bright and airy and we enjoy being milked. Here is Emma putting cups on some of my friends.
  17. 17. Watch the Cows Get Milked at Clover Hill Dairies on YouTube Click on the photo to go to the link
  18. 18. It takes ten minutes to milk a cow The farmer stands in the pit in the centre so the cows udder is at shoulder height and he/she does not have to bend over to work. There is one row of cows each side of the pit with the cow’s udder closest to the pit. The cows on each side walk in as a group, they are all milked together and then leave together so the next group can move in.
  19. 19. How many cows? How Much milk? What do the cows eat? • Currently we are milking 210 cows and send 2.5 million litres to our milk processor each year • Our cows eat about 26kg of Dry Matter ( feed with the water taken out) per day Don’t mind a bit – 60% is grass of grain myself – 40% is fed to the cows in the dairy • In the dairy we fed mainly wheat and corn and pellets • The pellets contain lots of things including different types of grains and vitamins and minerals
  20. 20. Why do we feed in the dairy • Feeding in the dairy helps encourage the cows to come into to be milked. • Feeding in the dairy also means each cow will produce more milk. • Feeding high energy concentrates (pellets feed and grain) also reduces Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This is because high producing cows produce less methane per unit of production.
  21. 21. This is the outside of our dairy Can you see all the silos that hold the feed for us to eat in the dairy??
  22. 22. The grain is harvested by a machine called a header Here the header is putting the wheat into a truck to bring to the farm to store in the silo
  23. 23. Grain auger The top of the This end feeds the grain auger sits on out of the truck the top of the The auger is attached to silo and drops the tractor which powers the grain in. the motor on the auger which pushes the grain to the top. The motor on the auger is driven by the PTO on the tractor.
  24. 24. So what is a PTO?? • A power take-off (PTO) is a splined driveshaft, usually on a tractor or truck, that can be used to provide power to an attachment or separate machine. It is designed to be easily connected and disconnected. The power take-off allows implements to draw energy from the tractor's engine
  25. 25. Every thing works with motors driven by a computer. From the silos a mixture of grains is fed into the vertical mixer. The vertical mixer mixes the feeds together . It holds 3 tonne just enough to feed all of us for one day. From the vertical mixer the feed goes to individual feed bins above each cow stall .
  26. 26. Important fact Food miles and grain feeding in the dairy industry: • The dairy industry only uses grains and cereal by- products not suitable for human consumption and whilst the grain truck may travel 500km to Clover Hill Dairies we are actually reducing Green House Gas Emissions as we are producing food (milk) close to where it is consumed. • This is because the milk must leave the farm every day but the grain truck only comes every 8 weeks
  27. 27. Back to the dairy. This is the computer in the dairy that operates the automatic feeders.
  28. 28. Before each row of cows comes into be milked the farmer presses the yellow button and this drops the same amount of feed in for all cows . The red and green buttons allow the farmer to give individual cows extra feed if they are big milk producers.
  29. 29. Each cow has its own special feed bin and stall. Entry to the stall and feed bin is controlled by St Christopher Gates. The first cow goes to the top of the row and pushes n the bar with her chest and this opens the next stall and so on and so. The last bar shuts the gate so no more cows can come in.
  30. 30. So if I am first in the row I walk to the top stall and push this bar which opens the next stall for my friend etc . Clever isn't it and all this works by hydraulics using water we recycle .
  31. 31. What type of dairy do we have • Our dairy is called a Herringbone • The cows stand side by side at 90 degrees to the person milking • Which means the milking machines are put on from the back of the cow • In 45 degree dairies the milking machines are put on from the side – like in this picture
  32. 32. Rotary Dairies In modern robotic dairies 1 person can milk up to 75 cows at a time
  33. 33. Robotic Dairies You can watch the robots milk the cows here: • • •
  34. 34. Back to Clover Hill Dairies. We get lots of visitors and every-one loves to watch. Our dairy is very people friendly Recently one of Emma’s teachers came to watch the cows milked and his wife took many of the photos you will see.
  35. 35. How does the milk get from the cow to the vat (big refrigerator) • A hose is connected to the machine that hangs behind each cow • On the end of each hose are four teat cups (milking machines) • The four teat cups are called a cluster • The cups are put gently on each cow and the machine start milking the cow
  36. 36. Can you see the hoses that are connected to the milking machines?
  37. 37. The cow stands at 90 degrees and Emma puts the machines on between the cows back Legs.
  38. 38. Nick is explaining to Tanika on her first day cows are just like people. Each one is different and has its own personality. Its very important each cow is relaxed and happy so she will give her milk. Its also important to work quickly and quietly.
  39. 39. How does the milking machine work • The milk is sucked out of the udder just the way calves do. • The machine makes a vacuum by pulling the air out of the teat cup. • The machines use a pump to make the vacuum • The pump also has to let air into the space between the teat cup and the lining of the teat cup so it squeezes and relaxes out as the milk is being sucked out.
  40. 40. A computer operated board turns the vacuum on and off to the cluster of the milking machine .
  41. 41. Can you spot the computer board that operates the automatic take- off.
  42. 42. Michael is explaining to the students from Tullimbar Public School how the vacuum pump works.
  43. 43. He lets them put a very clean finger in to feel the suction
  44. 44. Every 3 months we have the liners (rubber tubes on the cluster) replaced by a professional to ensure we have the correct vacuum.
  45. 45. Cups Off • We have automatic cluster take off in our dairy. • This means the cups come off themselves when the flow of milk reduces to a specified level. OUCH !!! You need to make sure you stand in the middle of the pit when you are waiting for the cows to finish milking. This is because the machines swing around when they come off and can hit you in the head which isn't much fun !!!!!!
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Courtesy of Mt Terry Public School
  48. 48. When the cups come off the farmer sprays an iodine solution on the cow’s udder. Special attention is paid to spraying all four teats to prevent infections. This is what Tanika is doing.
  49. 49. Cups off and ready to go
  50. 50. First we make sure we have eaten all our feed . It would be a shame to leave some behind
  51. 51. We all line up in groups of 14 on each side and we all leave together If the farmer wants to separate us he activates the drafting gate
  52. 52. And off we go .
  53. 53. Cows drink most of their daily water at the trough at the dairy. So it is very important this trough is always clean . Emma cleans this trough every Saturday morning .
  54. 54. What a life – million $ views Back to the paddock for the girls.
  55. 55. Meanwhile back at the dairy Where does the milk go then….. • From the teat cups the milk goes into a hose and then into stainless steel pipes which run along the milking shed above the cows • When the milk leaves the cows udder it is 37 degrees C • The pipes take the milk to be cooled to 4 degrees C
  56. 56. This is the milk receiver bowl It collects the milk and a trip switch operates the pump which pumps the milk through the steel pipes to the milk vat
  57. 57. Before the milk is chilled it goes through a very big filter to ensure the milk is very very clean
  58. 58. This is the plate cooler. It has a very important job and it must do it as energy efficiently as possible.
  59. 59. What does a plate cooler do? The plate cooler is a simple heat exchanger that captures the heat of warm milk and transfers it to the cold incoming water. There are two distinct benefits: 1. Milk is pre-cooled - by the time is reaches the refrigerated storage tank ( vat) 2. Water that needs heating for varied uses is pre-warmed. Milk leaves a cow’s body at 37 degrees centigrade and must be cooled quickly to less than 4 degrees. Milk cooling is a significant percentage of a dairy farm’s electricity costs. An in-line plate cooler lowers the milk’s temperature before milk enters the bulk tank to be cooled further. Plate coolers cool milk quickly, which helps lower bacteria counts and is easier on compressors
  60. 60. How does it work • In-line plate coolers run water and milk in opposite flow channels over a series of metal plates. • Milk is cooled as its heat is transferred to the cool water on the opposite side of each plate. • Depending on the system, plate coolers can drop milk temperature by 30 degrees or more. Variables include the temperature of the water, the ratio of water to milk in litres per minute, and how many times the milk passes through the cold water channels. • In line cooling has been called virtually free cooling because the water used to cool milk can be recycled for the livestock or barn chores.
  61. 61. The pipes then take the chilled milk to a big tank called a milk vat which stores the milk between 2.5 to 4 degrees C
  62. 62. Some of the milk is collected in these milk drums to feed the calves.
  63. 63. And the big clean up begins • Firstly everything gets hosed of with a big pressure hose • The manure in the holding yard is washed down a drain into a solids trap and the effluent ( manure and urine and water ) then goes to a big tank • From the big tank the effluent is used as fertiliser and is irrigated onto the paddocks
  64. 64. Retain Retain Recycle reuse Reuse Retain Reuse Recycle Recycle
  65. 65. Computerised washing up • Even the washing up is driven by a computer ( well almost everything) • All the milking machines and the stainless steel pipes which carry the milk have an acid and then an alkaline wash • The vat also gets washed every time the milk is picked up by the milk factory. The tanker driver sets the computer in motion • The factory takes milk samples every time they come to ensure the milk you drink is perfect in every way
  66. 66. Wash up water computer
  67. 67. Milk pipelines
  68. 68. Cleaning the milk machines The milking machines are put on the milking machine holders for washing The detergents (acids and alkalis ) are then forced up each cup to ensure thorough cleaning
  69. 69. As I said almost Glad this everything isn't my is washed job! by the computer except all the buckets
  70. 70. And here comes the milk tanker Milk is collected from the farm every 24 or 48 hours. The tankers have a special stainless steel body which is heavily insulated to keep the milk cold during transportation to the processing factory.
  71. 71. Milk storage vats or silos are refrigerated and come in various shapes and sizes. Milk is stored on farm at 4 degrees Celsius and less for no longer than 48 hours. Vats and silos are agitated to make sure that the entire volume remains cold and milk fat does not separate from the milk. After milk has been collected, storage vats and stainless steel pipes are thoroughly cleaned before the farmer milks again.
  72. 72. After collection, milk is transported to factory sites and stored in refrigerated silos before being processing.
  73. 73. At the Milk Factory Dairy plants process the raw milk they receive from farmers to extend its marketable life. Two main types of processes are employed: 1. heat treatment to ensure the safety of milk for human consumption and to lengthen its shelf-life. 2. Dehydrating dairy products such as butter, hard cheese and milk powders so that they can be stored and/or exported.
  74. 74.
  75. 75. Pasteurisation Involves heating every particle of milk to a specific temperature for a specified period of time and cooling it again without allowing recontamination. Pasteurization is performed for two reasons: 1. Ensure all milk products are safe for human consumption by destroying all bacteria that may be harmful to health (pathogens). 2. Improve the keeping Image: quality of milk by killing or inactivating some undesirable enzymes and Watch it happen @ Arethusa Dairy Farm here spoilage bacteria.
  76. 76. Homogenisation: Image Involves pushing the raw milk through an atomizer to form tiny particles so that the fat is dispersed evenly throughout the milk, stopping the fat from floating to the top of the container.
  77. 77. Skim Milk Powder Production Milk protein as liquid goes to evaporator dryer
  78. 78. To watch the Farm to Factory Process on YouTube – click on the photo on the next slide Please note this video was made in the 1990’s Some technology will have changed A newer version will be available later in the year
  79. 79. 2
  80. 80. 6 4 Adapted from How Now Aussie Cow – Dairy Australia
  81. 81. More info? Web links milk-it
  82. 82. Visit our Website
  83. 83. Cream of the Crop see the 2009 Cream of the Crop finalists at .
  84. 84. The Jet and Emma Series is a Dairy Youth Australia inc initiative assisted by Kiama Municipal Council through its Sustainable Living Grants Program.
  85. 85. Jet and Emma Farm Management Education Series K to 12 Links Milk It Farm to Factory formerly loaded as Cups On Cups Off Grow Grass Grow Seeding Time How it all began – a Taste for Dairy Sustainable Dairying Circle of Life – Calf to Cow Vetting Around Australia – by Guest presenter Jacinta Kelly
  86. 86. Acknowledgements Farm yard animal graphics have been created for the “Jet and Emma Get Down and Dirty on the Farm” series by students from Mt Terry Public School
  87. 87. Watch this space we will be back soon