Emma and Jet
• My name is Emma I am 16. As part
of my HSC I am doing a dairy
traineeship at Clover Hill Dairies
• My name is Jet. I am also doing a
dairy traineeship with Alan and
Leesa Swan at Hillview Dairy
What are Emma
and Jet going to
They are going to tell
everyone how the
farmer fertilises the
pastures and looks after
the environment so we
have plenty of lush green
grass to eat to help us
produce lots of high
Lets start at the beginning
• Cows eat a lot of grass per day - over a
wheelbarrow load - which means they
produce a lot of manure.
to get to
and stand in the
yards waiting to
get milked, a lot
collects on the
same parts of
Cows help move
the farm. When
they graze they
pick up the
nutrients in the
grass in one
spread them to the
next paddock they
Adapted from How Now
Aussie Cow booklet –
• Wise use of this manure is a good thing as it
contains lots of goodness and nutrients that
the cow hasn’t had time to digest.
Just think our manure
feeds the soil Amazing !!!!!!!
The soil feeds the grass
and the grass feeds us
• This goodness
helps build soil
in the soil.
• Manure also
foods which help
This is a map of our
farm showing the
levels of soil carbon in
Red = very high
pink = high
High soil carbon is a good
thing isn't it??
Learn all about it here
Look what You grow lots and
happens when lots of yummy
you spread short sweet grass
and short sweet grass
mean we can
produce lots of milk
and less methane!!!
Wise farmers recycle the
manure and urine collected in
holding ponds around the
dairy. This waste is used to
irrigate and fertilise (feed)
pastures helping them grow.
On our farm we
Emma hosing out
recycle 50% of
the water we
use to produce
What sorts of fertilisers are
To help the grass grow lush
and sweet the farmer also
purchases and spreads
inorganic and organic
We use two
Organic fertiliser is
derived from animal
or vegetable matter.
The first one you
seen and the
other one is
Look at They are
our fluffy called
Truckloads in fact
which we recycle
and spread over
We use a contractor to spread our
poultry manure and lime.
His name is Dave.
Here he is looking at the
nutrient map with Michael the
Fertiliser is very expensive.
How should we To use it in a cost effective and
use fertiliser wisely environmentally sensitive way wise
farmers test soil nutrient levels and
only apply fertiliser to the paddocks
that need more nutrients.
No guess work on this farm!
Nutrient Management Plan
A nutrient management plan is a set of conservation
practices designed to use fertilizer and/or manure
effectively while protecting against the potential adverse
impacts of manure, erosion and organic by-products on
To create the plan we:
• Soil test
• Manure test
• Practice erosion control
• Manage soil for pH
• Time fertilizer/manure application.
Link is www.asris.csiro.au/themes/nutrient.html
What Goes in vs. What Goes Out
Nutrient budgeting is used by all good farmers.
• The process involves balancing nutrients coming
into the farming system with those leaving.
• The aim is to prevent pollution events and save
costs by precisely matching the nutrient
requirements of the crop with application of
organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Don’t worry you
Mmh this organic wont even notice in
fertiliser may be a couple of days
good for the and the grass will
environment but it’s be all green and
a bit on the nose. lush.
Is soil pH important??
The pH of soil or more precisely the pH of the soil
solution is very important because soil solution
carries in it nutrients such as Nitrogen (N),
Potassium (K), and Phosphorus (P) that plants
need in specific amounts to grow, thrive,
and fight off diseases.
Coastal soils tend to be acidic and farmers
spread Calcium hydroxide (lime) to raise the
This is the pH map of our farm
pink = very good almost neutral
Green = acidic but still very good for
Blue = acidic and needs attention
Yellow = far too acidic and needs a
lot of attention
Dave back again
loading the truck up
This is paddock 51 on
our farm covered in
• Lime leaves the pasture looking like snow has
• Rain soon washes it into the soil.
Oh my golly gosh I need to pay
closer attention to the weather
Look its snowing over there !!!!
We also use different
types of inorganic
fertiliser on our farm
to grow short sweet
Want to know more….
Both natural and man-made fertilisers are
measured by the three MAJOR Nutrients that
are in them. These are: -
• Nitrogen (N) - assists plants with leaf and stem
• Phosphorus (P) known as PHOSPHATE -
assists young plants and root crops to develop
good root systems.
• Potassium (K) known as POTASH - assists
plants to produce flowers and fruit.
On our farm we mostly spread urea
Want to know how they make fertiliser
We put inorganic
fertilisers on the
paddock with a
spreader attached to
the back of the tractor
This ensures even
very low This map shows
the levels of P on
would you put
Helicopters Spreading Nutrients
• Sometimes on very large farms helicopters
are used to spread the fertilisers.
• Helicopter pilots have to be very careful to
keep well away from the rivers and stream so
the fertiliser doesn't get into our waterways.
• It is very important that farmers look after
• When soil and nutrients fall into rivers, they
become murky and it upsets the food
balance for all the water-dwelling animals.
• Sometimes it encourages the growth of algae
that can poison animals.
How does Nitrogen get into
I don’t like the look of that water .
Do you ??????
It smells !!!!!!!!!
Hey don’t drink out of there
Look how clean it is!!!
Lets make sure we help
keep it that way for the
Lets go and find a trough to
drink out of.
Laughing Gas – not so funny
• Nitrous oxide also known as laughing gas or
happy gas is a major greenhouse gas and air
• Over a 100 year period, it has 298 times more
impact per unit weight than carbon dioxide.
• Nitrous oxide escapes into the air when
nitrogen fertiliser is used. (See next slide)
This is laughing
Fertiliser – the aim of the game…
is to keep the nutrients on the pasture
and out of the airways and waterways.
So its very important to:
measure what goes in and what goes out
only apply what you need, where you
need it and not when rain is going to
• Like all things driven by need, fertilisers are
being developed with protective coatings to
reduce the amount of Nitrous Oxide escaping
in the atmosphere. Fertiliser isn't
the only bad guy.
Did you walk to
Healthy soils and clean
waterways means happy
Visit our new Website
Jet and Emma Farm Management
Education Series K to 12
Farm to Factory
Grow Grass Grow
How it all began – a Taste for Dairy
Dairying for Climate Change.
Circle of Life – Calf to Cow
Cream of the Crop
Cream of the Crop finalists
and learn more about farming
Visit our Website
and Watch our videos
1. Farm yard animal graphics have been created for the “Jet and Emma
Get Down and Dirty on the Farm” series by students from Mt Terry
2. Slides 49,50,52 & 53 have been taken from “Climate Change who Cares”
which can be found at www.dairyyouthaustralia.com.au/competition
The Jet and Emma Series is a Dairy Youth
Australia inc initiative assisted by
Kiama Municipal Council through its
Sustainable Living Grants Program.