A new paradigm for understanding philippine politicsPresentation Transcript
By Amando Doronilla
What is a paradigm? Why is there a paradigm shift? How are resources used by politicians? Can we fully say that politics has changed since 1986 revolution? How has Civil Society shaped Philippine politics and to what degree?
Introduction Between 1972-1994, there was a failed authoritarian system, characterized by one party hegemony Constitution was rewritten twice in 1973 and 1987 Leadership was replaced through elections and extra-constitutional methods After 1986 revolution, multiparty system was developed
With regards to economy, cartels and monopolies which were protected by Marcos regime started to wane But, oligarchs have risen to power during the Aquino regime
Inadequacy of the TraditionalApproach Current studies show that “clientelism” is still being used in the country Clientelism is defined as the study of power and of the state as a source of resources to legitimize the traditional elite’s domination of politics
Patronage, coercion and payoffs determine the outcome of elections, based on patron- client paradigm Much of the literature on Philippine politics describes Philippine democracy as elite democracy However, the author, Doronilla disagrees and believes that there had been developments after 1986
Continuity or Change? In his book, A Changeless Land, David Timberman notes that the 1986 revolution restored democracy in the Philippines However, Aquino’s administration had to defend itself from 7 coup attempts In one of the interviews of Sen. Honasan, he said the shift of power from Marcos to Aquino is a shift of one elite to another elite
Sen. Gringo Honasan
According to Timberman, there is a constant poverty, inequity and injustice that characterize Philippine society, particularly in the countryside Politics and economy are dominated by relatively small but durable group of political families Repetitiveness to charges of election fraud, corruption, nepotism and incompetence
In 1992, 145 of 199 representatives are from the political clans, where previously, it was 164 In 1940, only 10% of the representatives were from the business sector, but in the 9th Congress, it increased to 36%
Members come from not only the elite class, but the middle class (although, they have strong ties with the elites) Some came from the government sector and the law profession
The Growth of Civil Society Civil Society is an arena of autonomous groups impervious to and functioning outside the reach of patronage, dependence or paternalism of the patron-client or patronage model After 1986, NGO grew to 30,000 Yet, NGOs until today have not yet greatly influence political results to the extent that political families have become fewer
NGOs have participated in local elections, although no one has produced serious research on whether or not local-level political interventions have resulted in the entry of new blood in politics Different interests of NGOs make it difficult to influence national politics
Conclusion How are resources used by politicians? Can we fully say that politics has changed since 1986 revolution? How has Civil Society shaped Philippine politics and to what degree?