Semantics is branch of theoretical linguistics thatdeals with the meaning of words and sentences. It is asophisticated branch of knowledge that touches on manyphilosophical, psychological, linguistics, and aspects.
Triangle of MeaningTriangle of MeaningIn semantics, there are three distinct element:1.The thing. It is the referred-to element, which existsoutside the mind and outside language.2.The word. It is the symbol which refers to the thing.3.The meaning. It is the concept or reference. It is theimage, attributes, or abstract entity.
Linguists, however, have shown some disagreement on the inter-relationship among the semantic trio. There are, for example,words that do not refer to things, such as honesty, piety, fear , andother similar words that symbolize abstracts. In this case, onlytwo elements, not three, exist; word and meaning .Another issueis the type of relationship that exists among the trio; Is the wordrelated directly to thing or indirectly through meaning.
However, when the word has already been in existence, thelines of relationship among the trio element may takedifferent direction:1.thing meaning word. You see a thing , then you remember its meaning,and you remember its word.2. meaning word thing. You recall a meaning, then its word ,and thenthing.3.Word meaning thing. You hear a word, and then you remember itsmeaning and then its thing.
Semantic fieldsSemantic fields1.The field of continuous concretes. It is a semantic fieldof words that refer to concrete things , the classification of whichis disagreed on, such as colors.2.The field of separate concretes . It is a semantic field ofwords that refer to separate concrete entities, such as thesemantic filed of plants or animals.3.The field of abstracts. It is a field of words referringto abstract concepts such as the semantic field of virtues, e.g. ,honesty, courage , and loyalty.
Semantic field share several qualities. First, the wordspertaining to the field belong to the same morphological or syntacticclass. Second, the words of the same field are either related to concreteor abstract referents. Third, the number of common features among thewords of the same field affects the number of member words, , i, e, thesize of the field.
Inter-FieldInter-FieldRelationshipsRelationshipsSynonymy means similarity in meaning of two words or more.e. g. brave/courageous , rich/wealthy.Antonymy means against meaning.e. g. big/small , hot/ cold
Inclusion a word may include another: A B but Bdoes not include A. For example, the first word in eachfollowing pairs includes the other one, but not the otherway round.e. g. fruit/apple, animal/lion.Exclusion two words or more may be related to a fieldon equal footing or manner.e. g. sheep, cow ,horse/animal.
Totality the relation between words is awhole-part relation..e, g, book/cover , car/ seat , head/face.
Relative MeaningRelative MeaningThere are many words in all language which are relativeThere are many words in all language which are relativein meaning. e. g. far/near . Small/large ,light/heavy. Thein meaning. e. g. far/near . Small/large ,light/heavy. Thedenotation of each word differs from a person todenotation of each word differs from a person toanother . What is far to You may be near to him . Theanother . What is far to You may be near to him . Themeaning also differs from time to time which the samemeaning also differs from time to time which the samepersonperson..
From what you understand in this lecture ,From what you understand in this lecture ,answer this questionsanswer this questions..11..Gave at least three semantic features forGave at least three semantic features foreach wordeach word..A. LionA. Lion:_____________________:_____________________B. AppleB. Apple:____________________:____________________
There are several ways to define wordThere are several ways to define word::Descriptive definitionDescriptive definition..Here, a brief or detailed description isHere, a brief or detailed description isgiven . For example: the whale is largestgiven . For example: the whale is largestmarine animal which may be thirty metersmarine animal which may be thirty meterslong and five meters in diameterlong and five meters in diameterFunctional definition. The word is definedFunctional definition. The word is definedby its functionby its function•
Demonstrative definition. The word isDemonstrative definition. The word isdefined by pointing to itdefined by pointing to itRank definition. A word defined by showingRank definition. A word defined by showingits position in an ordered series e. g.its position in an ordered series e. g.Saturday comes between Friday andSaturday comes between Friday andSundaySunday
Synonymous definition. The word definedSynonymous definition. The word definedby its synonym e. g. rich means wealthyby its synonym e. g. rich means wealthyAntonymous definition. The word defined byAntonymous definition. The word defined byantonyms e. g. rich is the opposite of poorantonyms e. g. rich is the opposite of poor
2.What is the type of the semantic relationshipof each pairs: synonymy, antonymy, inclusion,exclusion, or totality?Love/affection:______Ask/answer:______Active/lazy:______old/young:_____Saturday/Sunday:_____Body/hand:______Teacher/instructor:_______